Accommodating Deaf &
Hard of Hearing Students
Louisiana State Outreach & Technical Assistance Center
Postsecondary Education Consortium
Jennie Bourgeois
Louisiana SOTAC Coordinator
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Section 504 of Rehab Act
Under the provisions of Section 504
of the Rehab Act of 1973, all
colleges and universities receiving
federal financial assistance are
legally bound to prohibit
discrimination in the recruitment
process, the admissions process and
the educational process of students
with disabilities.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
What Is the ADA?



Federal civil rights
legislation (1990).
Its aim is to help remove
the barriers that exist for
people with disabilities.
The goal is to minimize the
impact of a person’s
disability on their
performance and put them
on a level playing field.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of Disability
A person with a disability is an
individual with a physical or mental
impairment that substantially limits
one or more major life activities. An
individual is considered to be a
person with a disability if he/she has
a disability, has history of a disability
or is perceived by others as having a
disability.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
What Is A Disability?
According to the Americans with
disabilities act:

A disability is a substantial limitation of
a major life activity. Major life activities
include thinking, sleeping, learning,
caring for oneself, interacting with
others, working, walking, etc.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Who Is Covered Under ADA?


A person with a disability is covered
under ADA if they are otherwise
“qualified”.
The ADA defines an “otherwise
qualified individual” as one who is
able to perform the essential
functions or technical standards of a
job with or without accommodation.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Deaf Students In Your
Institution

Federal Statutes require
postsecondary institutions to be
accessible to all people with
disabilities who otherwise meet
admission requirements
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
What Is Needed to Receive
Services?
Documentation by a
licensed medical
doctor, psychiatrist,
psychologist, or
other qualified
professional which
specifies the
diagnosis and
functional
limitations.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Types of Disabilities Served

Physical

Learning

Psychological

Health impairments
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
What Are
Accommodations?
Accommodations are academic
adjustments designed to
minimize the impact of a
person’s disability on their
performance.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Standard
Accommodations









Extended time
Consideration for absences
Consideration for spelling
No Scantron/write directly on tests
Quite room for testing
Alternative test format
Seizure letters
Notetakers
Interpreters/Captionists/Transliterators
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Statistics on Deafness



More than 28 million
Americans have a hearing
loss
More than 1/3 of the U.S.
Population will have a
hearing impairment by
age 65
Approximately 2 million
people are profoundly
deaf
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Statistics on Deafness




1 of every 1000 infants is
born totally deaf
At least 1 million children
are deaf or have a
communication disorder
1 out of every 22 infants has
a hearing problem
The average age of
diagnosis of hearing loss is
close to 3 years old
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
“Deaf”-0-Graphics
There are
approximately
20,000 deaf and
hard of hearing
students
enrolled in
postsecondary
education
nationwide
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
“Deaf”initions
HARD OF HEARING
Hearing is limited, but
may be amplified for
access to some ordinary
life experiences
DEAF
Sound has no meaning for
ordinary life purposes
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Handicap Vs. Culture
Deaf people do not think of themselves as
“handicapped” because they lead a
completely normal life with the exception
of not being able to hear. Although
doctors and educators have often treated
deaf people as handicapped, they see
themselves as a sub-culture of American
Society, similar to other non-English
speaking groups.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Deaf Culture



Rich heritage rooted in
language pride and
autonomy
Educational & life
experiences
Political, sporting and
social organizations
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
•Prefer not to be lumped with Deaf people
•Usually do not know Sign Language
•Have individual communication needs and styles
•Hearing aids do not bring them back to perfect
hearing like glasses
•Many times people will not admit they are hard of
hearing
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
But How Do I Communicate
with Deaf and Hard of
Hearing Students?
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tip #1


Get the person’s
attention by a
wave or a tap on
the shoulder
If you don’t have
eye contact –
you don’t have
communication!
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tip #2

Speak slowly and clearly

Don’t exaggerate words

Look at the person as you speak

Don’t stand in front of a window
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tip #3



Don’t assume a nod
means yes or that
you are being
understood
Lip-reading is not
always effective
Try rephrasing
instead of
repeating
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tip #4

What is he
saying???


At best only 33% of
English words are
visible on the lips
Lip-reading is many
times an educated
guess
Don’t over
enunciate!
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tip #5
Don’t Yell !!!
•If they have a hearing aid,
you will blast them!
•If they are deaf, they can’t
hear you anyway!
•Most importantly – it annoys
everyone that is around
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tip #6
Write
 The tried and true
method for shortterm
communication
 Getting the
message across is
more important
than the medium
used
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Communication Tips
Overview




Make sure you have
eye contact before
you begin talking
Speak clearly, but do
not over enunciate
Natural gestures are
OK!
Rephrase, don’t
repeat



Don’t assume a
nod means you are
being understood
Ask if an
interpreter would
make things easier
Write notes back
and forth if
necessary
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Deaf & Hard of Hearing Services
Priority Registration
Assisted Listening
Devices
Sign Language
Interpreters
Preferential Seating
Cued Speech
Transliterators
Oral Interpreters
Real-Time
Captioning
Notetaking Services
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Forms of Interpreting

Oral interpreting

Tactile interpreting

Sign language interpreting

Cued Speech transliteration
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of Oral
Interpreting
The interpreter
“mouths” the words
spoken for the deaf
or hard of hearing
student. Sign
language may
sometimes be used
as a filler
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of Tactile
Interpreting
Used by deaf-blind students
who need to “feel” the
formation of signs that the
interpreter is making. The
student places their hands
on the interpreter’s hands
while interpreting. On-thepalm printing can also be
used by some students.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of Sign
Language Interpreting
In either ASL, signed
English, or pidgin,
the interpreter
“visually” relays the
spoken word to the
student in whatever
sign system is
agreed upon.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Differences in Modes of Sign
Language

American Sign Language (ASL)

Pidgin Sign English

Signed English
(mixture ASL & Signed English)
• Rochester Method
• S.E.E. 1 / S.E.E. 2
ASL
Pidgin Sign Language
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
English
What Does a Sign Language
Interpreter Do Exactly?


An interpreter acts as an
intermediary in communicationrelated situations so that deaf
and hearing participants involved
have access to the same input
and output or can take advantage
of the same resources.
Interpreters interpret the
vocalized English into sign form,
transmit all auditory input into
visual form and translate the sign
form into spoken English
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Interpreters In the
Classroom




A complex process working
between two languages and
cultures
Have varying degrees of skills
Interpret for everyone, not just
the deaf student!
Follow a Code of Ethics
• Can not participate in class –
impartial & confidential
• Do not interject, edit or counsel
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Cued Speech
Transliteration
Cued Speech
Transliteration is a
visual method of
communication that
utilizes hand cues in
order to provide
spoken information
that is ambiguous
through lip reading
alone.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Using a Communication
Facilitator in Your Classroom
Interpreters, Captionists and Transliterators
(Communication Facilitators) are most
often situated in the front of the
classroom. This allows the deaf/hard of
hearing student to have both the
communication facilitator and the
instructor in their field of vision.
It is helpful for the communication facilitator
to work closely with the instructor in order
to prepare for class.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Guidelines for Using
Communication Facilitators




Look at the Deaf
person, not at the CF
CF should be close to
the speaker
The CF should not be
placed in front of a
window or bright light
Speak naturally, not
too slow or too fast


Avoid saying “tell him
or tell her” but rather
speak directly to the
Deaf person
Avoid private
conversations in
presence of CF – they
must relay ALL
information
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Real-time Captioning


Stenographic
(CART)
C-Print
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Stenographic Captioning
(CART)
Provides real-time
access to spoken
information in the
classroom. A trained
court reporter types
verbatim everything
said into a stenograph
machine which is
connected to a laptop
computer for the
student to read the
information.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
C-Print Captioning
C-Print is a speech-to-text
real-time access software
that allows a trained
captionist to type
classroom lectures. The
captionist types directly
into the laptop computer
and the student may read
from the laptop, a monitor
or through a projector.
Developed by the National
Technical Institute for the Deaf
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Real-Time Captioning



Captions appear on a
monitor or laptop
Real-time access to all
information in the
classroom
Special Populations
• Late Deafened
• English a a first or
preferred language
• Hard of Hearing
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Using a Notetaker in
Your Class
Students who are deaf or hard of hearing
often utilize a notetaker to supplement
the classroom learning.
 Deaf students must visually focus on the
communication facilitator and cannot
take notes simultaneously.
 Hard of Hearing students must focus
intently on understanding the instructor
or lip-reading and cannot divert their
attention from the lecture to take notes.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
In the Classroom
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Notetaking Systems

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Volunteer Notetakers
Paid/Stipend Notetakers
Recorded Notetakers
Computer-Assisted Notetakers
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Summary of Notetaking
Systems
Volunteer
Paid/Stipend
Recorded
Least reliable,
students not
always
dependable or
provide quality
notes
More
accountability,
still utilizing
student workers
primarily
Able to get word
for word
transcription, but
not information
from
board/overhead
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
CAN
Most
reliable,
accurate
and best
quality
Definition of Volunteer
Notetaking
The notetaker is usually
another student in the
class that agrees to
share their notes with
deaf or hard of hearing
student.
Not always reliable.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of
Paid/stipend Notetaking
The notetaker is usually
hired by the Disability
Services Office and is
compensated for each hour
of notetaking services
provided. The individual is
not usually a class
member. This method
offers more accountability
and quality control of the
notes provided.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of Recorded
Notetaking
A lecture is
recorded on tape
and then brought
to the disability
service office to
be transcribed
into printed
format.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Definition of Computer
Assisted Notetaking (CAN)
A trained computer
assisted notetaker
takes notes on a
laptop computer in a
condensed,
summarized or outline
format. The student
receives a printed
copy of the notes
after class.
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Assisted Listening
Devices
FM Devices
 Infrared Devices
 Induction Loop
Devices
 Hard Wired Devices
 Tape Recorders

Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Testing
Accommodations

Extended Time

Interpreted Tests

Distraction Free
Environment
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Deaf Awareness Quiz
How Much Do You
Know About Deafness
and Deaf Culture?
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
What Is American Sign
Language (ASL)?
(choose 2 answers)
a) a code similar to Braille
b) a shortened form of English
c) a language incorporating a lot of mime
d) a language capable of expressing any
abstract idea
e) a language using picture-like images to
express ideas and concepts
f) a language utilizing space and movement to
convey meaning
Answers: D & F
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Historically, American Sign
Language Is Related To:
a)
b)
c)
d)
British Sign Language
Swedish Sign Language
French Sign Language
German Sign Language
Answer: C
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
American Sign Language Is
Used by Deaf People in Which
Countries?
Choose All That Apply:
a) Canada
b) United States
c) Mexico
d) Brazil
e) England
f) Australia
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Answers: A & B
What Percent of Deaf People
Have Deaf Parents?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
10
25
50
75
90
percent
percent
percent
percent
percent
Answer: A
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
ASL & Deaf Culture Are
Transmitted to Deaf People From
Generation to Generation By:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Family
Deaf adults in the community
Residential schools for the Deaf
Sign Language Teachers
Answer: C
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
The Role of Facial Expressions,
Head Movements and Eye Gaze in
ASL Is Primarily:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Grammatical
Stylistic
Emotive
Attention getting
Answer: A
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
While Watching Another
Person Sign, It Is Appropriate
to Focus on the Signer’s:
a)
b)
c)
Hands
Chest area
Face
Answer: C
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Among ASL Signers,
Fingerspelling Is Mainly Used
in What Ways?
Choose all that apply:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Interchangeably with any sign
To specify brand names
As an artistic form of signing
To give names of people and places
Answers: B, D
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
ASL Makes Use of the Space in
Front of a Signer’s Body to :
Choose all that apply:




Indicate sentence types
Convey distance
Contrast two people, places,
things or ideas
Express time concepts
Answers: B, C, D
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
To Get the Attention of a Deaf
Person Who Is Looking the Other
Way, You Should:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Yell as loud as you can
Tap him/her on the shoulder
Wave in his/her face
Go around and stand in front of the
person
Answer: B
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
If Your Path Is Blocked by
Two Signers Conversing With
Each Other You Should:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Wait until they stop talking before
you pass through
Bend down very low in order to
avoid passing through their signing
space
Go ahead and walk through
Find another path
Answer: C
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Which of the Following Are
Considered Rude by Deaf
People?
(choose 2 answers)
a) touching a person to get attention
b) looking at a signed conversation without
indicating you know Sign Language
c) Describing a distinctive feature of a
person to identify him/her
d) Talking without signing in the presence of
Deaf people
Answers: B & D
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
In General, the Least Effective
Communication Strategy Between
Deaf and Hearing People Is:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Speech and lip-reading
Using Sign Language
Writing back and forth
Using interpreters
Answer: A
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Which of the Following Are
Valued in the Deaf
Community?
(choose all that apply)
a)
For Deaf people to govern their own
affairs
b)
Being kept informed about the
community and its members
c)
Restoration of hearing loss
d)
Group cohesiveness
e)
Individualism
Answers: A,B,D,E
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Other Than the Word “Deaf”, a
Culturally Appropriate Way to
Identify Deaf People Would Be:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Deaf and dumb
Deaf mutes
Hearing impaired
All of the above
None of the above
Answer: E
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Historically, Deaf People Have
Faced Discrimination in the
Following Areas:
Choose all that apply:





Job hiring and promotion
Obtaining a driver’s license without restrictions
Getting fair insurance rates
Getting decent housing
Obtaining access to public services, information
and entertainment
Answers: A,B,C,E
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
Some of the Issues of the
National Association of the
Deaf Has Fought for Are:
(choose all that apply)
a)
Using Sign Language in the classroom
b)
Maintaining a high proportion of Deaf
teachers at the elementary and
secondary levels
c)
The right of deaf people to adopt children
d)
Giving double tax exemptions to Deaf
people
Answers: A,B,C
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
What Was the Purpose of the
Protest Rally at Gallaudet
University in March 1988?
a)
b)
c)
d)
To improve interpreting services
To give priority to Sign Language
research
To assure that Deaf people be placed in
top level decision-making positions
To mainstream more hearing students at
the University
Answer: C
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
There is a 79% attrition rate
among students who are
deaf or hard of hearing in
two and four year colleges
and universities
Jennie Bourgeois © 1999
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Accommodating Deaf & Hard of Hearing Students