```Invitation to Computer Science,
Java Version, Second Edition
Objectives
In this chapter, you will learn about:
 Representing algorithms
 Examples of algorithmic problem solving
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Introduction
 This chapter discusses algorithms and algorithmic
problem solving using three problems:
 Searching lists
 Finding smallest and largest items in lists
 Matching patterns
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Representing Algorithms
 What is an algorithm?
 A series of steps to perform a task – that’s it.
 A recipe is an algorithm for how to cook chicken enchiladas
 Directions are an algorithm for how to get to someone’s house
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Representing Algorithms
 Natural language
 Language spoken and written in everyday life
 English, Spanish
 Problems with using natural language for algorithms

Imprecise

Relies on context and experience of the person you are
talking to

“I saw the man looking through the telescope”
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Representing Algorithms
 High-level programming language
 Examples: C++, Java
 Problem with using a high-level programming language
for algorithms

During the initial phases of design, we are forced to
deal with detailed language issues
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Pseudocode
 English language constructs modeled to look like
statements available in most programming
languages
 Ex: ADD X + Y
 No fixed syntax for most operations is required
 Everyone knows what you are talking about
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Pseudocode (continued)
 Less ambiguous and more readable than natural
language
 Emphasis is on the process, not the specific
notation
 Can be easily translated into a programming
language
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Operations
 Types of algorithmic operations
 Sequential – input / output, assignment, printing, etc.
 Conditional – doing one thing or another based on a
certain condition
 Iterative – looping – doing something more than once
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Sequential Operations (continued)
 Computation operations
 Example

Set the value of “variable” to “arithmetic expression”

X = 10 (set x equal to 10)
 Variable

Named storage location that can hold a data value

X in the above example
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Sequential Operations (continued)
 Input operations
 To receive data values from the outside world
 Get a value for r, the radius of the circle
 Output operations
 To send results to the outside world for display
 Print the value of Area
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6
7
Go to gas station
Take out loan
Figure 2.3
Algorithm for Computing Average Miles per Gallon
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Conditional and Iterative
Operations
 Sequential algorithm
 Executes its instructions in a straight line from top to
bottom and then stops
 Control operations – allow us to get more complex
 Conditional operations

IF X=10 THEN … do some stuff
 Iterative operations

WHILE X < 100 … do some other stuff
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Conditional and Iterative
Operations (continued)
 Conditional operations
 Ask questions and choose alternative actions based on
 Example

if x is greater than 25 then
print x
else
print x times 100
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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Conditional and Iterative
Operations (continued)
 Iterative operations
 Perform “looping” behavior; repeating actions until a
continuation condition becomes false
 Loop

The repetition of a block of instructions
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Conditional and Iterative
Operations (continued)
 Examples

while j > 0 do
set s to s + aj
set j to j - 1

repeat
print ak
set k to k + 1
until k > n
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Figure 2.4
Second Version of the Average Miles per Gallon Algorithm
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Conditional and Iterative
Operations (continued)
 Components of a loop
 Continuation condition – when do we stop?
 Loop body – what we want to repeat
 Infinite loop
 The continuation condition never becomes false and the
loop runs forever
 This is usually an error
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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Figure 2.5
Third Version of the Average Miles per Gallon Algorithm
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version, Second Edition
19
Conditional and Iterative
Operations
 Pretest loop
 Continuation condition tested at the beginning of each
pass through the loop
 It is possible for the loop body to never be executed
 Ex: While loop
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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Conditional and Iterative
Operations (continued)
 Post-test loop
 Continuation condition tested at the end of loop body
 Loop body must be executed at least once
 Ex: Do - While loop
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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Figure 2.6
Summary of Pseudocode Language Instructions
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One other operation - functions
 Someone (possibly not you) writes a function.
 This function performs some action, like averaging
three numbers, and returns a result to you.
 You call the function, and it returns a result
 A function accepts parameters (the numbers to
average in this case) and you include these parameters
when you call the function.
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One other operation - functions
 Average (98, 77, 100) then gives me the average of the 3
numbers
 Assuming the function was written correctly 
 Essential for creating re-usable code, not reinventing
the wheel, etc.
 Many, many built in functions (methods) in Java.
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Example 1: Looking, Looking,
Looking
 Examples of algorithmic problem solving
 Sequential search: find a particular value in an
unordered collection
 Find maximum: find the largest value in a collection of
data
 Pattern matching: determine if and where a particular
pattern occurs in a piece of text
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Example 1: Looking, Looking,
Looking (continued)
 Find a particular person’s name from an unordered list
of telephone subscribers
 Algorithm outline
 Start with the first entry and check its name, then repeat
the process for all entries
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Example 1: Looking, Looking,
Looking (continued)
 Correct sequential search algorithm
 Uses iteration (loops) to simplify the task
collection)
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Uses the variable Found to exit the iteration as soon as a match is found
Figure 2.9
The Sequential Search Algorithm
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Example 1: Looking, Looking,
Looking (continued)
 The selection of an algorithm to solve a problem is
greatly influenced by the way the data for that
problem are organized
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Example 2: Big, Bigger, Biggest
 Find the largest value from a list of values
 Algorithm outline
 Keep track of the largest value seen so far (initialized to
be the first in the list)
 Compare each value to the largest seen so far, and keep
the larger as the new largest
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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Example 2: Big, Bigger, Biggest
(continued)
 Once an algorithm has been developed, it may itself be
used in the construction of other, more complex
algorithms
 Library
 A collection of useful algorithms – created (usually) by
someone else.
 Don’t reinvent the wheel – many solutions to common
problems are available, particularly in Java
 An important tool in algorithm design and development
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Figure 2.10
Algorithm to Find the Largest Value in a List
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 Find if and where a pattern string occurs within a longer
piece of text
 Algorithm outline
 Try each possible location of pattern string in turn
 At each location, compare pattern characters against
string characters
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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(continued)
 Abstraction
 Separating high-level view from low-level details
 Key concept in computer science – “LAYERS”
 Makes difficult problems intellectually manageable
 Allows piece-by-piece development of algorithms
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(continued)
 Top-down design
 When solving a complex problem:

Create high-level operations in first draft of an
algorithm

the high-level operations and elaborate each one
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(continued)
 Pattern-matching algorithm
 Contains a loop within a loop

External loop iterates through possible locations of
matches to pattern

Internal loop iterates through corresponding
characters of pattern and string to evaluate match
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version,
Second Edition
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Figure 2.12
Final Draft of the Pattern-Matching Algorithm
Invitation to Computer Science, Java Version, Second Edition
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Summary
 Algorithm design is a first step in developing an
algorithm
 Must also:
 Ensure the algorithm is correct
 Ensure the algorithm is sufficiently efficient
 Pseudocode is used to design and represent
algorithms
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Summary
 Pseudocode is readable, unambiguous, and
analyzable
 Algorithm design is a creative process; uses
multiple drafts and top-down design to develop
the best solution
 Abstraction is a key tool for good design
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