Chapter 1
Dynamic Social Studies:
The Subject You Will Teach
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Social Studies?
Social Sciences: Refers to several
multifaceted disciplines that seek
knowledge about societies and the
relationships of individuals within societies
Social Studies: Is the title for the school
subject that provides for a systematic
study of the social sciences in a
coordinated, integrated fashion
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Social Sciences
1. Geography: The study of people and
places, the natural environment, and the
capacity of the earth to support life
2. History: The systematic research,
analysis, and interpretation of the past
3. Civics (Political Science): The study of
the origin, development, and operation of
political systems and public policy
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Social Sciences, con’t
4. Anthropology: The study of people to find out
about their physical, social, and cultural
development
5. Sociology: The study of society and social
behavior by examining groups and social
institutions such as the family, government,
religion, business, or school
6. Economics: The study of the production,
distribution and consumption of goods and
services
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why Is Social Studies Important?
• NEA’s 1916 initiative: helping prepare
youth for constructive participation in
society
• Participatory Citizenship
• Preservation of Democracy
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Major Goals of Elementary Social
Studies
• Values and Beliefs: help children
understand the core civic principles
• Knowledge: help children construct
meaning by connecting new learning to
previous experiences
• Thinking Skills: help children acquire and
process information to investigate
problems and make informed decisions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Dynamic Social Studies?
Placing children in a classroom environment
that encourages them to rediscover the
young social scientists within
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Functional content
Constructivist teaching practices
Intrinsic motivation
Cross-curricular integration
Respect for diversity
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Functional Content
Curriculum Scope and Sequence
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Expanding Environment Curriculum
Kindergarten: Myself and Others
1st grade: School and Family
2nd grade: Neighborhood
3rd grade: Community
4th grade: Region and State
5th grade: United States and Close Neighbors
6th grade: Eastern Hemisphere
7th grade: Western Hemisphere
8th grade: The United States History
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Functional Content
NCSS Curriculum Standards
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Culture
Time, Continuity, and Change
People, Places, and Environment
Individual Development
Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
Power, Authority, and Governance
Production, Distribution, and Consumption
Science, Technology, and Society
Global Connections
Civic Ideals and Practices
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Constructivist Teaching Practice
• Instruction that is child-centered in
approach and focuses on knowledge
construction, not knowledge reproduction
• Emphasizes that students interpret new
objects and events by trying to alter or
modify existing mental structures that had
formed as a result of their previous life
experiences
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Intrinsic Motivation
An internal impulse that provokes us to
action or keeps us absorbed in certain
activities
Factors
• Interest
• Pleasure
• Competence
• Self-determination
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cross-Curricular Integration
• Seeking ways to bring together the various
subject areas and relating the content to a
central theme
• Working with obvious connections
between the arts, humanities, and physical
sciences
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Respect for Diversity
• Adapting instruction to meet the special
needs, talents, and interests of all students
• Keen awareness and consideration of
each youngster as a distinct individual
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 2
Diversity in the Classroom:
The Children You will Teach
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Multicultural Education
• Tourist approach: special activities or
projects related to cultural holiday or
observance
Versus
• Multicultural education: students’ cultural
backgrounds are used to develop
instruction and curriculum
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why Multicultural Awareness Is
Important
1. Cultural Pluralism: philosophy that likens
our society to a salad bowl, pizza,
mosaic, or patchwork quilt; each cultural
retains identity but contributes to the
whole
2. Cultural Identification: culture is reflected
in a group’s artwork, literature, language,
clothing, inventions, and traditions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Culturally Responsive Teaching
• Acknowledges the legitimacy of the
cultural heritages of different ethnic groups
• Bridges meaningfulness between home
and school
• Uses a wide variety of instructional
strategies
• Incorporates multicultural information,
resources, and materials in all subjects
and skills taught
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Culturally Responsive Strategies
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•
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Know your community
Seek family support
Give equal attention to all groups
Fill your classroom with fascinating things
Invite visitors into your classroom
Draw from the vast resources of the arts
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Language Diversity
• Growing bilingual population
• Submersion: the practice of placing
second language learners within a totally
English speaking classroom
• Bilingual Teaching: using two languages
as vehicles of instruction
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Bilingual Instruction
1. Environmental Print: children learn to
recognize words written in both English
and their native language when they see
them in print
2. Culturally conscious literature: helps
strengthen cultural values and beliefs
3. Language Buddies: proficiency is
enhanced with classmates’ explanations,
modeling and assistance
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Exceptional Children
•
•
Ten to twelve percent of all children in the U.S.
fall into the children with disabilities category
PL 101-476 defines children with disabilities:
A. as those with mental retardation; hearing
impairments, including deafness; speech or
language impairments; visual impairments, including
blindness; serious emotional disturbance; orthopedic
impairments; autism; traumatic brain injury; other
health impairments or specific learning disabilities
B. who by reason thereof need special education and
related services
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Concept of Inclusion
1. State and federal laws mandate, support,
and encourage it
2. Some parents of children with special
needs were troubled that their children
were required to attend separate
programs
3. Educators, parents, and children have
had rewarding experiences in inclusive
environments
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Opponents of Inclusion
1. Not all parents want their children with
disabilities taken from their special
programs
2. Many teachers feel inadequately
prepared to provide for the special needs
of children with disabilities in their
classroom
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Teaching Children with Disabilities
1. Learn about each specific disability
2. Maximize interactions between children
with disabilities and nondisabled children
3. Individualize your program
4. Assess your classroom environment
5. Choose books that help children learn
and appreciate diversity
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Gifted Children
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Verbal Skills: use advanced vocabulary; spontaneously
create stories; explain complex processes; exchange
ideas and information fluently
Abstractions: retain easily what they have heard or
read
Power of Concentration: attentive to features of a new
environment or experience; become totally absorbed in
an activity
Intellect: carry out complex instructions; focus on
problems and seek solutions; store and recall easily;
memorize well; learn rapidly; explain ideas in novel
ways; curious; ask questions
Behavior: sensitive to the needs and feelings of others;
strong feelings of self-confidence.
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Strategies for Gifted Children
1. Use faster-paced instruction for skills- and
content-based learning so they can move more
rapidly through the curriculum
2. Use inquiry and independent research projects
that encourage independent learning
3. Use more advanced materials
4. Reorganize subject matter so they can explore
issues across curricular areas and promote
higher order thinking
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Multiple Intelligences
1. Logical-Mathematical: good problem
solvers, discover logical patterns, enjoy
numbers and counting; understand
cause and effect; curious; enjoy making
predictions; ask questions
2. Linguistic Intelligence: master language;
love the sound and rhythm of words; love
reading and making up stories, poems,
jokes and riddles; learn vocabulary easily
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Multiple Intelligences
3. Musical Intelligence: enjoy producing or
listening to music; appreciate forms of
musical expressiveness
4. Visual-Spatial Intelligence: manipulate
and create mental images; draw and
paint superbly; enjoy building things;
easily interpret and construct maps and
models
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Multiple Intelligences
5. Bodily-Kinesthetic: able to coordinate body
movements and handle objects; dance, run,
jump, throw, catch and climb better than their
peers; enjoy making things with their hands
6. Interpersonal Intelligence: outgoing; in tune with
others’ feelings and emotions; recognize moods
and feelings of others; empathetic; understand
people and work well with people
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Multiple Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence: inner directed;
understand themselves and their own
strengths, weaknesses, and motivations;
often quiet and work alone; confidence in
their ability
8. Naturalist Intelligence: able to recognize
flora and fauna; understand the natural
world; use abilities in hunting, farming, and
biological sciences
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Gender
• Gender identity emerges from dynamic
interactions of biological and environmental
forces
• By age 5 or 6 children have already learned
much of the stereotypical behavior of their
gender
• Developmental Sexism: children grow
enormously sexist in their perception of gender
roles and choice of play activities
• Children learn that they permanently belong to a
category called “boy” or “girl”
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Strategies for eliminating gender
bias in the classroom
1. Avoid stereotyping masculine and
feminine roles
2. Use gender-free language whenever
possible
3. Classroom materials should present an
honest view of males and females
4. A balanced view of the contributions of
men and women should be presented
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Social Class
• Research shows a strong relationship
between SES and school performance
• Contributing factors:
– Poor health care for mother and child
– Limited resources
– Family stress
– Interruptions in schooling
– Discrimination
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Other Explanations for Low
Achievement
1.
2.
3.
4.
Low expectations – low self-esteem
Learned helplessness
Resistance cultures
Tracking
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 3
Young Historians:
Coming Face to Face with the
Past
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is history?
•
•
History is a narrative of the past
Historical method:
1. Locate pertinent information
2. Examine sources for accuracy
3. Organize information into narrative
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Sources of History
• Primary Sources: written and nonwritten
clues produced at the time of the event
• Secondary Sources: evidence from
someone at another time who didn’t
witness the event
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why History Is Important
• By studying the past, young citizens will be
better prepared to judge the present and
future
• “Without history, a society shares no
common memory of where it has been, of
what its core values are, or of what
decisions of the past account for our
present circumstances” (National Center
for History in Schools (1996))
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
How Should History Be Taught?
•
Historical Narratives: Chronicles of real
events that tell a story
1. Historical fiction
2. Biographies
3. Folk literature
•
•
Historical narratives have the power to
evoke emotion
Children must also have opportunity to
write their own narratives
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Historical Fiction
•
•
•
Historical Fiction: Realistic story set in the past
Gives children opportunity to vicariously
experience history
Selection Guidelines
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It must tell an interesting story
It should be accurate and authentic
It should reflect the spirit and values of the times
It should contain authentic language
It should provide insight into today’s problems
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Biographies
• Biographies: Tell the stories of the lives of
real people
• Biographies of exemplary heroes provide
superb models of citizenship
• Best biographies characterize the main
character as true to life
• Should recognize individuals as real
human beings with both strengths and
weaknesses
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Selecting
Biographies
1. Story should be well-researched
2. Story should be carefully documented
3. The narrative of the person’s life should
be fast moving
4. The writing should be clear and readable
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Folk Literature
• Folk literature: Fables, myths, legends, and
folktales
• Stories handed down by storytellers for
generations
• They reflect those cultures’ beliefs, values,
lifestyles, and histories
• They help children understand a culture’s past
through its values, beliefs, and customs
• Carefully research the story content and place
the story in context when using it
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Textbooks
• Provide a broad overview of the topic to be
taught
• Provide extensive treatment of subject matter
organized from one grade to another
• Comprehensive teacher’s manuals assist
teachers
• Beginning teachers find textbooks valuable
• Textbook-based instruction can be effective
when topic is connected to children’s lives and is
enhanced by resources and activities
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Writing Historical Narratives
• Social studies provides contexts to write
frequently and purposefully
• Children exposed to historical narratives
develop an interest in using the styles of
their favorite authors
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Elements of a Narrative
•
•
•
Setting: described early in the story; helps
reader create picture of distinctive times
Characters: the physical and emotional
attributes; look, dress, feel
Plot: sequence of events; the action; contains
three parts1. A problem, conflict, or difficulty
2. Roadblocks
3. Solution
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Storypath
• Begin by having children work in small
groups to create a setting for the topic
• Children should create a mural to illustrate
setting
• Children should then create characters
• Children then gain deeper understanding
of the topic by learning about the
chronology of the topic (the plot)
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Primary Sources
•
•
•
Connection with the past
Power to arouse interest
Written evidence versus nonwritten
evidence
1. Written evidence: anything written down that
gives historians clues about people and past
events (documents, diaries, letters, songs
etc.)
2. Nonwritten evidence: artifacts (photos,
paintings, coins, furniture, tools, etc.)
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Children’s Simulated Historical
Documents
• Children should have opportunity to create
simulated written documents
• Teacher should review components of the
writing process before creating simulated
documents
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Simulated Period Newspapers
• Offer thought-provoking writing form
• Children express the content they are
learning
• Children can also use other newspaper
formats such as the front page, editorial
column, political cartoon, sports section,
real estate, help wanted, classified, movie
review, fashion page, food guide, advice
column
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Diaries
• Short, private accounts of and reactions to
daily events
• Children come into contact with human
emotions, values, and attitudes of the past
• Chronicle the events of people’s lives
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Letters
• Friendly letters and diaries are
conversational in style and express the
writer’s account of important events
• Model letters from the past help children
develop conversational style of writing
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Oral Histories
• Someone telling stories of personal
experiences related to particular places or
times
• Children can also create simulated oral
histories
• Interviews: Conducting interviews is a
superb way to introduce children to the
process of collecting oral histories
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nonwritten Sources: Artifacts
• Artifacts: photos, paintings, coins,
furniture, tools, clothing, dishes, etc.
• Help historians reconstruct the story of
human life
• Cemeteries hold historical clues
• Assemble a collection of artifacts and
documents related to a historical topic or
theme
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Historical Inquiry
• Children should engage history the way
historians do
• Meaningful historical inquiry comes from
personal questions
• Children investigate historical problems,
often expressed in the form of questions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Museums
• The world outside the classroom is a
powerful learning experience
• Visiting living history or reenactments can
help children visualize period clothing,
houses, furnishing, tools and other
artifacts
• Investigate museums within your
community
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chronology
• Students demonstrate that they
understand chronological organization of
history when they can organize events and
people into major periods of time and
explain relationships between those
people and events
• Use event chains and graphic timelines
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 4
Young Geographers:
Investigating the People/Place
Connection
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Geography?
•
An integrative discipline that brings
together the physical and human
dimensions of the world in the study of
people, places, and environments
1. Earth’s surface and processes that shaped it
2. Relationships between people and
environments
3. Connections between people and places
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why Study Geography?
• Strong grasp of geography equips people
to make better-informed decisions about
how to use Earth’s resources
• Investigates the ways by which our land
has influenced the way people live
• Children learn how to describe places,
explain how these places came to be, and
appreciate the delicate bond between
humans and their physical environment
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why Study Geography?
1. Existential reason: need to understand
the nature of our home
2. Ethical reason: knowledge of how to care
for the fragile nature of the Earth
3. Intellectual reason: knowledge of
interesting people, places, and things
4. Practical reason: people are better
equipped to solve issues and problems
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Five Themes of Geography
1. Location: Position on the Earth’s surface
Absolute Location: specific position on the Earth
Relative Location: place respective to other landmarks
2. Place: Physical and Human Characteristics
3. Relationships within Place: Humans and
Environments
4. Movement: Humans Interacting on the Earth
5. Regions: How They Form and Change
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Six Essential Elements of
Geography
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
World in spatial terms
Places and regions
Physical systems
Human systems
Environment and society
Use of geography
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
How Should Geography be Taught?
•
•
Goal: students who are knowledgeable
and sensitive to make wise judgments
about their environment; caring citizens
Six Phase of Geography Instruction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Observing
Speculating
Investigating
Extending and reinforcing
Evaluating
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Observing
•
•
•
Beginning of geographic inquiry
Use direct observations
Primary grades use multiple resources
(photos, videos, maps, globes, atlases,
charts, information books, periodicals,
textbooks, virtual field trips)
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Virtual Field Trips
•
Benefits
1. Hands-on learning permits students to interact with
real things
2. Students develop a greater appreciation for the
environment
3. Examples observed in the field can be related to
other classroom work
•
Process
1. Take field notes and make sketches
2. Discuss observations
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Speculating
• Observations lay the foundation for more
complex understandings
• Look for clues in the pictures and during
the field trips
• Develop inferences that will be tested
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Investigating
• Gathering information about locations and
human characteristics of those places
• In early elementary grades, use literature,
videos, resource persons, Internet sites or
other suitable resources
• In middle and upper grades, use other
investigative activities such as field work
or library research
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Extending and Reinforcing
• Use individual or small-group writing
activities
• Construct models
• Make maps
• Study tables, charts, graphs
• Examine all types of literature
• Use stimulating data-gathering activities
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Evaluating
• Making personal judgments about the
situation
• Ask children to support personal opinion
with sound reasons
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Independent Projects
•
Key Events of a Project
1. Opening Event:
•
•
•
•
should stimulate interest
could come from primary sources or secondary sources
recall previous experiences
begin with questions
2. Investigating and Producing Something
•
•
•
conducting an experiment
direct observation
Interviewing someone
3. Communicating or Sharing the Project
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Benefits of the Project Approach
1. Confronts students with geographyrelated problems
2. Serves to focus research
3. Can involve the whole class, small
groups, or individuals
4. Time flexibility: extend over a whole
month or as little as a day
5. Children take the initiative
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Maps: Geographer’s Tools
• A map is a graphic representation of the
earth’s surface
• Begin by helping children establish a basic
idea of what maps are
• For younger children, awareness begins
with the understanding that a map is a
picture of some place on earth
• For young children, avoid the aerial view
concept of maps
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Beginning Map Skills Instruction
•
First Steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
Locating places
Recognizing and expressing relative location
Interpreting map symbols
Developing a basic idea of relative size and
scale
5. Reading directions
6. Understanding that the globe is the most
accurate representation of the Earth’s
surface
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Three-Dimensional Maps
• Initial formal mapping experiences should
be with a location thoroughly familiar to the
children
• Begin in second grade by using concrete
building material
• This phase of map construction is critical
and leads them to understanding of the
aerial view of maps
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Flat Maps
•
•
Three-dimensional maps can be easily
transformed into a flat map
In early grades consider constructing a
model community:
1. As a way for children to learn about their
community
2. As a way to master beginning map skills
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Other Types of Maps
• Story maps: good children’s books offer
opportunities for early mapping activities
• Mental maps: informally drawn
representation of what a person thinks a
place on Earth looks like
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Refining Map Skills
•
•
•
•
•
Map symbols
Direction
Scale
The globe
Latitude and longitude
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 5
Young Political Scientists:
Future Citizens in Action
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Civics?
• Study of the political and legal system
• Study of our rights and responsibilities
• Study about how our government works
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why Is Civics Important?
• Goal of public education: prepare effective
citizens
• Expand civic knowledge
• Develop participation skills
• Support the belief that in a democracy the
actions of a person make a difference
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
How Should Civics Be Taught?
• Information experiences: include all the
strategies teachers use to establish a cohesive,
supportive, democratic classroom
–
–
–
–
–
Classroom management techniques
Classroom meetings
Rule setting
Classroom symbols
Classroom holidays
• Formal experiences: content-based instructional
strategies that foster critical thinking
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Formal Civics Instruction
• Goal is to develop a greater insight and
appreciation for civic life
• Civic knowledge must have relevance to the
students’ lives
• Children understand civics more by participating
in the processes they are learning about
–
–
–
–
Elections and voting
Civic responsibility
Civic dispositions and virtues
Critical thinking
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Civic Responsibility
•
•
•
Goal: shift from imparting knowledge to producing
citizens who are committed to civic participation
Engage students in community service projects
Kids Around Town model
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Knowing the local government
Choosing a local issue to explore
Researching the issue
Analyzing the issue
Solving the problem
Taking action
Assessing the project
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Academic Controversies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The students choose a topic on which two welldocumented positions can be prepared
Students are assigned to groups of four
Each pair is assigned its tasks of knowing the position,
locating information on the position, and preparing
persuasive arguments to defend the position
Each team presents its side of the issue
Teams reverse perspectives by presenting the
opposing position
Teams drop their advocacy and attempt to reach a
group decision by consensus
The class develops a plan of action to implement its
final position
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Civic Dispositions and Virtues
• In elementary grades, civic dispositions are
introduced when students experience life in
democratic classrooms
• Center for Civic Education identifies:
– Individual rights to life, liberty, property, and
happiness
– Public or common good
– Justice
– Equality of opportunity
– Diversity
– Truth
– Patriotism
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Literature
•
•
Literature is a good source for learning
about character
Five themes of citizenship
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Honesty
Responsibility
Compassion
Respect
Courage
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Critical Thinking
• Children must retain information and also
think deeply about the material
– Learn from it
– Reason with it
– Analyze it
– Solve problems with it
• Critical thinking is a complex mental
process; widely debated
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Graphic Organizers
•
•
Graphic organizers help students
systematize their thinking
Climbing a Decision Tree
1.
2.
3.
4.
Decide what question to examine
Abbreviate the decision
Identify alternatives
Discuss positive and negative
consequences of each alternative
5. Record the consequences
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Fact versus Opinion
• Facts: statements that are generally
accepted as true and can be validated by
evidence
– Must be backed up with evidence
• Opinions: statements about what people
believe or feel about something; cannot be
proven true
– Clue words signal opinions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Political Cartoons and Editorials
• Attempt to sway one’s opinion about a
particular issue
• Political Cartoons
– Deal with one central ideas
– Fairly uncomplicated
– Use symbols to express ideas
• Editorials
– Serve same function as political cartoons
– Use words to express ideas
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 6
The Learning Cycle:
Teacher Scaffolded Social
Constructivism
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Constructivism?
• Refers to the process by which children
acquire and organize information
• Associated with theorists: Piaget and
Vygotsky
• Children develop intelligence not by being
told, but by building their own
understandings
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Piaget
•
•
Schemata gradually become more complex
Happens through a sequence of adaptation
1.
2.
3.
•
Assimilation: mental process that occurs when children
integrate new knowledge and experiences with existing
schema – results in equilibrium
Disequilibrium results when new information or experiences
don’t match with existing schema
Accommodation: when children attempt to modify an existing
schema
Motivation: comes from children’s drive to either
assimilate into or accommodate schemata in response
to new experiences in their environment
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Constructivist Learning
• Is a strategic problem-solving process by
which learners are intrinsically driven to
construct meaning from a new learning
challenge
• Happens when the learner’s experiences
are triggered or activated by the challenge
of a new learning situation
• Teacher’s role is to create challenging
situations for learners
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cognitive vs. Social Constructivism
• Cognitive constructivism: the idea that
learning occurs within each individual
learner
• Social constructivism: the idea that
learning occurs as a result of people
working together to make sense out of
their world
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Social Constructivism?
• Centers on positive adult-student and
student-student relationships
• Teachers make available absorbing
materials and intriguing situations
• Teachers engages students in activities
and provide some form of systematized
intervention
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Lev Vygotsky
• Believed that humans are different from animals
because they make and use tools
– Physical tools
– Mental tools
• Humans pass on knowledge and skills through
language during verbal interactions
• Zones of Development
– Zone of Actual Development: learning tasks are
completed individually with no assistance
– Zone of Proximal Development: learning tasks are
completed with just the right amount of assistance
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Scaffolding
• When teachers offer just the right amount
of help for students as they attempt to
bridge the gap between what they already
know and what they need to learn
• Provides temporary support for children
• Teacher provides cueing, questioning,
coaching, and support
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Learning Cycle
•
•
Learning cycle is a student-centered,
problem-solving teaching approach that
creates conceptual change through
social interactions
Three major elements
1. Exploration
2. Concept/skill development
3. Concept/skill application
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Exploration Phase
•
Purpose
1. Activate prior knowledge
2. Draw students into the lesson
3. Focus student’s attention on task with clear
purpose
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Activating Prior Knowledge
•
Goal is to establish a connection between what
they know and the new information
–
–
–
•
Ausubel: Advanced Organizer
Huner: Anticipatory Set
Vygotsky: External Mediator
External Mediator
1. Class discussion with thought-provoking questions
2. Provocative objects or events
3. Graphic outlines of material to be covered
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Discussion Sequence
1. Existing Knowledge: Ask question to stimulate
recall
2. Thought Association: Ask question to draw
comparisons
3. Rapid Recognition: Display symbols, terms to
aid association
4. Quick Lesson Review: Ask questions to
connect new learning with previous learning
5. Open Discussion: Ask open-ended questions
to create interest or raise questions to
investigate
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Graphic Organizers
• Bubble Trees: use when relevant information
can be categorized beneath a core
understanding
• Prediction Charts: contain a statement or series
of statements related to concepts or issues
under study
• K-W-L: Table that identifies what children Know,
what they Want to know, and what they Learned
• Semantic Webs: help students organize ideas
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Graphic Organizers, con’t
• Venn Diagrams: graphic organizers that
can be used to compare and contrast two
divergent cognitive elements
• Cycles: type of graphic organizer that
helps students visualize a series of
connected events that occur in sequence
and produce a repeated result
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Establishing a Clear Purpose
• Children are always asking, “Why is this
important?”
• Knowing what is expected is important
–
–
–
–
To find out something vitally interesting
Follow certain directions
Get a central idea
Stimulate personal thinking on deep subject
• Must be linked to prior knowledge and lessons
• Generally comes last during introductory
sequence
• Focuses student attention
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Development Phase
• The Main Learning Experience
• Key Questions
– What basic concepts or skills are to be taught?
– What learning materials should be used to explain
and clarify ideas for the students?
– How can teachers assist children to construct key
concepts and skills?
– What strategies could be used to make sure the
students understand the concept or master the skill?
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Concept Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Concepts are the schemata
Class of ideas
Dynamic
Designated by a label
Concrete concepts: physical attributes
Abstract concepts: logical constructs
Concept analysis is the process of breaking
down a concept by identifying its defining
features
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Basic Skills
• Skills are mental or physical operations having a
specific set of actions that are developed
through practice
• Skills are best taught and reinforced as separate
lessons
• Task analysis: process of identifying component
parts of skills and sequencing the steps
• Modeling skills is highly effective and efficient
– When teacher is perceived as capable professional
– When students are convinced they can succeed
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Materials for Instruction
•
Brunner’s three levels of learning
1. Enactive level: includes objects, people, places,
trips, visitors, and real-life classroom experiences
2. Iconic level: representations of real objects when
the actual objects or places can not be accessed
3. Symbolic level: abstract ideas, symbols, language
and logic
•
Select materials that represent a balance of
these three levels
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Class Discussions
• A vital ingredient of constructivist
classrooms
• Primary purpose of talk is to assist
students in restructuring what they already
know
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Closed-ended Questions
1. They help determine whether students
have learned the content
2. They help detect whatever
misconceptions students have about the
content
3. They help students check their own
progress
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Open-ended Questions
• Lead to more complex thinking
• Encourage analyzing and evaluating
• Students are generally more involved in
the class discussion
• Teachers should plan their sequence of
questions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Art of Questioning (Dewey)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Questions should not elicit fact upon fact, but should
help students delve deeper
Questions should emphasize personal interpretations
rather than literal and direct responses
Questions should not be asked randomly, but should
be planned to lead to the next question
Teachers should periodically review important points
so that previously discussed material can be placed
into perspective
The end of the question-asking sequence should leave
children feeling a sense of accomplishment
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Framing Questions
•
•
•
•
Ask the question
Pause for 3 to 5 seconds (wait time)
Call on someone to respond
Pause for 3 to 5 seconds once more to
give students time to think about a
response
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Concept/Skill Application Phase
• Opportunity to apply and practice a new skill or
concept through special projects or independent
activities
• Creativity and choice
–
–
–
–
–
–
Group murals
Story writing
Construction projects
Drama
Puppetry
Music
• Should result in constructing deeper meaning
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 7
Cooperative Learning:
Student-Assisted Social
Constructivism
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Cooperative Learning?
• Instructional model in which small teams,
each with students of different levels of
ability, use a variety of learning activities to
improve their understanding of any social
studies topic
• Positive interdependence: all students
work together to complete a task
• Vehicle for social constructivism
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
How Does Cooperative Learning
Work?
• It is a classroom management strategy
• Need to teach students how to work effectively in groups
• Understand factors that influence group function
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Following directions
Keeping focused on the task
Completing responsibilities on time
Asking for help when you need it
Listening attentively to others
Contributing ideas when you have them
Considering the ideas and feelings of others
Offering encouragement to others
Making sure everyone has a chance to participate
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Teaching Cooperative Learning
Skills
•
•
Cooperative learning skills can be taught
Three suggestions
1. Define the skill clearly and specifically
2. Ask students to characterize the skill
3. Practice and reinforce the skill
•
Provide children with frequent and
meaningful opportunities to function as
group members
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Group Composition
• Best for teachers to wait until October or
November before using cooperative learning
• Common mistake: allowing students to work in
groups of their own choosing
• Initial groups should be pairs
• Primary grade children work best in pairs
• By grade 3 or 4, groups of three will work
effectively
• By upper elementary and middle school, groups
of four work effectively
• Groups should be heterogeneously mixed
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Group Composition, con’t
• Two-person Group: promotes relationships
and ensures participation
• Three-person Group: changes two-person
majority; participation is likely
• Four-person Group: allows for different
perspectives, each member can express
himself or herself
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Common Roles in Groups
• Group Captain: reads the task aloud to group, checks to
make sure everyone is listening, coordinates the group’s
efforts
• Materials Manager: gathers, distributes, and collects
books and resources
• Recorder: fills out forms and writes down and edits
group’s report
• Illustrator: draws any pictures, graphs, charts, or figures
• Monitor: keeps the group focused on the task
• Coach: sees that everyone has a chance to participate
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Types of Groupings
•
•
•
•
•
•
Think-Pair-Share-Discussions
Think-Pair-Square
Numbered Heads Together
Jigsaw
Pick Your Spot
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions
(STAD)
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Choosing a Reward System
• Bonus points added to all members’
scores when a team achieves an
academic task
• Nonacademic rewards such as free
homework passes, stickers, erasers or
pencils, or extra recess time
• Social rewards such as smiles or verbal
praise
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 8
Inquiry and Problem Solving:
Cognitive Constructivism in Action
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Cognitive Constructivism?
• Active process
• Driven by the learner
• Presumes that development is a natural
biological process that is the same for all
• Regards the purpose of social studies
instruction as a function of supporting the
child’s needs and interests
• Role of the teacher is to provide an
environment to explore problems
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What Is Problem-Centered
Instruction?
•
•
Dewey: Problems can be thought of as
anything that creates doubt and
uncertainty in learners
Three elements:
1. Designing captivating classroom displays
(mini-museums)
2. Discussing the displays
3. Encouraging children’s questions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Mini-Museums
• Set aside exhibit areas in your classroom
• Design inspirational exhibits
• Allow children to explore, question, think, and
talk about these exhibits
• Observational experiences do not guarantee the
acquisition of problem-solving skills
• Couple the observations with carefully worded
questions
• Encourage children’s questions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Inquiry Procedures
•
John Dewey
1. Students identify the problem or question to
investigate
2. Students generate hypotheses or tentative
answers that can be verified
3. Students collect data
4. Students analyze the date and form
generalizations to apply to problem
5. Students share their results with an
audience
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Locating Problems or Questions
• Student must initially encounter an attentiongrabbing problem
• Problems must hold a high degree of mystery
and appeal
• Problem must be something students are
interested in
• Problems must be clear, understandable, and
meaningful
• Problems must lie with the students’ range of
ability
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Generating Hypotheses
• Defined: educated guess, feeling, hunch,
or suspicion
• Formulating hypotheses involves a certain
amount of risk
• Teacher must attach importance to each
individual’s input
• Teacher should dignify all responses
• Purpose of hypotheses is to lead to datagathering phase
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Gathering the Data
• At this phase students actively search for
knowledge
• Types of data-gathering activities
– Surveys
– Descriptive research
– Historical research
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Survey Research
• Survey: systematic collection of data that helps
explain some characteristic of a particular group
of people
– 1st step: design precise questions based on
clarification of the problem
– 2nd step: students offer predictions about responses
that become the categories for responses
• Sample strategy
• Organize data and summarize in graphic form
• Examine the data and draw conclusions
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Descriptive Research
• Direct observation: includes all tangible,
hands-on experiences that involve
students in touching, handling, or trying
out objects or events
• Indirect observation: makes use of
information sources other than direct
experiences
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Historical Research
• Process of gathering and evaluating
relevant information about the past
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Organizing and Analyzing Data
• Children should use maps, graphs, charts,
or graphic organizers
• Teacher should model the process of
organizing
• Teacher should build in time for students
to reflect on the data
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Sharing Results
• Results should be shared with an authentic
audience
• Use a variety of communication possibilities
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Oral presentations
Graphic representations
Photographs
Audio or video tapes
Debates
Dramatic skits
Bulletin board displays
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Creative Problem Solving (CPS)
• Creativity: novel or original behavior that
produces an appropriate and productive
result
• Four cognitive traits
– Fluency
– Flexibility
– Originality
– Elaboration
Systematic versus intuitive responses
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Model of Creativity
•
•
•
•
Domain knowledge and skills
Creative thinking and working skills
Intrinsic motivation
Three-step method
– Brainstorming
– The Mess: saying all that can be said
– Idea-Finding: brainstorming possible
remedies
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Types of Thought-Provoking
Questions
•
•
•
•
•
Generate new ideas
Adaptation
Enlargement
Condensation
Substitution
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Benefits of CPS
1. Higher feelings of self-confidence, selfesteem, and compassion
2. Wider exploration of traditional content
subjects and skills
3. Higher levels of creative invention in
content and skills
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 9
Instructional Planning:
The Basis of Successful Teaching
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Why Is Planning Important?
• Many preservice teachers underestimate
the importance of planning
• Planning keeps lessons on course and
assures the teacher that objectives are
being addressed
• Planning can be time consuming
• Planning starts at the beginning of the
year and includes a blueprint for the entire
year
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
How Are Unit Plans Constructed?
•
•
•
Comprehensive outlines for instruction created
around a central idea
Unit designs vary
Five step process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select a topic for study
Formulate goals and objectives
Organize the content
Select a rich variety of learning experiences
Assess the degree to which the goals and
objectives have been met
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Select a topic
• Topics should be of high interest
• School A: has district-wide, textbook-based
social studies curriculum
• School B: supplies comprehensive curriculum
guides and textbooks
• School C: furnishes a curriculum guide and
textbook program
• School D: believes teachers should plan in
response to state standards and student
interests
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Formulating Goals and
Objectives
• Goals: broad, general statements of
intended outcomes
• Objectives: statements that target the
specific outcomes
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Organizing the Content
• Begins with a thorough search of the content
required to accomplish the objectives
• Can use factstorming: (ask questions about the
topic, then ask questions about the subtopics)
• Expand the content through use of a variety of
resources
• Include a summary paragraph of your content
• Include an outline of the content
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Selecting Learning Experiences
• Highest priority should be placed on
balance and variety
• The younger the children, the greater the
variety
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Plan The Learning Experiences
• Phase 1: Introductory Activities should
“hook” students into the unit content
• Phase 2: Developmental Experiences are
the heart of the unit, in which activities are
done independently, in small groups, or by
whole class
• Phase 3: Culminating Activity allows
students to review, summarize, or bring
closure to the topic
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Learning Experiences, con’t
• Sometimes the unit that follows is such a
natural transition that neither a culminating
activity for the first unit nor an introductory
experience for the second is necessary
• Teachers should describe the specific
activities
– Blueprints: a brief description of the activity
– Lesson plans: detailed descriptions of the
activity
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Assessing Learning and
Teaching
• Two strategies
– Formative assessment: occurs as the unit is
being carried out; takes place daily and is part
of all lessons
– Summative assessment: occurs at the end of
the unit and measures final achievement
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Authentic Formative Assessment
•
Three criteria
1. Students must apply knowledge they have
acquired
2. Students must complete a specified task
within authentic contexts
3. The task or product must meet specified
criteria
•
Begins by re-examining the specific
lesson objectives
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Criteria for Authentic Formative
Assessment
•
•
•
•
•
•
Define the problem
Brainstorm ideas
Plan and design it
Name it
Patent it
Market it
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
What to Do with Results
• Authentic assessments help establish the
students’ areas of strengths
• Two helpful tools
– Checklists: easy to use
– Rubrics: identify important strengths and
weaknesses; break down the performance
and assign a number to represent quality
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Summative Assessment
• A summary of what the student
accomplished at the end of the unit
• Often uses tests generated by teachers
• May include standardized testing
• Portfolios: a collection of student work that
exhibits the student’s efforts, progress,
and achievement
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Portfolios
• May include student writings, art products,
photographs, independent research reports,
projects, favorite books, and other work samples
• Countless ways to organize
• Students must take active role in selecting
material
• Must address instructional objectives
• Should include individual conferences with
students so they can reflect on their work
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 10
Key Instructional Resources:
Going Beyond the Ordinary
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Doing Something Real
• Realia: Refers to any activities that use real
materials
• A hands-on approach requires students to play
an active part in the learning process rather than
passively read a textbook
• Concept of hands-on social studies is based on
the belief that children should learn with the
methods of natural exploration they naturally use
while trying to make sense of the world around
them
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Authentic Resources
• Field Trips: Good field trips for elementary
school youngsters involve students as
active participants
• Resource Persons: People from the
world outside of school who come to the
classroom to share some skill or
knowledge with the students
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Depictions of Reality
• Videos, Filmstrips, and Slides: Great
because they involve action and transport
students to other times
• Pictures and Study Prints: Children can
envision people, places, events, or
feelings that are difficult to perceive in
other ways
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Level of Questioning
• Literal Level: Simply being able to name,
list, and describe specific details about
items being observed
• Inferential Level: Speculating about such
things as character traits, missing details
or elements, or cause-and-effect
relationships
• Critical Level: Interpreting feelings and
values
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Integrating the Arts
• Overall aim is to help students gain a
sense of a culture’s human spirit by
examining the great works of art of its
people
• Exposure to the arts must not stop at
examining and responding
• Children should be able to re-create
expressive art products to reinforce
understandings, authenticity, and accuracy
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Visual Arts
• Illustrations: Children can record what they
have learned
• Music: Children can learn about various musical
expressions while using music to express their
understanding
• Creative Movement and Dance: Children can
examine the role of dance in different cultures
and respect differences in cultures
• Drama: Children can reveal their feelings,
express their understanding, and learn about
other cultures through drama
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Textbooks
Benefits
–
–
–
–
Easy to use
Convenient instructional package
Carefully researched
Systematic body of content
Problems
–
–
–
Written too unimaginatively for young children
Often the only source of content
Substitute for hands-on instruction
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Trade Books
Support social studies instruction by
supplying facts, concepts, and ideas for
children’s own investigations and projects
– Historical fiction
– Biographies
– Folk literature
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Newspapers
• Begin by teaching children how to read a
newspaper
• Consider using other types of news
sources
– Electronic newspapers
– Current affairs periodicals
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Computers
• Tutorial Software: Software programs
that introduce knowledge and skills and
reinforce them
• Problem-Solving Software: Software that
presents highly complex situations where
students face a dilemma, must choose
from alternatives, and devise a solution
• Simulation Software: Software that
reproduces something real
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Computers, con’t
• Word Processing: Software that is designed to
facilitate the efficient collecting, revising, storing,
and printing of text
• Telecommunications: Software that allows one
to connect to the Internet
• Hypermedia (Presentation Software):
Software that combines video, graphics,
animation, and text to communicate information
in a thought-provoking way
Maxim
Dynamic Social Studies for
Constructivist Classrooms, 8th Edition
Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
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