A Non-Technical Introduction to Social
Network Analysis
Barry Wellman
Founder, International Network
For Social Network Analysis
Centre for Urban & Community Studies
University of Toronto
Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1
[email protected]
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
NetLab
Three Ways to Look at Reality

Categories
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Groups
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All Possess One or More Properties as an Aggregate of
Individuals
Examples: Men, Developed Countries
(Almost) All Densely-Knit Within Tight Boundary
Thought of as a Solidary Unit (Really a Special Network)
Family, Workgroup, Community
Networks



Set of Connected Units: People, Organizations, Networks
Can Belong to Multiple Networks
Examples: Friendship, Organizational, Inter-Organizational,
World-System, Internet
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Nodes, Relationships & Ties

Nodes: A Unit That Possibly is Connected

Individuals, Households, Workgroups,Organizations, States
Relationships (A Specific Type of Connection)
A “Role Relationship”

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Ties (One or More Relationships)
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Friendship (with possibly many relationships)
Affiliations (Person – Organization)

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Gives Emotional Support
Sends Money To
Attacks
Works for IBM; INSNA Member; Football Team
One-Mode, Two-Mode Networks
4
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
A Network is More Than
The Sum of Its Ties

A Network Consists of One or More Nodes


Connected by One or More Ties


Could be One or More Relationships
That Form Distinct, Analyzable Patterns


Could be Persons, Organizations, Groups, Nations
Can Study Patterns of Relationships OR Ties
Emergent Properties (Simmel vs. Homans)
5
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
In a Sentence –
“To Discover How A, Who is in Touch with B and C,
Is Affected by the Relation Between B & C”
John Barnes
6
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
2 Minute History of Sunbelt Conference

Informal conferences in mid-late 1970s

Toronto (1974); Hawaii
Formalized as Sunbelt 1981 – annual
 Why “Sunbelt”?
 Normal Rotation: SE US, US West, Europe



Slovenia (2004); Charleston (Feb 2005), Vancouver?
Always Informal, But Serious Work
7
10 Minute History of INSNA

Founded by Barry Wellman in 1976-1977




Sabbatical Travel Carried Tales
Nick Mullins: Every “Theory Group” Has an Organizational
Leader
Owned by Wellman until 1988 as small business
Subsequent Coordinators/Presidents

Al Wolfe, Steve Borgatti, Martin Everett
• Steering Committee
• Non-Profit Constitution under Borgatti; Coordinator > President

Bill Richards President, 2003• Scott Feld VP; Katie Faust Treasurer; Frans Stokman, Euro. Rep.
• Our First Real Election


Grown from 175 to 400 Members
Many More on Listserv (Not Limited to Members)


Steve Borgatti maintains; unmoderated
Website: www.insna.sfu.ca -- being upgraded
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
10 Minute Overview - Journals

Wellman founded,edited,published Connections, 1977


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Lin Freeman founded, edits Social Networks, 1978?



Informal journal: “Useful” articles, news, gossip, grants,
abstracts, book summaries
Bill Richards, Tom Valente edit now
Formal journal: Refereed articles
Ronald Breiger now co-editor
David Krackhardt founded, edits J of Social Structure,
2000?



Online, Refereed
Lots of visuals
Articles Appear Occasionally when their time has come
9
10 Minute Overview – Key Books
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
Elizabeth Bott, Family & Social Network, 1957
J. Clyde Mitchell, Networks, Norms & Institutions, 1973
Holland & Leinhardt, Perspectives on Social Network
Research,1979s
S. D. Berkowitz, An Introduction to Structural Analysis, 1982
Knoke & Kuklinski, Network Analysis, 1983, Sage, low-cost
Charles Tilly, Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge
Comparisons, 1984
Wellman & Berkowitz, eds., Social Structures, 1988
David Knoke, Political Networks, 1990
John Scott, Social Network Analysis, 1991
Ron Burt, Structural Holes, 1992
Manuel Castells, The Rise of Network Society, 1996, 2000
Wasserman & Faust, Social Network Analysis, 1992
Nan Lin, Social Capital (monograph & reader), 2001
10 Minute Overview – Software
1) UCINet – Whole Network Analysis
1) Lin Freeman, Steve Borgatti, Martin Everett
2) MultiNet – Whole Network Analysis
1) + Nodal Characteristics
3) Structure – Ron Burt – Not Maintained
4) P*Star – Dyadic Analysis – Stan Wasserman
5) Krackplot – Network Visualization (Obsolete)
1) David Krackhardt, Jim Blythe
6) Pajek – Network Visualization – Supersedes Krackplot
1) Slovenia
7) Personal Network Analysis
1) SPSS/SAS – See Wellman, et al. “How To…” papers
10 Minute Overview – Data Basis

Small Group “Sociometry”1930s > (Moreno, Bonacich, Cook)

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Ethnographic Studies, 1950s > (Mitchell, Barnes)

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Organizational, Inter-Organizational, Inter-National Analyses
Political Structures, 1970s > (Tilly, Wallerstein)

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Formalist / Methods & Substantive Analysis
Survey & Archival Research, Whole Nets, 1970s >

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Community, Support & Social Capital, “Guanxi”
Mathematics & Simulation, 1970s > (Freeman, White)


Does Modernization > Disconnection?
Survey Research: Personal Networks, 1970s >


Finding People Who Enjoy Working Together
Evolved into Exchange Theory, Small Group Studies
Social Movements, Mobilization (anti Alienation)
World Systems (asymmetric structure > Globalization)
Computer Networks as Social Networks, late 1990s > (Sack)

Automated Data Collection
The Multiple Ways of Network Analysis

Method – The Most Visible Manifestation

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Data Gathering – see previous slide
Theory – Pattern Matters
Substance
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Add a Few Network Measures to a Study
Integrated Approach

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Community, Organizational, Inter-Organizational, Terrorist, World
System
An Add-On:


Misleading to Confuse Appearance with Reality
A Way of Looking at the World:
Theory, Data Collection, Data Analysis, Substantive Analysis
Not Actor-Network Theory
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The Social Network Approach


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The world is composed of networks
- not densely-knit, tightly-bounded groups
Networks provide flexible means of social
organization and of thinking about social
organization
Networks have emergent properties of structure
and composition
Networks are a major source of social capital
mobilizable in themselves and from their contents
Networks are self-shaping and reflexive
Networks scale up to networks of networks
14
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The Social Network Approach


Moving from a hierarchical society bound up in
little boxes to a network – and networking – society
Multiple communities / work networks

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
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Multiplicity of specialized relations
Management by networks
More alienation, more maneuverability
Loosely-coupled organizations / societies


Less centralized
The networked society
15
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Changing Connectivity:
Groups to Networks
Densely Knit > Sparsely-Knit
 Impermeable (Bounded) > Permeable
 Broadly-Based Solidarity >
Specialized Multiple Foci

16
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Networked Individualism

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Moving from a society bound up in little boxes to a
multiple network – and networking – society
Networks are a flexible means of social organization
Networks are a major source of social capital:
mobilizable in themselves & from their contents
Networks link:
 Persons
 Within organizations
 Between organizations and institutions
17
Little Boxes  Ramified Networks
**** Each in its Place  Mobility of People and Goods ****
 United Family
 Serial Marriage, Mixed Custody
 Shared Community 
Multiple, Partial Personal Nets
 Neighborhoods
 Dispersed Networks
 Voluntary Organizations  Informal Leisure
 Face-to-Face
 Computer-Mediated Communication
 Public Spaces
 Private Spaces
 Focused Work Unit
 Networked Organizations
 Job in a Company
 Career in a Profession
 Autarky
 Outsourcing
 Office, Factory
 Airplane, Internet, Cellphone
 Ascription
 Achievement
 Hierarchies
 Matrix Management
 Conglomerates
 Virtual Organizations/Alliances
 Cold War Blocs
 Fluid, Transitory Alliances
Little Boxes
Glocalizatio
n
Networked
Individualism
Barry Wellman co-editor
Social Structure:
A Network Approach
JAI-Elsevier Press 1998
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Ways of Looking at Networks

Whole Networks & Personal Networks


Focus on the System or on the Set of Individuals
Graphs & Matrices
We dream in graphs
 We analyze in matrices

20
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Whole Social Networks

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Comprehensive Set of Role Relationships in an Entire
Social System
Analyze Each Role Relationship – Can Combine
Composition: % Women; Heterogeneity; % Weak Ties
Structure: Pattern of Ties
Village, Organization, Kinship, Enclaves,
World-System
Copernican Airplane View
Typical Methods: Cliques, Blocks, Centrality, Flows
Examples: (1) What is the Real Structure of an
Organization?
(2) How Does Information Flow Through a Village?
21
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Cumulative GlobeNet Intercitation Through
2000
Howard White & Barry Wellman, 2003
“Does Citation Reflect Social Structure”
22
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Strongest Globenet Co-Citation,
Intercitation Links Thru 2000
23
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Duality of Persons & Groups


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People Link Groups
Groups Link People
An Interpersonal Net is an
Interorganizational Net
Ronald Breiger 1973
24
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The Dualities of Persons and Groups -- Graphs
25
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Dualities of Persons and Groups -- Matrices
26
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Dualities of Persons and Groups: Event-Event Matrix
27
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Neat Whole Network Methods

QAP

Regression of Matrices
• Example: Co-Citation (Intellectual Tie)
Predicts Better than Friendship (Social Tie)
To Inter-Citation


Clustering: High Density; Tight Boundaries (“Groups”)
Block Modeling


Similar Role Relationships, Not Necessarily Clusters
Canada & Mexico in Same Block – US Dominated
28
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Erickson, 1988: From a Matrix > . . .
29
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
. . . To a Block Model
30
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Costs of Whole Network Analysis
Requires a Roster of Entire Population
 Requires (Imposition of) a Social Boundary


This May Assume What You Want to Find
Hard to Handle Missing Data
 Needs Special Analytic Packages


Becoming Easier to Use
31
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Personal Social Networks
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Ptolemaic Ego-Centered View
Good for Unbounded Networks
Often Uses Survey Research
Example: (1) Do Densely-Knit Networks Provide
More Support? (structure)
(2) Do More Central People Get More Support?
(network)
(2) Do Women Provide More Support?
(composition)
(3) Do Face-to-Face Ties Provide More Support
Than Internet Ties? (relational)
(4) Are People More Isolated Now? (ego)
32
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Costs of Personal Network Studies




Concentrates on Strong Ties
Collecting Proper Data in Survey Takes Much Time
Ignores Ecological Juxtapositions
Hard to Aggregate from Personal Network to Whole
Network

Easier to Decompose Whole Network
• (Haythornthwaite & Wellman)

Often Relies on Respondents’ Reports
33
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Social Network Analysis: More Flavors

Diffusion of Information (& Viruses)

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Organizational Analyses
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“Real” Organization”
Knowledge Acquisition & Management
Inter-Organizational Analysis
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Flows Through Systems
Is There a Ruling Elite
Strategies, Deals
Networking: How People Network



As a Strategy
Unconscious Behavior
Are There Networking Personality Types?
34
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
SNA: Branching Out

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Social Movements
World-Systems Analyses
Cognitive Networks
Citation Networks
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Co-Citation
Inter-Citation
Applied Networks
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Terrorist Networks
Corruption Networks
35
Multilevel Analysis:
New Approach to an Old Problem

Switching and Combining Levels
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Consider Wider Range of Theories
Disentangles (& Avoids Nagging Confounding)
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Individual Agency, Dyadic Dancing,
Network Facilitation & Emergent Properties
Tie Effects
Network Effects
Contingent (Cross-Level) Effects
Interactions
Addresses Emergent Properties


Fundamental Sociological Issue
Simmel vs. Homans
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Multilevel Analysis – Tie Effects
Tie Strength: Stronger is More Supportive
 Workmates: Provide More Everyday Support

•(Multilevel Discovered This)
37
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Multilevel Analysis– Network Effects
 Network Size
•Not Only More Support from Entire Network
•More Probability of Support from Each Network
Member
 Mutual Ties (Reciprocity):
•Those Who Have More Ties with Network Members
Provide More Support
•Cross-Level Effect Stronger (and Attenuates)
Dyadic (Tie-Level) Effect
It’s Contribution to the Network, Not the Alter
38
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Multilevel Analysis:
Cross-Level, Interaction Effects

Kinship
No longer a solidary system
 Parent-(Adult) Child Interaction

•More Support From Each When > 1 Parent-Child Tie
•Single P-C Tie: 34%
•2+ P-C Ties, Probability of Support from Each: 54%
39
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Multilevel Interactions-- Accessibility
37% of Moderately Accessible Ties
Provide Everyday Support
 But If Overall Network Is
Moderately Supportive,
 54% of All Network Members
Provide Everyday Support
 Women More Supportive
In Nets with More Women

40
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The Internet in Everyday Life

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
Computer Networks as Social Networks
Key Questions
Community On and Off line

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Networked Life before the Internet
Netville: The Wired Suburb
Large Web Surveys: National Geographic
Work On and Off line
Towards Networked Individualism, or
 The Retreat to Little Boxes
41
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Social Affordances of New Forms of
Computer-Mediated Connectivity






Bandwidth
Ubiquity – Anywhere, Anytime
Convergence – Any Media Accesses All
Portability – Especially Wireless
Globalized Connectivity
Personalization
42
Research Questions
Ties: Does the Internet support all types of ties?
1.
1.
2.
3.
Social Capital: Has the Internet increased, decreased,
or multiplied contact – at work, in society?
2.
1.
2.
3.
3.
Weak and Strong?
Instrumental and Socio-Emotional?
Online-Only or Using Internet & Other Media (F2F, Phone)?
Interpersonally – Locally
Interpersonally – Long Distance
Organizationally
GloCalization: Has the map of the world dissolved so
much that distance does not matter?
Has the Internet brought spatial and social peripheries
closer to the center?
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Research Questions (cont’d)
4.
5.
Structure: Does the Internet facilitate working in
loosely-coupled networks rather than dense,
tight groups?
Knowledge Management: How do people find
and acquire usable knowledge in networked and
virtual organizations
44
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Guiding Research Principles

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Substitute systematic data analysis for hype
Do field studies, not lab experiments
Combine statistical with observational info.
Study the use of each media in larger context
Work with other disciplines
Analyze Existing Uses
Develop New Uses
45
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Studies of Community
On and Off-Line





Pre-Internet Networked Communities
“Netville”: The Wired Suburb
National Geographic Web Survey
1998, 2001
Other Internet Community Studies



Barry Wellman, “The Network Community”
Introduction to Networks in the Global Village
Westview Press, 1999
46
Source: Dan Heap
Parliamentary
Campaign 1992
(NDP)
Toronto in the Continental Division of Labor
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Physical Place and Cyber Place
 Door
to Door, Place to Place,
 Person to Person, Role to Role
 Barry Wellman, “Changing Connectivity: A Future
History of Y2.03K.” Sociological Research Online 4,
4, February 2000:
http://www.socresonline.org.uk/4/wellman.html
 Barry Wellman, “Physical Place and Cyber Place:
The Rise of Networked Individualism.” International
Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 (2001):
June.
48
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Door To Door
 Old Workgroups/ Communities Based on

Propinquity, Kinship
Pre-Industrial Villages, Wandering Bands
All Observe and Interact with All
 Deal with Only One Group
 Knowledge Comes Only From Within the
Group – and Stays Within the Group

49
Place To Place
(Phones, Networked PCs, Airplanes, Expressways, RR, Transit)
Home, Office Important Contexts,


Ramified & Sparsely Knit: Not Local Solidarities

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Not Intervening Space
Not neighborhood-based
Not densely-knit with a group feeling
Partial Membership in Multiple Workgroups/ Communities
Often Based on Shared Interest
Connectivity Beyond Neighborhood, Work Site
Household to Household /
Work Group to Work Group
Domestication, Feminization of Community
Deal with Multiple Groups
Knowledge Comes From Internal & External Sources
“Glocalization”: Globally Connected, Locally Invested
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Person To Person
(Cell Phones, Wireless Computing)

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
Little Awareness of Context
Individual, Not Household or Work Group
Personalized Networking
Tailored Media Interactions
Private Desires Replace Public Civility
Less Caring for Strangers, Fewer Weak Ties
Online Interactions Linked with Offline
Dissolution of the Internal: All Knowledge is External
51
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Role To Role
Tailored Communication Media
 Little Awareness of Whole Person
 Portfolios of Specialized Relationships


Boutiques, not Variety Stores
Cycling among Specialized

Communities / Work Groups
Role-Based Media Interactions
 Management by Network

52
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
“Netville”: The Wired Suburb
Leading-Edge Development Exurban Toronto
 Mid-Priced, Detached Tract Homes
 Bell Canada, etc. Field Trial
 10Mb/sec, ATM-Based, No-Cost Internet Services
 Ethnographic Fieldwork


Hampton Lived There for 2 Years
Survey Research

Wants, Networks, Activities
53
The entrance to Netville
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
View of Netville
55
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
“Wired” and “Non-Wired” Neighboring in Netville
Mean Number of
Neighbors:
Ratio
Signif.
Level
(p <)
8.4
3.0
.00
6.3
3.1
2.0
.06
Invited into
Own Home
3.9
2.7
1.4
.14
Invited into
Neighbors’ Homes
3.9
2.5
1.6
.14
# of Intervening Lots
to Known Neighbors
7.5
5.6
1.4
.08
(37)
NonWired
(20)
Recognized by Name
25.5
Talk with Regularly
Wired
Wired/
NonWired
56
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Neighboring Ties
Wired Residents
 Recognize More
 Talk with More
 Invite More Into their Homes


And are Invited by Them
Neighbor in a Wider Area
57
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Long-Distance Ties (>50 km/30 mi )
Compared to one year before moving to Netville,
Wired Residents Have More Than Non-Wired:
 Social Contact – especially over 500 km
 Help Given (e.g., childcare, home repair)
 Help Received from Friends and Relatives

Especially between 50 and 500 km
58
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Long-Distance Ties
Wired Residents Say the Internet:
Makes it Easier to Communicate
 Fosters Greater Volume of Communication
 Introduces New Modes of Communication
 Acquire More Diverse Knowledge

59
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
“Netville”: The Wired Suburb
With Keith Hampton (MIT)
“Netville Online and Offline: Observing and Surveying a
Wired Suburb.” American Behavioral Scientist 43, 3
(Nov 1999): 475-92.
“Examining Community in the Digital Neighborhood” Pp.
475-92 in Digital Cities: Technologies, Experiences and
Future Perspectives, edited by Toru Ishida and Katherine
Isbister. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2000.
“Long Distance Community in the Network Society”
American Behavioral Scientist, 45 (Nov 2001): 477-97
“How the Internet Builds Local Community”.
City and Community, 2001
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
National Geographic
Survey 2000 and Survey 2001
“Survey 2000” -- Fall 1998
 35,000 Americans
 5,000 Canadians
 15,000 “Others”
 “Survey 2001” -- Fall 2001, N > 6,000

61
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Survey 2000 Research Questions






Are There Systematic Social Variations in
Who Uses the Internet – for What?
Does the Internet Multiply, Add To, or Decrease
Interpersonal Ties?
Does the Internet Multiply, Add To, or Decrease
Organizational Involvement?
Does the Internet Increase, Decrease or Transform
Community Commitment?
Does the Internet Increase Knowledge?
Are There Variations by National Context?
62
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Figure 2a: Frequency of Contact with Near-by Kin (Days/Year)
250
208
200
193
191
209
201
228
150
117
100
84
113
67
116
118
65
64
116
114
63
58
23
49
7
7
50
6
6
0
1
5
Never
Rarely
13
6
6
Monthly
6
Weekly
Few times/wk
Daily
Email Use
Total
Phone
F2F
Email
Letters
Percentage of Different Media
Used for Contact with Near-By Kin
Email
17%
F2F
27%
Letters
3%
Phone
53%
63
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Figure 3a: Frequency of Contact with Near-By Friends (Days/Year)
400
350
345
300
250
248
207
200
150
100
236
136
106
109
102
97
87
76
72
5
19
6
50
0
194
192
1 5
6
5
Never
Rarely
110
124
120
83
92
36
9
Mont hly
Weekly
7
Few t imes/wk
9
Daily
Emai l Use
Tot al
Phone
F2F
Em ail
Let t ers
P e rc e n t a g e o f M e d i a : U s e d f o r C o n t a c t w i t h N e a rB y F ri e n d s
Email
29%
Let t ers
3%
P hone
39%
F2F
29%
64
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Figure 4a: Frequency of Contact with Far-away Kin (Days/Year)
140
132
120
100
91
80
60
40
20
0
73
53
35
10
7
1
Never
71
57
56
39
37
35
32
10
7
4
Rarely
F2F
18
9
10
87
Monthly
Weekly
Email Use
Phone
42
34
Letters
Email
9
Few times/ wk
10
9
Daily
Total
Percentage of Media Used for Contact with
Far-Away Kin
Letters
8%
Email
49%
Phone
35%
F2F
8%
65
Barry Wellman
Figure
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
5a: Frequency of Contact with Far-Away Friends (Days/Year)
140
128
120
100
86
80
63
60
40
48
36
35
28
20
0
19
10
7
0
Never
17
7
6
1
4
Rarely
17
17
8
6
15
7
6
Monthly
Weekly
29
25
19
8
7
Few times/ wk
9
8
Daily
Email Use
Total
Phone
F2F
Email
Letters
Percentage of Media Used for Contact with
Far-Away Friends
Letters
7%
Phone
22%
F2F
9%
Email
62%
66
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Fishbowls and Switchboards
 Media Use and Choice

Cerise
 Indigo


Networked Scholarly Organizations
Technet
 Globenet


Teleworking: The Home-Work Nexus
67
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The “Fishbowl” Group Office:
Door-to-Door





All Work Together in Same Room
All Visible to Each Another
All have Physical Access to Each Other
All can see when a Person is Interruptible
All can see when One Person is with Another




No Real Secrets
No Secret Meetings
Anyone can Observe Conversations & Decide to Join
Little Alert to Others Approaching
68
Barry Wellman










www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Neighbors have Hi Visual & Aural Awareness
Limited Number of Participants
Densely-Knit (most directly connected)
Tightly Bounded (most interactions within group)
Frequent Contact
Recurrent Interactions
Long-Duration Ties
Cooperate for Clear, Collective purposes
Sense of Group Solidarity (name, collective identity)
Social Control by Supervisor & Group
69
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The “Switchboard” Network Office:
Person-to-Person






Each Works Separately
Office Doors Closable for Privacy
Glass in Doors Indicate Interruptibility
If Doors Locked, Must Knock
If Doors Open, Request Admission
Difficult to learn if Person is Dealing with Others Unless
Door is Open
Large Number of Potential Interactors


Average Person knows > 1,000
Strangers & Friends of Friends May also be Contacted
70
Barry Wellman

Sparsely-Knit








Most Don’t Know Each Other
Or Not Aware of Mutual Contact
No Detailed Knowledge of Indirect Ties
Loosely-Bounded


www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Many Different People Contacted
Many Different Workplaces
Can Link with Outside Organizations
Each Functions Individually
Collective Activities Transient, Shifting Sets
Subgroups, Cleavages, Secrets Can Develop
71
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
“Cerise” / “Indigo” CSCW
Using Video/ Email at Work
 R&D Work:



Caroline Haythornthwaite & Laura Garton


Faculty, Students, Programmers, Admin.
Collaborators
Survey and Ethnography
72
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
CSCW Research Questions





How do Work, Social Roles Affect Media Use?
Is Email Used Only for Specialized Communication?
Does Email Use:
Replace, Add To, or Increase F2F, Phone Contact?
Does Email Move Spatial/Social Peripheries
Socially Closer?
Does Email Foster Networked Organization?
73
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Separate Information Exchange Roles
Derived from Factor Analysis of Specific Exchanges

Work
Giving Work
 Receiving Work
 Collaborative Writing
 Computer Programming


Social
Sociability
 Major Emotional Support

74
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Communication Roles
 Scheduled
 Classes,
Meetings
Research Meetings
 Email
 Unscheduled
 Less
 Media
Meetings
Frequent, More Wide-Ranging
that Afford Control of Interactions
 Media
associated with Group Norms
75
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Social Roles
Sociability, major emotional support

Media Use follows Pairs’ Interaction Patterns
Unscheduled Meetings for Close Friends
 Unscheduled, Scheduled, Email for Work-Only

Media that Affords Spontaneity
 Social Messages Tag on Work Messages


Work-Only Pairs; Formal Work-Role Pairs
76
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The Average Pair:

Specialized:


Via 1 or 2 Media


Exchanges 3/6 Types of Information
Unscheduled F2F, Scheduled F2F Meetings, or Email
Mean = 5.2 Information-Media Links / Pair
77
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Conclusions: The Cerise Study

Away from Individual Choice, Congruency


Social Affordances Only Create Possibilities
Email Used for All Roles:

Work, Knowledge, Sociability and Support
Email Lowers Status Distances
 Email Network Not a Unique Social Network

Intermixed with Face-to-Face (low use of phone, video, fax)
 Reduces Temporal as well as Spatial Distances

78
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The More Email, the More F2F Contact
 The More Intense Work & Friendship Tie

The More Frequent Email
 Independent Predictors: Friendship a bit Stronger


The More Intense Work & Friendship Tie
The More Types of Media Used to Communicate
 Independent Predictors: Friendship Stronger


F2F the Medium of choice in weaker ties.

In Stronger Ties, Email Supplements F2F
79
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Indigo: Work Interaction Time 1
Work Interaction (All Media) Prior to Telepresence
80
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Indigo: Work Interaction Time 3
Work Interaction (All Media) 14 months after Telepresence Intro
Greater Decentralization
81
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
“Cerise” / “Indigo” Papers
 Caroline Haythornthwaite and Barry Wellman, “Work,
Friendship and Media Use for Information Exchange in a
Networked Organization.”Journal of the American Society for
Information Science 49 (1998): 1101-14
 Marilyn Mantei, Ronald Baecker, William Buxton, Thomas
Milligan, Abigail Sellen and Barry Wellman. "Experiences in the
Use of a Media Space." 1992. Pp 372-78 in Groupware, edited
by David Marca and Geoffrey Bock. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE
Computer Society Press, 1992.
 Caroline Haythornthwaite, Barry Wellman & Marilyn Mantei
“Work Relationships and Media Use.” Group Decision and
Negotiation 4 (1995): 193-211.
 Caroline Haythornthwaite, Barry Wellman & Laura Garton,
“Work and Community Via Computer-Mediated
Communication.” Pp. 199-226 in Psychology and the Internet,
edited by Jayne Gackenbach. San Diego: Academic Press,
1998.
82
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Netting Scholars:
Communities of Practice & Inquiry

Emmanuel Koku, Nancy Nazer & Barry Wellman
“Netting Scholars: Online and Offline.”
American Behavioral Scientist, 44 ,10 (June, 2001): 1750-72

Emmanuel Koku & Barry Wellman
“Scholarly Networks as Learning Communities”
In Designing Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning,
Edited by Sasha Barab & Rob Kling.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002
83
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Comparison of 2 Scholarly Networks
Year Founded
Globenet
Founded in 1991-93
Technet
Founded in 1995-96
Size
Membership
16 (13 men, 3 women) 32 (22 men, 9 women)
Invitational: merit,
Voluntary
interdisciplinary, niche
Location
Activities
Canada, US, UK
3 Meetings /year
Production of a book
Funding
1 Ontario university
Frequent seminars,
conferences
Joint courses, retreats
9 Senior Fellows get full Members not funded by
salaries
Technet
7 Associate Fellows get Many receive other
partial funding
research grants
84
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Globenet members use both F2F & email
to get their joint projects done. The
dispersion of members across Canada,
U.S. & U.K. leads them to use email as
a collaborative tool.
85
Barry Wellman
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.
For Globenetters, the distance
between members of
scholarly pairs is unrelated to
the frequency of their email
contact.
Except when they’re in the
same building
86
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Friendship is the strongest predictor to
face-to-face & email contact in
Technet & Globenet
87
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The scholarly relationship of
collaborating on a project is the
second strongest predictor of
frequent F2F contact & frequent
email contact.
It & friendship are the only 2
significant predictors.
88
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Congruent with the theories of
media use: Tasks requiring
complex negotiations preferably
conducted via richer F2F
contacts.
Technet members use F2F contact
when possible.
Email fills in temporal &
informational gaps. Those
Technet members who often read
each other’s work, communicate
more by email.
89
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Where F2F contact is easily done, it
is the preferred medium for
collaborative work.
However, colleagues easily share
their ideas and their work – or
announce its existence – by email
and web postings.
They do not have to walk over to
each other’s offices to do this,
although Canadian winters can
inhibit in-person visits
90
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Sources of Prominence in Globenet

External Sources Important for Gaining Entrance




Scholarly Status
Niche
Plus Perceived Internal Congeniality
Internal Sources Important Within Network




Knights of the Roundtable
Formal Role
Scholarly Communication within Network
Number of Friendships
91
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Summary: Ties

Internet Supports Strong & Weak Ties


Internet Supports Instrumental & Socioemotional Ties


Evidence: Netville, National Geographic, Netting Scholars,
Cerise, Telework
Ties Rarely are Internet-Only


Evidence: Netville, Netting Scholars, Cerise, Telework
Evidence: Netville, National Geographic, Netting Scholars,
Cerise, Telework
Internet Replaces Fax & May Reduce Phone –


Not F2F
Evidence: Netville, Netting Scholars, Cerise
92
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Summary: Local Social Capital

Multiplied Number & Range of Neighbors


Increased Contact with Existing Neighbors –
Email Adds On to Same Levels of F2F, Phone


Evidence: Netville
Evidence: National Geographic, Berkeley, Netville?
Demand for Local Information

Evidence: Netville, Berkeley, Small City Study
93
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Summary: Long Distance Ties

Increased Contact with Long Distance Ties –
Email Adds On to Same Levels of F2F, Phone
1. Friends More than Kin
2. Long-Distance Ties More than Local
3. Post Used Only for Rituals (Birthdays, Christmas)

Evidence: National Geographic, Netville
94
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Summary: Long Distance Ties

Increased Contact with Long Distance Ties –
Email Adds On to Same Levels of F2F, Phone
1. Friends More than Kin
2. Long-Distance Ties More than Local
3. Post Used Only for Rituals (Birthdays, Christmas)

Evidence: National Geographic, Netville
95
Summary:
Computer-Mediated Communication





Not only supports online “virtual” communities
Supports and maintains existing ties: strong & weak
Increases connectivity with weak ties
Supports both local and non-local social ties
In Neighborhood, High-speed Network:



Increases local network size
Increases amount of local contact
Long-Distance, High-Speed Network



Increases amount of contact
Increases support exchanged
Facilitates contact with geographical periphery
Summary: The GloCalization Paradox




Surf and Email Globally
Stay Wired at Office/Home to be Online
Desire for Local/Distant Services and Information
Internet Supplements/Augments F2F




Doesn’t Replace It;
Rarely Used Exclusively
Media Choice? By Any Means Available
Many Emails are Local –
Within the Workgroup or Community

Local Becomes Just Another Interest
Evidence: Netville, National Geographic, Small Cities,
Berkeley, Netting Scholars, Cerise, Indigo, Telework
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Summary: Social Network Structure

Internet Aids Both Direct & Indirect Connections

Knowledge Acquisition & Management
• Accessing Friends of Friends
• Forwarding & Folding In: Making Indirect Ties Direct Ties




Social and Spatial Peripheries Closer to the Center
Shift from Spatial Propinquity to Shared Interests
Shifting, Fluid Structures
Networked, Long-Distance Coordination & “Reports”
98
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Conclusions: Changing Connectivity



By Any Means Available
Door-to-Door > Place-to-Place
> Person-to-Person Connectivity
Less Solidary Households




New Forms of Community


Dual Careers
Multiple Schedules
Multiple Marriages
Partial Membership in Multiple Communities
Networked & Virtual Work Relationships
99
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Conclusions:
Role-to-Role Relationships
Partial Communities of:
Shared, Specialized Interest
 Importance of Informal Network Capital

Production
 Reproduction
 Externalities


Bridging and Bonding Ties
100
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Conclusions:
How a Network Society Looks
Multiplicity of Specialized Relations
 Management by Networks
 More Uncertainty, More Maneuverability
 Boutiques, not General Stores
 Less Palpable than Traditional Solidarities
Need Navigation Tools


An Electronic Group is Virtually a Social Network." Pp. 179205 in Culture of the Internet, edited by Sara Kiesler.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997.
101
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Conclusions: Shift to New Kinds
Of Community & Workgroups






Partial Membership in Multiple Networks
Multiple Reports
Long-Distance Relationships
Transitory Work Relationships
Each Person Operates Own Network
Online Interactions Linked with Offline


Status, Power, Social Characteristics Important
Sparsely-Knit: Fewer Direct Connections Than Door-To-Door -Need for Institutional Memory & Knowledge Management


IKNOW (Nosh Contractor) – Network Tracer
ContactMap (Bonnie Nardi & Steve Whittaker) – Network Accumulator
102
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Conclusions:
The Rise of Personalized Networking
 Individual Agency Constrained by Nets:
 Personalization rather than Group Behavior
 Interpersonal Ties Dancing Dyadic Duets:
 Bandwidth
 Sparsely-Knit, Physically-Dispersed Ties
 Social Networks
 Multiple, Ad Hoc
 Wireless Portability
103
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Design Considerations for a Networked
Society – Connecting
Open List
 Indicate Presence, Awareness, Availability
 Prioritize from Deductive, Inductive &
Ad Hoc Data
 Prioritize by Locale
 Searchable and Sortable List


By a Variety of Attributes
104
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Design Considerations for a
Networked Society – Autonomy
Incorporate Third Parties
 Quickly Set Up & Dissolve Work Teams
 Privacy Protection

Control Who is Aware of the Interaction
 Alert if Others Lurking
 File Access


Cross-Platform Communication
105
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Three Modes of Interaction
Social Structure
Phenomena
Little Boxes
Glocalization
Networked Individualism
Metaphor
Fishbowl
Core-Periphery
Switchboard
Unit of Analysis
Village, Band, Shop, Office
Household, Work, Unit,
Multiple Networks
Networked Individual
Social Organization
Groups
Home Bases
Network of Networks
Networked Individualism
Era
Traditional
Contemporary
Emerging
106
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Boundaries
Phenomena
Little Boxes
Glocalization
Networked Individualism
Physical Context
Dominance of immediate context
Relevance of immediate context
Ignorance of immediate context
Modality
Door-to-Door
Place-to-Place
Person-to-Person
Predominant Mode of
Communication
Face-to-Face
Wired phone
Internet
Mobile phone,
Wireless modem
Spatial Range
Local
GloCal = Local + Global
Global
Locale
All in common household and work
spaces
Common household and work spaces
for core + external periphery
External
Awareness and Availability
All visible and audible to all
High awareness of availability
Core immediately visible, audible;
Little awareness of others’ availability - must be contacted
Little awareness of availability
Must be contacted
Visibility and audibility must be negotiated
Access Control
Doors wide open to in-group members
Walled off from others
External gate guarded
Doors ajar within and between
networks
Look, knock and ask
Doors closed
Access to others by request
Knock and ask
Physical Access
All have immediate access to all
Core have immediate access
Contacting others requires a journey or
telecommunications
Contact requires a journey or
telecommunications
Permeability
Impermeable wall around unit
Household and workgroup have strong
to weak outside connections
Individual has strong to weak connections
107
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Boundaries (continued)
Phenomena
Little Boxes
Glocalization
Networked Individualism
Interruptibility
High: (Open Door)
Norm of Interruption
Mixed: Core interruptible
Others require deliberate requests
Answering machine
Knocking on door that may be ajar or
closed
Norm of Interruption within immediate
network only
Low: Contact must be requested
May be avoided or refused
Prioritizing voice mail
Internet filter
Knocking on door that may be ajar or
closed
Norm of interruption within immediate
network only
Observability
High: All can see when other group
members are interacting
Mixed: Core can observe core
Periphery cannot observe core or
interactions with other network
members
Low: Interactions with other network
members rarely visible
Privacy
Low information control:
Few secrets
Status/Position becomes important
capital
Low information control:
Few secrets for core
Variable information control for
periphery
Material resources and network
connections become important capital
High information control:
Many secrets
Information and ties become important
capital
Joining In
Anyone can observe interactions
Anyone can join
Interactions outside the core rarely
observable
Difficult to join
Interactions rarely observable
Difficult to join
Alerts
Little awareness of others approaching
Open, unlocked doors
High prior awareness of periphery’s
desire to interact
Telephone ring, doorbell
High prior awareness of others’ desire to
interact
Formal requests
108
Interpersonal Interactions
Phenomena
Little Boxes
Glocalization
Networked Individualism
Predominant Basis of
Interaction
Ascription (What you are born into)
e.g., Gender, ethnicity
“Protect Your Base Before You Attack”
(attributed to Mao)
Free agent
Frequency of Contact
High within group
Moderate within core;
Low to moderate outside of core
Variable, low with most;
Moderate overall
Recurrency
Recurrent interactions within group
Recurrent interactions within core;
Intermittent with each network
member
Low with most others;
Moderate overall
Duration
Long duration ties:
cradle-to-grave; employed for life
Long duration for household core
(except for divorce);
Short duration otherwise
Short duration ties
Domesticity
Cradle-to-grave
Mom and Dad
Dick and Jane
Long-term partners
Serial monogamy
Dick lives with divorced parent
Changing partners; Living together; Singles;
Single parents;
Nanny cares for Jane
Scheduling
Drop-In anytime
Drop-in within household, work core;
Appointments otherwise
Scheduled appointments
Transaction Speed
Slow
Variable in core; Fast in periphery
Fast
Autonomy & Proactivity
Low autonomy
High reactivity
Mixed: Autonomy within household &
work cores
High proactivity & autonomy with
others
High autonomy
High proactivity
Tie Maintenance
Group maintains ties
Core groups maintain internal ties;
Other ties must be actively maintained
Ties must be actively maintained, one-byone
Predictability
Predictability, certainty and security
within group interactions
Moderate predictability, certainty and
security within core;
Interactions with others less
predictable, certain and secure
Unpredictability, uncertainty, insecurity,
contingency, opportunity
Latency
Leaving is betrayal;
Re-Entry difficult
Ability to reestablish relationships
quickly with network members not
seen in years
Ability to reestablish relationships quickly
with network members not seen in years
Social Networks
Phenomena
Little Boxes
Glocalization
Networked Individualism
Number of Social Circles
Few: Household, kin, work
Multiple: Core household, work unit;
Multiple sets of friends, kin, work
associates, neighbors
Multiple: Dyadic or network ties with
household, work unit, friends, kin, work
associates, neighbors
Maneuverability
Little choice of social circles
Choice of core and
other social circles
Choice of social circles
Trust Building
Enforced by group
Betrayal of one is betrayal of all
Core enforces trust
Networked members depend on
cumulative reciprocal exchanges and
ties with mutual others
Dependent on cumulative reciprocal
exchanges and ties with mutual others
Social Support
Broad (“multistranded”)
Broad household and work core;
Specialized kin, friends, other work
Specialized
Social Integration
By groups only
Cross-cutting ties between networks
integrate society;
Core is the common hub
Cross-cutting ties between networks
integrate society
Cooperation
Group cooperation
Joint activity for clear, collective
purposes
Core cooperation;
Otherwise: short-term alliances,
tentatively reinforced by trust building
and ties with mutual others
Independent schedules
Transient alliances with shifting sets of
others
Knowledge
All aware of most information
Information open to all within unit
Secret to outsiders
Core Knows Most Things
Variable awareness of and access to
what periphery knows
Variable awareness of and access to what
periphery knows
Social Control
Superiors and group exercise
tight control
Moderate control by core household
and workgroup, with some spillover to
interactions with periphery
Fragmented control within specialized
networks
Adherence to norms must be
internalized by individuals
Subgroups, cleavages
Partial, fragmented control within
specialized networks
Adherence to norms must be internalized
by individuals
Resources
Conserves resources
Acquires resources for core units
Acquires resources for self
Basis of Success
Getting along
Position within group
Getting along
Position within core; Networking
Networking
Filling structural holes between networks
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Norms and Perceptions
Phenomena
Little Boxes
Glocalization
Networked Individualism
Socialization
Obey group elders
Obey your parents; cherish your
spouse; nurture your children;
Defer to your boss; work and play well
with colleagues and friends
Develop strategies and tactics
for self-advancement
Sense of Solidarity
High group solidarity
Collective identity
Collective name
Moderate solidarity within core
household and workgroup,
Vitiated by many ties to multiple
peripheries
Sense of being an autonomous individual
Fuzzy identifiable networks
Loyalty
Particularistic:
High group loyalty
Public and private spheres:
Moderate loyalty to home base
takes precedence over weak loyalty
elsewhere
Self
Global weak and divided loyalties
Conflict Handling
Revolt, coup
Irrevocable departure
Back-biting
Keeping distance
Avoidance
Exit
Commitment to
Network Members
High within groups
High within core;
Variable elsewhere
Variable
Zeitgeist
Communitarian
Conflicted
Existential
111
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
After 9-11: Retreat to Little Boxes?
Back from Networks to Little Boxes?





Re-establishing Tight Boundaries
Knowledge Workers’ Spatial Mobility Hindered
Goods Made and Sold Locally
Distrust of Outsiders
Drawing into Densely-Knit Groups




Gated Communities
Gated Work: All Work Done on Premises – Autarky
Direct Ties, F2F Ties Replace
Indirect, Computer Mediated Ties
Network Analysis Used by Terrorists & Governments
112
Little Boxes  Ramified Networks
**** Each in its Place  Mobility of People and Goods ****
 United Family
 Serial Marriage, Mixed Custody
 Shared Community
 Multiple, Partial Personal Nets
 Neighborhoods
 Dispersed Networks
 Voluntary Organizations  Informal Leisure
 Face-to-Face
 Computer-Mediated Communication
 Public Spaces
 Private Spaces
 Focused Work Unit
 Networked Organizations
 Job in a Company
 Career in a Profession
 Autarky
 Outsourcing
 Office, Factory
 Airplane, Internet, Cellphone
 Ascription
 Achievement
 Hierarchies
 Matrix Management
 Conglomerates
 Virtual Organizations/Alliances
 Cold War Blocs
 Fluid, Transitory Alliances
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Edited Books

The Internet in Everyday Life




Networks in the Global Village


Caroline Haythornthwaite, co-editor
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers 2002
Preliminary: American Behavioral Scientist, Nov 2001
Boulder, CO: Westview Press 1999
Social Structures: A Network Approach




S. D. Berkowitz, co-editor
Cambridge University Press, 1988;
Reprinted: Elsevier-JAI Press, 1997
Reprinted: CSPI Press, Toronto, 2003
114
Barry Wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Recent Integrative Articles

“Computer Networks as Social Networks”
Science 293 (Sept 14, 2001): 2031-34.

“Designing the Internet for a Networked Society.”
Communications of the ACM, April 2002: in press.
Research Supported By:
Institute of Knowledge Management,
CITO, Mitel, National Science Foundation (US),
Social Science & Humanities Research Council of Canada
115
Thank You -- Barry Wellman
Director, NetLab
Centre for Urban & Community Studies
University of Toronto
Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1
[email protected]
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
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Networks for Newbies - Computing in the Humanities and Social