Son oraciones subordinadas adjetivas porque: ◦ Son parte de una oración principal ◦ Funcionan como un adjetivo. ◦ El nexo es un pronombre relativo. Supongamos la oración simple: The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo The man came yesterday. The man is tall. The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo Aquí hay dos ideas sobre un mismo elemento: The man The man came yesterday. The man is tall. En lugar de poner un adjetivo delante del nombre, podríamos unirlas de la siguiente manera: The man WHO is tall came yesterday 22.214.171.124.5.- Donde: El nexo de relativo WHO = THE MAN The man came yesterday es la oración principal WHO is tall es la de relativo WHO es el pronombre nexo de relativo The man es el antecedente. La oración The man WHO is tall came yesterday es una oración poco probable porque podemos reducir la parte “WHO IS TALL” a un solo adjetivo “TALL”, con lo que simplificamos, y por lo tanto preferimos decir: The tall man came yesterday Sin embargo, si queremos unir estas dos informaciones 1.- The man came yesterday 2.- The man bought the red car. en una sola oración, no podemos usar un adjetivo que exprese una idea tan compleja como “The man bought the red car”, y entonces se hace necesario utilizar la oración de relativo: The man WHO BOUGHT THE RED CAR came yesterday. Dado que las oraciones de relativo son informaciones sobre un sustantivo (ANTECEDENTE), aquéllas siempre irán inmediatamente detrás de éste, y el orden de dichas oraciones siempre será ANTECEDENTE + This is THE MAN PRONOMBRE RELATIVO THAT + ORACIÓN DE RELATIVO I SAW YESTERDAY Hay dos tipos de Relative Sentences, dependiendo del carácter del antecedente, lo que determinará la función de la oración de relativo. Non-defining: My father, who is 47, likes football very much. CARACTERÍSTICAS: - Si quitamos la oración de relativo who is 47, el antecedente sigue estando definido. - Van entre comas. - Siempre llevan el nexo de relativo (WHO, en este caso). - Se usan, sobre todo, en lenguaje escrito. Hay dos tipos de Relative Sentences, dependiendo del carácter del antecedente, lo que determinará la función de la oración de relativo. Defining: There are 20 teachers. The teacher who is 47 likes football very much. CARACTERÍSTICAS: - Si quitamos la oración de relativo who is 47, el antecedente no estaría definido. - No llevan comas. - A veces prescinden del nexo de relativo. - Se usan en lenguaje oral y escrito. THE PROBLEM IS… Comparadas con el español, las oraciones de relativo en inglés presentan algunas diferencias: 1.- En español, siempre aparece el pronombre de relativo; en inglés, a veces no. La casa que compraste era muy cara. The house --- you bought was very expensive. 2.- Cuando hay preposiciones en la oración de relativo, en español aparece delante del pronombre de relativo; en inglés, habitualmente no aparece delante del pronombre de relativo. Hay que saber cuándo ocurre esto y dónde se coloca esa preposición. El profesor con el que estabas hablando era Bob. The teacher -------- you were talking to was Bob. THE PROBLEM IS… Lo que es necesario aprender: I. Defining relative sentences (sin comas). II. Definig relative sentences with preposition. III. WHOSE. IV. Non-defining relative sentences (con comas), con o sin preposición. V. “Lo que” = What ---“Lo que” = WHICH. VI. WHERE – WHEN -WHY Definition As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved. Example: Elephants who marry mice are very unusual. In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear that we are only talking the ones who marry mice. Punctuation Commas are not used in defining relative clauses. Relative pronouns Sometimes the relative pronouns are ommitted... OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN The policeman was really tall. Two possible relative sentences: The policeman came yesterday. SUBJECT Mary saw the policeman. OBJECT (C.Dto.) The policeman who came yesterday was really tall. The policeman (who) Mary saw was really tall. MAIN CLAUSE RELATIVE CLAUSE LINK RESULTING SENTENCES PEOPLE SUBJECT: WHO THE MAN WHO CAME YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THE MAN BOUGHT A BOOK THE MAN CAME YESTERDAY THAT THE MAN THAT CAME YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK PEOPLE OBJECT: WHO THE MAN WHO I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THE MAN BOUGHT A BOOK I SAW THE MAN YESTERDAY THAT THE MAN THAT I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK XXXXX THE MAN I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THE CAR WHICH BROKE DOWN WAS VERY OLD THINGS SUBJECT: WHICH THE CAR WAS VERY OLD THE CAR BROKE DOWN THAT THINGS OBJECT: WHICH THE CAR WAS VERY OLD I BOUGHT THE CAR THAT THE CAR THAT I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD XXXXX THE CAR I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD THE CAR THAT BROKE DOWN WAS VERY OLD THE CAR WHICH I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space XXXX-WHICH-THAT 1 The bike _________________________ I had left at the gate had disappeared. XXXX-WHICH-THAT 2 The shoes ____________________ I bought XXXX-WHICH-THAT were the ones ___________________ I tried on first XXXX-WHICH-THAT 3 The bag ___________________ the robbers forgot was found full Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space XXXX-WHICH-THAT 4 The medicine _________________the doctor gave me had no effect at all WHO-THAT 5 The man ________________ couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat XXXX-WHICH-THAT 6 I really liked that tea _____________you made me this morning Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 7 What was the name of the boy WHO-THAT _____________ gave you the money? XXXX-WHICH-THAT 8 The flight __________________Joe was going to take was cancelled WHO-THAT 9 The person ______________ phoned didn’t leave a message. Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space XXXX-WHICH-THAT 10 The guidebook ___________________we bought explained everything. WHICH-THAT 11 The car ____________ broke down was Peter’s. WHO-THAT 12 The students _______________ like English will pass the exam. Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 0 She chose the books. She wanted to buy them. She chose the books she wanted to buy. 1 We ate the sandwiches. Jack made them. We ate the sandwiches Jack made. Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 2 I’m doing some work. I have to finish it today. I’m doing some work I have to finish today. 3 She’s an old woman. I often see her.. She’s the old woman I often see. Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 4 He’s an actor. A lot of people like him.. He’s the actor a lot of people like. 5 The picture was hanging on that wall. It was awful. The picture which/that was hanging on that wall was awful. Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 6 Mary sent me a letter. It was very funny. The letter Mary sent me was very funny. 7 It’s a magazine. I often read it. This is the magazine I often read. Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 8 She’s the singer. She was on TV last night. She’s the singer THAT/WHO was on TV last night. 9 I paid the bills. They came yesterday.. I paid the bills THAT/WHICH came yesterday. In spoken English a preposition in a relative clause is usually placed in its natural position, and the relative pronoun is omitted. A more formal alternative is to put the preposition before the relative pronoun. The man is here. I talked to the man yesterday. The man The man to whom I talked I talked yesterday to yesterday is here. is here. ◦ When the object is a person: The man I spoke to was very friendly. (or) The man who/that I spoke to was very friendly. (or) The man to whom I spoke was very friendly. (formal) ◦ When the object is a thing: The house I was born in is gone. (or) The house that I was born in is gone. (or) The house in which I was born is gone.(formal) CONNECT THESE SENTENCES This is the pen. I wrote the exam with the pen. This is the pen I wrote the exam with. That’s the policeman. I was with the policeman yesterday. That’s the policeman I was with yesterday. That’s the girl. Paul goes out with the girl. That’s the girl Paul goes out with. This is the town. We arrived at the town at 6.30. This is the town we arrive at at 6.30. This is the hotel. We stayed at the hotel with your brother. This is the hotel we stayed at with your brother. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 1 These are the boys with whom I went on holiday. These are the boys I went on holiday with. 2 Here’s the letter for which I've been waiting. Here’s the letter I’ve been waiting for. 3 That is the shop from which Sue bought her bike. That is the shop Sue bought her bike from. 5 Tim is someone to whom I hardly ever write. Tom is someone I hardly ever write to. To show that something belongs to somebody: ◦ He helped a woman whose car had broken down. ◦ They’re the people whose house was burgled. Whose is not usually used to refer to a thing. Of which is usually used instead. ◦ He’s reading the book, the name of which I can never remember. But it is more natural to say: ◦ He’s reading that book-I can never remember its name… Non-relative defining clauses add extra information about somebody or something which could be left out and the sentence would still make sense. This extra information is separated from the main clause by commas: ◦ The film, which was shot in Mexico, has won an Oscar. The pronouns that can be used in the nondefining clauses are who, whom, which and whose. When the subject is a person: ◦ My sister, who is a vegetarian, ordered a salad. When the subject is a thing: ◦ The tickets, which can be bought at the station, are valid for a month. When the object is a person: When the object is a thing: ◦ Peter, who nobody had met before, arrived late. (or) Peter, whom nobody had met before, arrived late.(formal) ◦ The tickets, which I’ve paid for, are still valid. When something belongs to somebody: ◦ Lucy, whose car had broken down, didn’t go. 1. She showed me a photograph of her son. Her son is a policeman. She showed me a photograph of her son, who is a policeman. 2. The new stadium will be opened next month. The stadium holds 90,000 people. The new stadium, which holds 90,000 people, will be opened next month. 3. John is one of my closest friends. I have known John for eight years. John, whom I have known for eight years, is one of my closest friends. 4. Thank you for your letter. I was very happy to get your letter. Thank you for your letter, which I was very happy to get. 5. The storm caused a lot of damage. Nobody had been expecting the storm. The storm, which nobody had been expecting, caused a lot of damage. 6. That man over there is an artist. I don’t remember his name. That man, whose name I don’t remember, is an artist. 7. Mr Yates is retiring next month. He has worked for the same company all his life. Mr Yates, who has worked for the same company all his life, is retiring next month. 8 Mr Roberts is in prison. Janet fell in love with him. Mr Roberts, with whom Janet fell in love, is in prison. 9. My sister is visiting us next week. You once met her. My sister, whom you once met, is visiting us next week. WHAT=“The thing(s) that”: antecedente+relativo No sé lo que (la cosa que) quiere. I don’t know WHAT he wants. Lo que (las cosas que) dijo no estuvo bien. WHAT he said was not right. WHICH=cuando el antecedente es una oración complete y no un sustantivo. Siempre va detrás de una coma: Vino tarde, lo que me molestó mucho. He was late, WHICH annoyed me so much. relative adverbs meaning use example when refers to a time in/on which expressi on where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him the day when we met him 1.- No vino, lo que nunca pensé que pasaría 1.- He didn’t come, which I never thought would happen. 2.- Lucy, cuyo coche se averió, no vino a la fiesta. 2.- Lucy, whose car had broken down, didn’t come to the party. 3.- Mr Roberts, de quien se enamoró Janet, está en la cárcel. 3.- Mr Roberts, with whom Janet fell in love, is in prison. 4.- Peter, a quien nadie conocía, llegó tarde. 4.- Peter, whom nobody had met before, arrived late. 5.- Ese es el policía con el que estuve ayer. 5.- That’s the policeman I was with yesterday. 6.- Esa es la razón por la que nos quedamos en casa. 6.- That’s the reason why we stayed at home. 7.- La bici que dejé en la puerta había desaparecideo. 7.- The bike I had left at the gate had disappeared. 8.- Ese es el policía con el que estuve ayer. 8.- The car which broke down was Peter’s. 9.- La casa en la que vivimos está en Londres. 9.- The house where we live is in London. 10.- El hombre que no podía ver la pantalla decidió cambiarse de sitio. 10.- The man who couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat. 11.- El estudiante cuyos libros se han perdido es H. 11.- The student whose books are missing is H. 12.- Los alumnos a los que les guste el Inglé aprobarán el examen. 12.- The students who like English will pass the exam. 13.- Los billetes, que he pagado yo, todavía son válidos 13.- The tickets, which I’ve paid for, are still valid. 14.- Estos son los momentos en que me haces sentir estúpido. 14.- These are the moments when you make me feel stupid. 15.-Esta es la ciudad a la que llegamos a las 6.30. 15. - This is the town we arrived at at 6.30. 15.-Lo que ves es lo mejor. 15. What you see is the best.