Eskimos
In this presentation you will learn
everything to do about Eskimos
This is a good source of information for Eskimo ways
of living and how they fed there families and how they
lived Alaskan Eskimos are the most numerous and
most diverse of all Eskimo populations. Occupying
the entire coast of Alaska with the exception of the
Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska, Eskimos
inhabit a wide variety of environments ranging from
the North Slope arctic tundras and coasts to the
Bering Sea lowlands and the mountainous, forested
coasts of South Alaska. Eskimos are known today
under a variety of names, "Eskimo" or "Inuit" in
Alaska, "Inuit" in Canada, and "Kalaadlit" in
Greenland. The geographic extent of their Alaskan
territory covers thousands of miles of coastline. To the
east, peoples closely related to Alaskan Eskimos
occupy the vast expanse of the Canadian Arctic and
Greenland, and to the west, across Bering Strait, they
inhabited coastal regions of Chukotka.
This distribution, more than 6,000 miles
(as the raven flies) across the top of the
North American continent, made
Eskimos the most widespread aboriginal
population in the New World.
Throughout this huge region the unity of
Eskimo culture is enhanced by their
possession of similar languages, similar
physical and genetic characteristics, and
to a lesser extent, possession of a
common cultural base, the core of which
is adaptation to arctic and subarctic
maritime environments. Technological,
social, and ritual practices surrounding
the hunting of arctic marine animals are
the foundation on which most Eskimo
cultures rest. For those reasons Eskimo
peoples on opposite sides of the North
American arctic find more in common
with each other than they do with
immediately adjacent Indian groups who
are their closest inland neighbors.
This is a good resource of Eskimo
languages and maps of where bouts
they live]
Eskimo-Aleut is a language family
native to Greenland, the Canadian
Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia.
Also called Eskaleut (Eskaleutian,
Eskaleutic), Eskimoan or MacroEskimo, it consists of the Eskimo
languages (known as Inuit in the
north of Alaska, Canada and
Greenland, and as Yupik/Yup'ik in
western and southwestern Alaska
and in Siberia), and the single Aleut
language of the Aleutian and Pribilof
Islands.
Eskimo is an exonym of
Algonquian origin and is a
deprecated name, but is
retained to speak of the YuitYup'ik-Inuit as a whole.
Within Canada, Inuit is
preferred. In Alaska, Yup'ik,
Inupiaq, or Inuit is preferred,
depending on who is being
referred to.
Traditionally, the Eskimo
languages family was divided
into Inuit and Yup'ik (or Yup'ikYuit). However, recent
research suggests that Yup'ik
by itself is not a valid node, or,
equivalently, that the Inuit
dialect continuum is but one of
several languages of the
Yup'ik group. However,
although it may be technically
correct to replace the term
Eskimo with Yup'ik in this
classification, this would not
be acceptable to most Inuit.
Also, the Alaskan-Siberian
dichotomy appears to have
been geographical rather than
linguistic.
FOOD: The cold waters of the Arctic provided the Eskimos with
a great deal of their food. They lived on seals (the single most
important part of their diet), salmon, cod, whales, and other sea
life. On land were caribou and geese in the summer. (You had to
go inland to find caribou.) During the winter they hunted polar
bears, foxes, and hares. Their favorite foods were seal and caribou
meat, walrus liver, and the skin of whales.
SHELTER: In order to find those animals, it was necessary for
the Eskimos to live a wandering life, following their migrations.
Generally, they would have a summer home and a winter home.
Tents made of skin (seal or caribou) provided
shelter during the summer months. In winter, most of them built
sod houses. A dome-shaped snow house was built by some
groups as temporary shelter when traveling or hunting. This
would consist of blocks cut from the snow and built upward in a
spiral shape. Outsiders would call this an "igloo," although to the
Eskimo any place for living can be called by that name.
CLOTHING: Animal skins provided clothing for the Eskimos;
their favorite was caribou because it was warm and lightweight.
Lacking caribou they would settle for seal, polar
bear, or even Arctic fox. Styles varied from area to area, but in
all regions everyone wore the same combination: a hooded
jacket, trousers or leggings, socks, boots, and mittens.
Sometimes goggles made from wood or bone were worn. In
winter two sets of clothes were used. The inner layer would have
fur next to the skin. The second layer would have fur on the
outside. Air between the two layers helped keep body heat in
and allowed perspiration to evaporate. A single layer was
enough during summers.
Its good for different Eskimos and
how they live
Eskimo (es'kumō) [key], a
general term used to refer to a
number of groups inhabiting the
coastline from the Bering Sea to
Greenland and the Chukchi
Peninsula in NE Siberia. A
number of distinct groups, based
on differences in patterns of
resource exploitation, are
commonly identified, including
Siberian, St. Lawrence Island,
Nunivak, Chugach, Nunamiut,
North Alaskan, Mackenzie,
Copper, Caribou, Netsilik, Iglulik,
Baffinland, Labrador, Coastal
Labrador, Polar, and East and
West Greenland. Since the 1970s
Eskimo groups in Canada and
Greenland have adopted the name Inuit, although the term has not
taken hold in Alaska or Siberia. In spite of regional differences, Eskimo
groups are surprisingly uniform in language, physical type, and culture,
and, as a group, are distinct in these traits from all neighbors. They
speak dialects of the same language, Eskimo, which is a major branch
of the Eskimo-Aleut family of languages. Their antiquity is unknown, but
it is generally agreed that they were relatively recent migrants to the
Americas from NE Asia, spreading from west to east over the course of
the past 5,000 years
This is good for different ways of Eskimos work and live for food
Eskimo" is an American Indian word which translates to "eaters of
raw meat." Ironically, scientists put the Indians in a separate
anthropological category while the Eskimos are considered more
closely related to the natives of northern Asia.
People we call Eskimos originally came from Asia across a land
bridge (which no longer exists) into northern North America (now
called Alaska). They gradually spread across the Arctic regions of
the continent. Eventually they came to live in four countries: (1)
the Soviet Union; (2) the United States (Alaska); (3) Canada; and (4)
Greenland.
They do not use the word "Eskimos lived in some of the world's coldest areas
near the Arctic Circle.
This is a good source of Eskimo songs
and what they used to make music
and how
Much of what we know about the life
and culture of the Eskimo people of
North America in the early part of the
Twentieth Century comes from the
Fifth Thule Expedition led by
Professor Knud Rasmussen, a Danish
anthropologist. The songs and stories
given here are extracts from the
reports of this expedition, which
crossed North America from east of
Baffin Land to Alaska. Rasmussen
continued across the Bering Straight
to Siberia to talk with the Chukchi,
who also follow the Eskimo way of life.
Rasmussen wrote that there is scarcely any country on earth that
present conditions more severe and inclement for man than the
most easterly parts of the Northwest Passage. Yet there the
Netsilik Eskimos for generations knew how to wage the struggle
for existence, in such a manner that strangers coming among
them would involuntarily receive the impression that here was a
people who desired no better hunting grounds than these, the
very ones where their ancestors developed that special culture
which they have faithfully handed down from father to son. But
as some of the extracts show, life could be extremely grim.
this is good for how Eskimos
lived on and how they made
there homes.
A general term used to refer
to a number of groups
inhabiting the coastline from
the Bering Sea to Greenland
and the Chukchi Peninsula
in NE Siberia. A number of
distinct groups, based on
differences in patterns of
resource exploitation, are
commonly identified,
including Siberian, St.
Lawrence Island, Nunivak,
Chugach, Nunamiut, North
Alaskan, Mackenzie,
Copper, Caribou, Netsilik,
Iglulik, Baffinland,
Labrador, Coastal Labrador, Polar, and East and West
Greenland. Since the 1970s Eskimo groups in Canada and
Greenland have adopted the name Inuit, although the term has
not taken hold in Alaska or Siberia. In spite of regional
differences, Eskimo groups are surprisingly uniform in
language, physical type, and culture, and, as a group, are
distinct in these traits from all neighbors. They speak dialects of
the same language, Eskimo, which is a major branch of the
Eskimo-Aleut family of languages. Their antiquity is unknown,
but it is generally agreed that they were relatively recent
migrants to the Americas from NE Asia, spreading from west to
east over the course of the past 5,000 years.
Awsome Sites
http://www.nativeamericans.com/Eskimo.htm
http://www.humanistictexts.org/eskimo.htm
http://www.workersforjesus.com/esk.htm
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0817691.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eskimo-Aleut_languages
http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads/eskimo.html
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Eskimos - Marina View School