World War I
and the Red Scare
Research Assignment > Grading of the First Draft
• Pass (A) - you’ve submitted a 3-page paper that analyzes images from
both phographers
• Fail (F) - no paper, no images analyzed, or no comparison of two
• Our comments with also include suggestions for revisions and a grade
expressing where you are in terms of the second draft:
You’ll see:
First draft: Pass
Second draft so far: C (just some way to suggest how many revisions you
need to make)
Pre-War > Election of 1912
• Four candidates:
• William Taft - incumbent, Republican
• Woodrow Wilson - surprise candidate, Democrat
• Teddy Roosevelt - progressive “Bull Moose” party, best showing
ever by 3rd party
• Eugene Debs - socialist, won 6% of the vote - the most votes won
by a socialist candidate in US history
• Stood for different approaches to US politics
• Taft - laissez-faire Gilded Age politics
• Wilson - progressivist, pro-small business and competition
• Roosevelt - militant anti-trust politics
• Debs - peaceful overthrow of capitalism
Pre-War > Taft at Wilson’s inauguration, 1913
Pre-War > Reasons for US entry into World War I
• War profits U.S. traded heavily with Britain and France but complied
with a British embargo on trading with Germany
• Anglophilia on the part of leaders like Woodrow Wilson and also among
ordinary Americans (but not German or Irish immigrants)
• Security of loans to Europe
• The vision of a “liberal democratic world order”:
• Wilson envisioned trade between equal national partners just as he
envisioned a domestic economy made up of small businesses instead
of huge trusts
World War I > Black Troops in France, 1918
World War I > US Army Intelligence Test Results
World War I > Typical Question on the IQ test
If you are lost in a forest in the daytime, what is the thing to do?
A. Hurry to the nearest house you know of
B. Look for something to eat
C. Use the sun or a compass for a guide
George Ade is famous as a
A. Baseball player
B. Comic artist
C. Actor
D. Author
World War I > The Poster by the Committee on Public Information
World War I > Some changes made because of the war with Germany
• Hamburger renamed “liberty stake”
• Sauerkraut renamed “liberty cabbage”
• German measles renamed “liberty measles”
• Wagner and Beethoven performances banned
• German folk songs cut out of children’s books
• Schoolbooks revised to show Germany in a bad light
• Jane Addams denounced for her pacifist views: “The force of the majority
was so overwhelming that it seemed not only impossible to hold one’s own
against it, but at moments absolutely unnatural, and one secretly yearned to
participate in the folly of all mankind.”
World War I > Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties in US History
• 1798: Alien and Sedition Acts
• Civil War: Suspension of Habeas Corpus
• 1917: The Espionage Act
•1919-1920: The Red Scare
World War I > Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, anarchists censored to
two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft,
July 9, 1917
World War I > Supreme Court Free Speech Cases
• Charles Schenk v. United States (1919)
• convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917
• distributed antiwar pamphlets
• conviction upheld
• Oliver Wendell Holmes: “man shouting in a crowded theater,” “clear and
present danger”
• Jacob Abrams v. United States (1919)
• convicted under the antiwar pamphlets
• conviction upheld
• Holmes dissented: “the defendants were deprived of their rights under the
constitution of the United States”
• Benjamin Gitlow v New York (1925)
• convicted under the New York Criminal Anarchy Law of 1902
• called for the overthrow of U.S. government
• the Court upheld the state law but extended the reach of the First amendment
• Holmes dissented: “government must show the clear and immediate danger.”
World War I > Cartoon against the Sedition Act, 1920
Suffrage > Men at the National Anti-Suffrace Association Headquaters
Suffrage > Women’s Suffrage Cartoon
Prohibition > Prohibition Cartoon, San Francisco Chronicle, May 1919
Prohibition > Cartoon Announcing the End of Crime Due to Prohibition, 1919
Race Riots > Police “Rescues” a Black Man During the Chicago Race Riot
Strike Wave > The Seattle General Strike
Strike Wave > Steel Workers Announce the Walk-Out, October 4, 1919
Strike Wave > US Steel Corporation Poster Proclaims Victory
Strike Wave > Strike Ballot in Several European Languages, 1919
Strike Wave > New York World Cartoon about the Railroad Strike, April 1919
Red Scare > Literary Digest on the Bombing of Palmer’s Home, June 1919
Red Scare > Police searches suspects in Palmer raids
Red Scare > Chicago Tribune Cartoon on Foreign Radicals, June 1919
Sacco and Vanzetti > Demonstration for Sacco and Vanzetti, Boston, 1925
Sacco and Vanzetti > The Daily Worker Cartoon, 1927
Sacco and Vanzetti > Funeral after the executions, Boston, August 1927