Course of Software
Engineering II
Design Patterns:
Elements of Reusable Object –
Oriented Software
Serena Fabbri
1
Design Patterns
Design Pattern
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Introduction: why a design pattern?
History of design pattern
What is a design pattern
How we describe design pattern
Classification of desing pattern
Examples of design pattern
Conclusions
Bibliography
Design Patterns
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Why a Design Pattern

Reusability:one of Wasserman’s rules(1996)for an
efficient and actual SE discipline
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Helping new designers to have a more flexible and
reusable design
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Improving the documentation and maintenance of
existing system by furnishing an explicit
specification of class and object interactions and
their intent
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History of Design Pattern

1979:Christopher Alexander,architect, “The
Timeless Way of Building”,Oxford Press

1987:OOPSLA (Object Oriented Programming
System),Orlando, presentation of design pattern to
the community OO by Ward Cunningham and Kent
Beck
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1995:Group of Four alias E.Gamma, R.Helm,R.Johnson
and J.Vlissides : “Design Pattern:Elements of
Reusable OO software”
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What Is a Design Pattern

A design pattern is a descriptions of
communicating objects and classes that are
customized to solve a general design problem in a
particular context

A pattern is made by four elements:
 name
 problem
 solution
 consequences
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Name of Design Pattern

Describe a design problems and its solutions in a
word or two

Used to talk about design pattern with our
colleagues

Used in the documentation
Increase our design vocabulary
Have to be coherent and evocative


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Problem

Describes when to apply the patterns
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Explains the problem and its context

Sometimes include a list of conditions that must
be met before it makes sense to apply the pattern

Have to occurs over and over again in our
environment
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Solution

Describes the elements that make up the design,
their relationships, responsibilities and
collaborations
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Does not describe
implementation

Has to be well proven in some projects
a concrete design or
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Consequences
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Results and trade-offs of applying the pattern
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Helpful for describe design decisions, for
evaluating design alternatives
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Benefits of applying a pattern
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Impacts on a system’s flexibility,extensibility or
portability
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Description of Design Pattern
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Pattern name and classification
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contains the essence of pattern succinctly
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Become part of your design vocabulary
Intent
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What does the pattern do ?
What particular problem does it address ?
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Description of Design Pattern
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Motivation
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Illustrate a design problem and how the class
and the object structures solve the problem
Applicability
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In which situations the pattern can be applied?
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How can you recognize these situations?
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Description of Design Pattern
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Structure
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Graphical representation of the classes
their collaborations in the pattern
and
Participants
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Class
Objects
Responsibilities
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Description of Design Pattern
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Collaborations
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How the participants collaborate to carry out
their responsibilities
Consequences


How does the pattern support its objectives?
What are the trade-offs and results of using
the pattern?
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Description of Design Pattern

Implementation
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Sample Code

Known Uses

Examples of the pattern found in real systems
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Description of Design Pattern
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Related Patterns
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What design patterns are closely related to
this one?
What are the important differences?
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Classification of Design Pattern
By purpose and by scope
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Creational patterns
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Abstract the instantiation process
Make a system independent to its realization
Class Creational use inheritance to vary the
instantiated classes
Object Creational delegate instantiation to an
another object
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Classification of Design Pattern

Structural patterns
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Class Structural patterns concern the
aggregation of classes to form largest
structures
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Object Structural pattern concern the
aggregation of objects to form largest
structures
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Classification of Design Pattern
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Behavioral patterns
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Concern with algorithms and assignment of
responsibilities between objects
Describe the patterns of communication between
classes or objects
Behavioral class pattern use inheritance to
distribute behavior between classes
Behavioral object pattern use object
composition to distribute behavior between
classes
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Classification of design patterns ( a view)
purpose
Scope Class
Creational
Structural
Behavioral
Factory Method
Adapter
Interpreter
Template Method
Object
Abstract Factory
Adapter
Chain of
Responsibility
Builder
Bridge
Command
Prototype
Composite
Iterator
Singleton
Decorator
Mediator
Façade
Memento
Flyweight
Observer
Proxy
State
Strategy
Visitor
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Creational Pattern
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Singleton
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Ensure a class only has one instance

Provide a global point of access to it
Abstract Factory:
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Provide an interface for creating families of
related or dependent objects without specifying
their concrete classes
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Creational Pattern
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Factory Method:
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Define an interface for creating an object but
let subclasses decide which class to
instantiate
Lets a class defer instantiation to subclasses
Prototype
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Specify the kinds of objects to create using a
prototypical instance
Create new objects by copying this prototype
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Creational Pattern
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Builder:
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Separate the construction of a complex object
from its representation so that the same
construction process can create different
representations
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Structural Pattern
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Composite
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Compose objects into tree structures to
represent part-whole hierarchies
Lets clients treat individual objects and
compositions of objects uniformly
Decorator
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Attach additional responsibilities to an object
dynamically
Provide a flexible alternative to subclassing
for extending functionality
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Structural Pattern
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Adapter:
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Convert the interface of a class into another
interface clients expect
Lets classes work together that couldn’t
otherwise because of incompatible interfaces
Bridge:

Decouple an abstraction from its implementation
so that the two can vary independently
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Structural Pattern
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Façade
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Provide a unified interface to a set of
interfaces in a subsystem
Defines an higher-level interface that makes
the system easier to use
Flyweight
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Use sharing to support large numbers of finegrained objects efficiently
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Structural Pattern
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Proxy

Provide a surrogate or placeholder for another
object to control access to it
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Behavioral Pattern

Iterator

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Provide a way to access the elements of an
aggregate object without exposing its
representation
Command
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Encapsulate a request as an object, thereby
letting you parameterize clients with different
requests
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Behavioral Pattern
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Interpreter
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Given a language, define a representation for
its grammar along with an interpreter that uses
the representation to interpret sentences in
the language
Mediator
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Define an object that encapsulate how a set of
objects interact
Promotes loose coupling by keeping objects from
referring to each other explicitly
Lets you vary their interaction independently
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Behavioral Pattern
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Memento
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Capture and externalize
state
an object’s internal
Observer
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Define a one-to-many dependency between objects
so when one of them change state all its
dependents are updated automatically
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Behavioral Pattern
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State
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Allow an object to alter its behavior when its
internal state changes
The object will appear to change its class
Visitor
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Represent an operation to be performed on the
elements of an object structure
Lets you define a new operation without
changing the classes of the elements on which
operates
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Behavioral Pattern
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Strategy
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Define a family of algorithms
Encapsulate each one
Make them interchangeable
Lets the algorithms vary independently from
clients that use it
Chain of responsibilities
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Avoid coupling the sender of a request to its
receiver by giving more then one object a
chance to handle the request
Chain the receiving objects and pass the
request along the chain until an object handles
it
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Singleton Pattern
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Motivation
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we need to have exactly only one instance for a
class (ex. Printer spooler)
Make the class itself responsible for keeping
track of its sole instance
The class provide a way to access the instance
Applicability

There must be only one instance of a class
accessible from a well-known point
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Singleton Pattern

Structure
Singleton
Return
uniqueInstance
Static Instance()
SingletonOperation()
GetSingletonData()
Static uniqueInstance
SingletonData
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Singleton Pattern
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Participants
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Collaborations
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Singleton class
Access only through Singleton’s instance
operation
Consequences
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Controlled access to sole instance
Permits refinement of operation and
representation
More flexible than class operations
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Example of Singleton use
“Lotteria Algebrica”
 We had to have only one instance for
class Director. We simply solve our
problem using Singleton Pattern
Director
Static Instance()
Given(n_ticket:int):void
Error():void
Static UniqueInstance
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Decorator Pattern
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Motivation


Add responsibilities to individual object not
to an entire class
conforming the interface of the component
decorated
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Decorator Pattern
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Structure
Component
Operation()
ConcreteComponent
Decorator
Operation()
Operation()
ConcreteDecoratorA
Operation()
AddedState
ConcreteDecoratorB
Operation()
Addedbehavior
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Decorator Pattern
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Participants
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Component
 Define the interface for objects that can
have responsibilities added to them
dinamically
Concrete Component
 Defines an object to which additional
responsibilities can be attached
Decorator
 Mantains a reference to a Component object
and defines an interface that conforms to
Component’s interface
ConcreteDecorator
 Added responsibilities to the component
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Decorator Pattern

Consequences

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More flexibility than static inheritance
Avoids feature-laden classes high up in the
hierarchy
A decorator and its component are not identical
Lots of little objects
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Example of Decorator
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Motivation

If you have a TextView object that
displays text in a Window

TextView has no scroll bars by default

TextView has no bord by default …
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Example of Decorator

Structure
aBorderDecorator
component
aScrollDecorator
component
aTextView
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Example of Decorator
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Structure
VisualComponent
Draw()
TextView
Decorator
Draw()
Draw()
ScrollDecorator
BorderDecorator
Draw()
ScrollTo()
Draw()
DrawBorder()
ScrollPosition
BorderWidth
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Iterator Pattern
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Also know as


Cursor
Motivation

Provide more way to access to the elements of
an aggregate
ListIterator
List
First()
Next()
IsDone()
CurrentItem
Count()
Append(Element)
Remove(Element)
…
Index
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Iterator Pattern

Applicability


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Access an aggregate object’s contents
Support multiple traversals of aggregate
objects
Provide an uniform interface
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Iterator Pattern

Structure
Aggregate
Iterator
Client
CreateIterator()
First()
Next()
IsDone()
CurrentItem()
ConcreteAggregate
CreateIterator()
ConcreteIterator
Return new
ConcreteIterator(This)
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Iterator Pattern

Participants




Iterator
 Defines interfaces for accessing elements
ConcreteIterator
 Implements the Iterator interface
 Keeps track of the current position in the
traversal of the aggregate
Aggregate
 Defines an interface for creating an Iterator
object
Concrete Aggregate
 Implements the Iterator creation interface
 Return an instance of ConcreteIterator
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Iterator Pattern

Consequences

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
Simplify the Aggregate interface
More that one traversal can be pending on an
aggregate
Variations in the traversal of an aggregate
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Patterns and Frameworks

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
Set of cooperating classes that make up reusable
design
for abstract
a specific class
of software.
Provides
are
more
than
frameworks
architectural guidance by partitioning the design into
are smaller
architectural
elementsand
abstract
classes and
defining their responsibilities
collaborations.
A developer
customizes a framework
are
less specialized
than to a particular
application by subclassing and composing instances
of framework classes.
Design patterns
Design patterns
than frameworks
Design patterns
frameworks
Framework is executable software, design pattern
represent knowledge about software
Frameworks are the physical realization of one or
more software pattern solutions,pattern are
instructions for how to implement those solutions
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Conclusions
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

At present, the software community is
using pattern largely for software
architecture and design
More recently the software community is
using pattern also for software
development processes and o organizations
Several object-oriented software design
notations/methods have added support for
the modeling and representation of design
patterns
Design Patterns
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Night Patterns
The coffee mug etched black inside
Haunts the worn gray keys.
The computer screen amused pearlwhite lights
the developer’s hands
And his night still life:
pencils and books,
scattered page of code circled and crossed
with notes.
Outside, along the river,
white headlights flow,
Red lights retreat.
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Night Patterns
Inside the agile black box it waits- the
Conjuring
That lifts alive vined parts,
Veins flowing in forces he imagines
By circles and crosses, in dozing spells,
In whitened warmth upon noon earth,
In peach trees by the wallIt waits to pulse the pages
Toward life,the patterns of night, to bring
The quality,singing soft and hangign low.
RICHARD GABRIEL
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Bibliography
For the pattern catalogue:

Erich Gamma, Richard Helm,Ralph
Johnson,John Vlissides. Design Patterns:
Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented
Software. ADDISON-WESLEY 1995
For the pattern origin:
 Cristopher Alexander. The Timeless Way of
Building. Oxford Press 1979
For “Night Patterns”:
 James O.Coplien,Douglas C.Schmidt.Pattern
Languages of Program Design. ADDISONWESLEY 1995
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More Information
Here you can find some example in Italian of design
patterns.

http://www.ugolandini.net/PatternsHome.ht
ml
Here you can find some general information about
patterns


http://www.mokabyte.it/1998/10/pattern.ht
m
http://www.c2.com
A complete Web site about pattern

http://www.enteract.com/~bradapp/docs/pat
terns-intro.html
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