APPENDIX A HARDWARE
APPENDIX B SOFTWARE
STUFF FOR CLASS
SIX MAJOR ROLES AND GOALS OF
IT
 1.
Increase employee productivity by reducing time,
errors and costs using
 2.
Enhance decision making
 3.
Improve team collaboration
 4.
Create business partnerships and alliances
 5.
Enable global reach all over the world taking into
consideration the culture of each nation or society.
 6.
Facilitate organizational transformation as the
organization evolves and responds to the ever-changing
marketplace.
3
COMPUTER HARDWARE
Input Device
Keyboard
A-4
Output Device
Monitor
Processing Device
The System Unit
INPUT DEVICES – TEXT AND POINTING
A-5
INPUT NEEDS AND DEVICES
A-6
PROCESSING
Processing
The role of ___________ in a computer system is to translate inputs into outputs.
This is done through a combination of language and system components
Language
Computers speak a language called
___________ or “machine language”
which consists of 0s & 1s
System Unit
The physical box that houses all of the
working electronic ___________ of the
computer
A-7
PROCESSING – LANGUAGE
A-8
Binary or Machine Language
• The language that all computers use
• IT is expressed in 0s or 1s only (see below)
• Binary utilizes Base-2 math to convert from normal characters to binary code (e.g.
A = 0100 0001 in binary)
Binary Example
A = 0100 0001
Bit
A single
0 or 1
Byte
(8 bits)
Makes up
one
character
How a Computer Uses it
PROCESSING – THE SYSTEM UNIT
Components
• Support – electronic equipment to run the machine
• Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the primary processor in a computer
• Primary Storage – temporary and permanent storage used by the computer to
operate
• ___________ Storage – longer-term storage for data
• Ports and Slots – mechanisms to connect devices and specialty processors
A-9
The System Unit
The physical box that houses all of the working electronic components of the
computer
PROCESSING – MOTHER BOARD
Motherboard
• Central
•
•
•
•
Processing Unit (CPU)
RAM and ROM
___________ Storage Devices (e.g. hard drive)
Slots - connecting specialty ___________
Ports - connecting input/output devices
A-10
PROCESSING – CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Called the “brains of the computer”, its role is to perform the
operations of the computer using two components:
A-11
• Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and
transmits direction to the computer’s components
• ___________ ___________ ___________ – this
device performs math as well as logical operations by
interpreting and executing instructions
PROCESSING – CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
A-12
Moore’s Law (1970s)
___________ ___________ from Intel
hypothesized that processing performance
would double every 18 months
CPU Processing
Intel Pentium IV CPU
packs 55 million transistors
PROCESSING – PRIMARY STORAGE
Primary Storage
This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes
in ___________ and ___________ types
A-13
___________ Access Memory (RAM)
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also
called ___________ ___________ )
PROCESSING – SECONDARY STORAGE
Secondary Storage
This ___________ ___________ is used to permanently store information and is not
part of the CPU but is connected through the system bus. It comes in many types:
A-14
Hard Drives
Diskettes
___________ Tape
Optical Disk
• Magneto-Optical (MO)
• Compact Disk (CD)
• Digital Video Disk (DVD
PROCESSING – PORTS AND SLOTS
These are devices used to provide hardware ___________ – plugs and sockets to ___________ devices to computers and ___________ to provide a fully
functional computer
A-15
OUTPUT DEVICES
Video
A visual display of data that supports motion using a ___________ (monochrome or
colour) coming in two types:
CRT
LCD
A-16
• Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
• Liquid Crystal Display (LCD
• ___________ – A device that projects a picture onto a screen
OUTPUT DEVICES
Printers and Plotters
A visual display that is presented on hard copy (e.g. paper)
• ___________
Audio
A-17
• Dot Matrix –
• Ink-jet –
TYPES OF COMPUTERS
___________ ___________
___________ Computers
___________ Workstations
Microcomputers
Midrange
Computers
A-18
1 laptop per child
TYPES OF COMPUTERS – MICROCOMPUTERS
Personal
Computers
___________
Network
___________
Tablet PC
___________ Computer
http://www.microsoft.com/uk/windowsmobile/business/videocasestudies.mspx
http://pergatory.mit.edu/robotworld/multimedia/index.html
A-19
CLASSES OF SOFTWARE
___________ ___________
The collection of programs that control the basic functions of computer hardware
___________ Software
Programs that let the user perform a specific task or operation by interacting with
the system software
___________ Languages and Environments
Automated software tools used by system developers to design and implement
information systems
B-20
SYSTEM SOFTWARE – A.K.A. OPERATING SYSTEMS
Common Functions
• ___________ or (starting) the
computer
• Reading programs into memory and
managing memory allocation
• Managing where programs and files
are located in secondary storage
• Maintaining the structure of
directories and subdirectories
• ___________ disks
• Controlling the computer monitor
• ___________ documents to the
printer
B-21
OPERATING SYSTEM – INTERFACES
___________ After boot up, the computer provides an interface for the user or
programmer to interact with it. Different ___________ systems use different types
B-22
Common Interface Type
• Command-based interface–
• Menu interface –
• Graphical user interface (___________ )
COMMON OPERATING SYSTEMS
B-23
OPERATING SYSTEMS - UTILITIES
B-24
Utilities:
Programs that
manage computer
resources and
files and may be
included in the
operating system
or purchased
separately as
needed
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
___________ Software
This software performs specific user functions (e.g. e-mail)
B-25
___________ Application Software
Software that is developed to meet the specification of an organization. This can be
developed “___________ ” by IS staff or by an ___________ vendor. Advantages
include:
• Customizability – tailored to meet specific needs
• Problem specificity – pay for only those functions that are
developed for and used by the organization
___________ ___________ Software
Packaged software developed by a vendor for a particular problem or industry but is
not specific to an organization. This is a lower cost approach that may be
combined with custom development to tailor it
TYPES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Types of Application Software
Application software come in two types for use by organizations: 1) large business
systems and office automation; 2) ___________ productivity tools
___________ ___________
These large systems support enterprisewide operations such as:
• ___________ -A/P, A/R,
___________ ___________
Used by individuals or groups to support
a variety of common tasks such as:
• Communication – e-mail,
word processing
general ledger, payroll
• ___________ - inventory
• ___________ – group
management, order
processing, shipping, etc.
calendars
• Analysis - spreadsheets
B-26
OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE
Popular Open Source Applications
A number of mainstream open source applications can be found across many
organizations. Here are just a few:
• Operating systems – Linux
• ___________– Mozilla
• Web servers – Apache
• E-mail processing – Sendmail
• Internet domain naming service – BIND
• Secure connection standard - OpenSSL
B-27
___________ ___________
A special class of software that includes operating systems, application software, and
programming languages in which the source code (the actual program code) is freely
available to the general public for use and/or modification
COMPILERS, LANGUAGES, AND ENVIRONMENTS
___________ ___________
Software designed to translate programming languages into machine code or binary in
order to allow the computer to execute the program instructions
___________ ___________
Languages used to write program instructions that have evolved from early
“machine language” to higher-level languages that are easier to write and
understand
___________ ___________ ___________
Automated software tools used by systems developers to design and
implement information systems and increase quality and productivity
B-28
COMPILERS AND INTERPRETERS
B-29
___________
These highly-specialized software applications are used to convert program instructions
(source code) into the machine code (object code) prior to being loaded into a computer’s
secondary storage ( entire program )
Compiler Example
COMPILERS AND INTERPRETERS
B-30
___________
These specialized software applications are similar to compilers but instead of translating
the source code to machine language prior to loading, it reads, translates, and executes
one line of source code at a time during operation ( one line at a time )
Interpreter Example
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES - GENERATIONS
Programming Languages
These languages are used to write program instructions and have evolved over time
making them more powerful, easier to read and write, and more natural language-focused
B-31
Generations of Programming Languages
1940s
1950s
mid
1950s
1st
2nd
3rd
Machine
Binary
Symbolic
Use of
symbols
1970s
4th
Outcome
High-Level
Oriented
Use outcome
Use English
like words for focused words
procedures
1990s
5th
Artificial
Intelligence
Natural
language
(spoken
English)
POPULAR PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
B-32
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES – MORE RECENT
HIGH-LEVEL (OOP)
Object-Oriented Programming
Visual Languages
These languages take advantage of graphical user
interfaces (GUIs) allowing additions of visual objects
(e.g. buttons) with a few clicks versus coding the
object pixel by pixel
B-33
These languages allow programmers to group data and
program instructions together into modules (e.g Java
or C++).
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES – WEB DEVELOPMENT
Web Development Languages
These languages are used to develop Web pages and operations using both static and
dynamic content
___________ Markup Language (XML)
___________ Content
Markup languages are used for laying out or formatting content, while dynamic
languages are needed to provide animation or dynamic (changing) content
Dynamic Languages
Several languages are available for creating dynamic content such as:
• ___________ –
• ___________ X –
• Scripting Languages (JavaScript) –
B-34
___________ Markup Language (HTML)
Descargar

Information Systems for Competitive Advantage