Theatre
Music
Dance
L’aria del continente
O’ miedico de
pazze
The
comparison
Three-act comedy by Edoardo Scarpetta
Plot
Characters
E. Scarpetta
Felice Sciosciammocca
Ciccino, his nephew
Michelino, Ciccino’s friend
Raffaele, actor
Don Carlo, Pensione Stella’s owner
Errico, musician
Luigi, writer
The Captain
Peppino, waiter of the Cafè
Concetta, Felice's wife
Amalia, Don Carlo’s sister
Rosina, Amalia’s daughter
Margherita, Felice and Concetta’s daughter
Bettina
Carmela
Customers of the Cafè
O’ Miedico de pazze
O’ Miedico de pazze
The story, written in Naples in the first years in 900, tells about a 30-year-old young man called
Ciccino, who loves the gambling and the beautiful women. The money to live are given him by
his uncle, Felice Sciosciammocca, man that in his country is well known from everybody for the
nomination of gentleman. Felice, believing that his nephew is a good doctor, gives him monthly
a lot of money to allow him continuing his studies and his experiments. But unfortunately,
Ciccino spends all the money with his friends in poker and settebello. Suddenly, Ciccino
receives a letter from his uncle who announces him a visit to check at which point are its
studies. Ciccino, despaired for the letter, helped by the trusted friend Michelino, prepares an
astute trap to his uncle. In fact it decides to make appear to his uncle the pension in which it
lives a great clinic and the customers of the pension the crazy persons that he cares. The uncle,
who goes visit also the pension-clinic, beleives that normal people like Raffaele, tragic actor,or
Enrico,famous musician, are violent crazy persons to which the poor Felice always answers
affirmatively to not instigate their follies. And it’s for this reason that Felice accepts to go
around the Europe with Enrico looking for glory, that he fights with the guns against and old
captain of the army and that he accepts a promise of marriage with the widow Amalia, looking
for a husband for her daughter Rosina, obviously instigating the jealousies of his wife Concetta,
who asks the divorce after having seen the amazing scene among Felice and Amalia. But at the
end, after a lot of misunderstandings among all the characters of the comedy, thanks to Luigi,
journalist as well as writer of novellas, who unmasks the trap, Felice discovers the deception of
the nephew resolving every misunderstanding.
Born in Naples in 1853 and dead in the same city in 1925, Edoardo Scarpetta was one of the
greatest representatives of the Napolitan dialect tradition. Original text written by Scarpetta was
the famous one “Miseria e nobiltà” (1888), while the rest of Scarpetta’s plentiful production
was constituted by adaptations of French scripts, but also Italian not dialect (‘Na Santarella,
1889; ‘O miedico de pazzi, 1908). Actors and playwrights were also his children S.Maria
(Naples 1890 - Rome 1949) and Vincent (Naples 1876-1952). This last began since 12 years old
in “Miseria e Nobiltà” written by the father, in a part thought just for him.
O’ Miedico de pazze
Three-act comedy by Nino Martoglio
Plot
A.Musco
(Main Actor)
N.Martoglio
Angelo Musco was born in Catania in 1871.
Fourteenth child of a storekeeper, he was forced to work
in young age. Since he was 12 years old he performed in
his first experience of actor in a Neapolitan company.
In 1899 he entered the company of Giovanni Grasso and
at the end of the show he parodied the tragedy
interpreted by Grasso and with two pirouettes and few
jokes he dried the tears succeeding in conquering the
public more than with the voice, with grimaces and
game of legs. Between 1915 and 1917 his fortune started
and became a popular actor, very appreciated by the
criticism to the point that the greatest Sicilian writers
like Pirandello, Capuana and Martoglio, wrote for him.
His theory of the theatrical interpretation was: "The
comedy is the cloth and the actor is the tailor, who cuts,
trasforms and recomposes it.. “Among his great
successes we can find “S.Giovannni decollato”, “L’aria
del Continente” written by Martoglio, “La Patente”,
“Pensaci Giacomino”, “Il berretto a sonagli”, “Liolà” by
Pirandello and “Cavaliere Pedagna” by Capuana. More
over, he stars in eleven cinema-films. He suddenly died
in Milan on the 6th October 1937.
Figlio di un giornalista ex garibaldino nel 1899 a soli 19 anni fondò un
settimanale umoristico e satirico scritto totalmente in dialetto
siciliano, il “D’Artagnan”, dove pubblicò tutte le sue poesie, riunite in
seguito gran parte nella raccolta “Centona”, che vennero apprezzate
per
il
verismo
descrittivo
delle
bellezze
siciliane.
Di lì a poco si dedicò con maggiore attenzione al teatro: nel 1901 creò la
compagnia drammatica siciliana con l’intento di rendere famoso a livello
nazionale il teatro dialettico siciliano. Dalla stagione 1907-1908 diventa
direttore della formazione capitanata da Angelo Musco, con il quale
instaura una proficua collaborazione artistica, sia lanciando autori nuovi
(il ventunenne Rosso di San Secondo, con la sua Madre del 1908) sia con
molte commedie da lui scritte, tra le quali le più famose sono S.Giovanni
decollato (1908) e L’aria del continente (1910). Nel 1910 fondò a Roma il
“Teatro Minimo” presso il Teatro Metastasio, curando la regia di
numerosi atti unici e soprattutto portando sulla scena le prime opere
teatrali di Luigi Pirandello già famoso come novelliere e scrittore.
Insieme a Luigi Pirandello scrisse “A Vilanza” (La bilancia),
e”Cappiddazzu paga tuttu”. Nel dicembre 1918 fondò l’ultima sua
compagine teatrale, la compagnia del teatro mediterraneo, attiva fino
al 1920.
Dal 1913 e per due anni si dedicò anche al cinema, producendo e
dirigendo 4 pellicole, oggi purtroppo andate tutte perdute, il Romanzo
con Carmine Gallone e Soava Gallone, l’avventuroso Capitan Blanco
tratto dal suo dramma Il Palio,Teresa Raquin tratto dall’omonimo
romanzo di Émile Zola, ma soprattutto quella al quale restò legata la
sua notorietà, il celebre “Sperduti nel buio”, dal dramma di Roberto
Bracco,
la
prima
opera
realista
del
neorealismo.
Tutta la sua opera è caratterizzata, oltre che dal verismo e dalla
bellezza dei paesaggi, anche da una forte contrapposizione tra
ricchezza e povertà. La sua fama si mantenne pressoché intatta fino
alla fine degli anni ’30, con molte sue commedie trasposte anche sul
grande schermo.Scomparve tragicamente a soli 51 anni a Catania.
The story takes place in a Sicilian village in the first years of 1900. The
wealthy bachelor Don Cola Duscio comes back from Rome where he has
had an operation. He comes back from the capital with a large dose of
"continental veneer" and also with a dancer, the coquettish Milla Milord,
sporting-and-claiming an even larger dose of "Continental Veneer". She
shows off her snobbish manners and her new culture together with her
disdain for the old-fashioned ways (especially jealousy) of people in the
village. The scandal in the village acquires enormous proprotions. Friends
and acquaintances start visiting the Duscio home regularly in the hope of
chatting up the beautiful "foreigner". The bad-tempered and suspicious
Marastella, Cola's sister, asks the police to investigate on the dancer's
past. In the meantime, it turns out that Milla is causing heaps and heaps
of trouble, including trying to start an affair with Marastella's husband.
Cola suddenly realises what a fool he was and gets furious with rage,
while his sister deals a severe blow to the girl by calling police officers
to reveal her true identity of Sicilian native. At this point the unlucky
girl has no other choice left but to run away.
The comparison: Characters and structure in the two comedies
L’ARIA DEL CONTINENTE
‘O MIEDICO DE PAZZE
The structure
The structure in both comedies is similar to that of the comedies of Plauto:
 Situation at the beginning (calm)
 Situation at the beginning (calm)
An external element breaks the initial
state of calm (The sciantosa lady)
An external element breaks the initial
state of calm (The uncle’s visit)
The natural order is restored (thanks to
the help of Cola’s sister)
The natural order is restored (thanks to
the help of Luigi the writer)
The characters
 The “stolto” (fool) : Cola
 The “stolto” (fool) : The uncle
The family (in which the main character
is the protagonist’s sister, Marastella)
The family (The uncle’s wife)
The “Sciantosa” (the coquettish lady who
breaks the initial calm
The two lovers (the protagonist’s niece
and the engineer)
The accomplice (Ciccino’s friend who
prepares the trap)
LA TARANTELLA
IL TATARATA’
The historical
description
The origins
The dance
Costumes
Instruments
The origins
Italian folk dance has an ancient history, dating
back to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79
A.D. Preserved under volcanic ash in the ruins of
Pompeii were friezes of dancers that inspired
movements used to create Italian folk dances.
During the Renaissance, which started in Italy in
the 14th century, dance became more elegant in
movement as well as dress; was used to
celebrate, worship and heal; demonstrated power
and royalty (or culture and heritage, for
peasants) and was especially helpful in capturing
the eye of the opposite sex. Today Italian folk
dances are performed at festivals, weddings and
celebrations to reflect and remind us of our
past.
The dance
The traditional dance known as the Tarantella (small tarantula) is thought to have
been an early remedy for a tarantula bite (you dance until you sweat the poison out
of your system). Performed not as a solo, but as a community activity, it usually
starts with dancers holding hands in a circle and sliding their feet sideways to
rotate the circle. Variations of this dance can be found in at least seven different
regions of southern Italy, where it is most common. Danced to tambourines played
by the dancers, the Tarantella is a lively, improvised aerobic dance for men and
women alike. The tempo is either 3/8 or 6/8 and can quicken depending on the mood
of the musicians.
Tarantella Technique
Men and women perform the same step for the Tarantella, which requires that you
constantly switch feet. With both arms outstretched above you, hop twice on one
foot with your other leg reaching forward. As you hop, tap the ground with your
pointed, extended foot.
A complete circle is frequently formed around an individual or couple dancing this
step. For variety, you can also do-si-do (circle your partner, returning to your
starting point). Joined by hand (in the air or by your side) or with arms around
waists, dancers in the circle do not hop, but instead grapevine in an alternating
clockwise/counter-clockwise pattern.
Do you want to dance the Tarantella with us? Follow these simple steps...
Sicilian Tarantella
Sets of two couples. Men next to each other facing their partners. Meter 6/8, counted as 1, 2
Measure
Count
Step
Part I
1
1-2
Repeat measure 1 with opposite footwork. Snap
your fingers on beat two rather than clapping hands.
2
3
Step on R foot in place (1), hop on R foot and clap
hands overhead. (2)
1-2
Take 2 running steps in place, starting with the R
foot
4
Repeat measure 3
5-16
Repeat measures 1-4 three more times
Part II
1
1-2
Run on R foot forward (1), run on L foot forward (2)
2
Repeat measure 1
3-4
Repeat measures 1-2 running backwards
5-16
Repeat measures 1-4 three more times
Part III
1
1-2
Head man and foot lady hook R arms and circle around each other
with 4 steps, until they face their original positions.
2-3
4
Head man and foot lady take two steps towards each other
1-2
Head man and foot lady return to their original positions and turn to
face forward
5-8
Head lady and foot man do measures 1-4
9-16
Repeat measures 1-8 hooking L elbows instead of R elbows
17-24
Repeat measures 1-8 but do a do-si-do passing R shoulders first
instead of turning with elbows hooked
25-32
Repeat measures17-24 passing L shoulders first
Part IV
1-4
Each person face to the R and put hands on
hips. Do 8 skipping steps in the circle
5-8
Turn to face to the L and repeat the footwork
for measures 1-4
9-12
Face to the R, make a L hand star and repeat
the footwork for measures 1-4
13-16
Face to the L, make a R hand star and repeat
the footwork for measures 1-4
Taken from the Recreational Folk Dancing Website, by Bob Shapiro
TRADITIONAL COSTUMES
DESCRIPTION MASCULINE COSTUMES
Short pants to the knee, in black or brown velvet; white
shirt without neck; long white stockings; black shoes;
short vest in black or brown velvet; red handkerchief
to the neck; band of red wool to the life.
DESCRIPTION FEMALE COSTUMES
1) Costumes of the party
Skirts in red brocade, green, white, yellow to the height
of the calf, white stockings, long underpantses, underskirt
with end, white blouse with elegant bodice in black
smooth velvet, small apron, shawl of wool black embroidered
and tambourine
2) Costumes for job
A very simpler and practical costumes .
Johann W. von Goethe (1749-1832) - a German novelist, playwright, courtier,
and natural philosopher - describes the dance as "Three girls, one with a
tambourine (with bells on it) and castanets are used by the other two. The two
girls with the castanets execute the steps. The girls steps are not distinctive
or even graceful, basically they step in time and spin around in place using the
castanets, when one tires, she trades places with the tambourine Girl" (They
do this for fun for hours, 20-40 hours at times.)"
Curt Sachs, in his book "World History of the Dance", describes the couples'
version of this dance.2 "The dancer, kneels in adoration of his female partner.
As she dances for him, he, as though sated, speedily forsakes her again; how
with a thousand turns and tricks he now holds aloof and now rushes upon her.
His gambols and capers are grotesque (sloppy) and yet charming, light and
tender. His bearing is yet proud and resolute, now querulous and elaborate.
Leg's and arms, even the fingers, strumming the tambourine (hers), and above
all the "glance", ardent, languishing, suddenly bold and shameless, reinforce the
expression of the posture. The girl comes out of her corner, now wayward, now
willing. Her smile is eloquent, her eyes are drunken. She swings her skirt; she
picks up the corner as if to gather things in it; or she raises the arm so that
the hand hangs down loosely over her head as though from a hook, while the
other hand presses against her heart. Now she is the axis in which the male
rotates."
TROCCULA Instrument in
wood that is operated
through a rotatory
movement. To Licata it is
used during the party of the
"Addolorata".
MARRANZANO
Characteristic metallic popular
instruments, ofstrange form and of
particular sound; also called
scacciapensieri
QUARTARA
Container in clay of varied
colors,marks the time acting
from low
MANDOLINO
Usually played by artisans
the mandolin it is a solist
instrument from the very
melodious sound
FRISCALETTU
Instrument to form
of pipe built to
hand with a piece
of seasoned reed.
The Tataratà is a dance with swords in quick steps,repeated and
rhythmical movements performed by characters playing the role
of representatives of ancient arab courts.
On the fourth Sunday in May, the Taratata includes costumes,
cavalcades, and battles reinacting those between the Normans and
Arabs in Casteltermini in the province of
Agrigento.Representatives of the four most important social
groups in town take part in this dance.
Take a look at the photo gallery
For more informations visit the website www.tatarata.it
Music in the oral sicilian
tradition
POPULAR MUSIC TODAY The most part of the
popular cultures has changed very much in the last
century: the press and the massmedia have allowed
the access to the city culture; In such a way, many
phenomena a time to the margins of popular music
had a great importance. Shortly, the aim of popular
music has quiltly changed over the last post-war
period, and the lines that separate it from the
other types of music are made less clean. In any
case, like world-wide phenomenon, also changing
itself, it does not disappear.
THE ORIGINS
HOW THE SONG
IS BORN
THE SONGS
KIND OF SONGS
THE FEELINGS OF
THE POPULAR SONGS
MUSIC OF THE
COMMUNITY
POPULAR MUSIC
MUSICAL
STRUCTURE
THE INSTRUMENTS
The popular sicilian instruments represent one essential member in the
execution of popular music; The most used instruments are:
CORDOFONI:
•
Violino;
•
Violoncello;
•
Mandolino;
•
Liuto;
•
Guitar(sound locators);
TO PERCUSSION:
• Mariolo(ngannalarruni,
marranzano)
• Tammurinu tammureddu;
• Circhettu;
• Timpanu;
• Castagnette(scattagnetti ,
nacchere);
• Acciarinu;
AEROFONI:
• Friscalettu (flauto di
canna);
• Ciaramedda (zampogna);
• Bummulu;
Music is simple, made up of one short
strofa (commonly of four verses)
repeated many times over with various
words. The use of the antifona is
diffused in all Europe. The rhythm is
sometimes linked to the versification.
Instrumental popular music stretches
ritmically to being repetitive. Much
popular music is made up of a
monoacoustic not accompanied melody.
Executed by members of the community lacking in a
specialistic musical formation, popular music often is
tied to the cycles of the seasons, key event in the
personal life and practical activity like the religious
one, the job, the cure of the children. Popular music
can be called music of the lower classes. When it
passes from an executor to the other, a popular song
stretches to modify itself as a result of creative
participations or to imperfections of the memory.
Popular music generally endures the influence of the
near cultural centers (city, courts, monasteries) but
it is also that one which the ethnic community
acknowledges most. In general terms it blooms
outside institutions like the school and the Church.
It is music that has been transmitted
orally, diffused through the execution
and not with the notation, learned to
ear. The names of its authors are not
know, or however forgotten.
The love, the faith, the stoicism, the religion, the plant, the
happiness, the satira civil and political, the resentful, full
principles of bile, are the wide range of the feelings that the
people sing in its songs. The Love: The songs speak about the
many feelings of the human mind; first of all it is the love: the
sicialian lover sang its admiration for the beauty of the woman
with valuable metaphors; the woman is a rare diamond, precious
stone palace, navigating boat vessel; it from the trecce of gold,
from the fine forehead, arches prevails them the eyelash, corals
the lips; beautiful more than the sun and the moon… The Pain: “I
canti della vicaria”tells the suffering of the condemned, with
the flood of the affections that irrompe, with the feeling of the
lost freedom; the desperation is to the taken ones with the pain,
the life in fight with the dead women.
The Sicily is considered from always the crib of the popular italian song,
rich
of “stornelli”,”serenate”,”ninne nanne”, songs and games of
boys,”satire”, “mottetti”and sacred and profane legends. Between the
“ninne nanne” they find “canzonette” for Jesus true and own Child
christmas that represents a ring between the “ninne nanne” and the
popular religious songs. As far as the dances they are survivors that
wedding one, “chiavu”, “lu diavulecchiu”, “puliciusa” and, between the
others, “fasola”, once represented and sang (as “tarantella”). Typical
instruments are “mariolu” or “marranzanu” or “ngannalaruni”, “azzarinu”
“friscalettu”,”tammurinu”(the large drum),”ciaranedda” and “circhettu”.
The canzuna is called strambottu in Caltanissetta, sturnettu to the
Etna, in S.Agata is said barcarole, duffle-coat; it is said to the
furnarisca, the countrywoman, the vicariota, the carrittera because
sung to the way of imprisoned, of the peasants, the weavers, the
carrettieri that sang many.The meter of “the canzuna siciliana” with
eight lines of endecasillables and alternated rhymes. The “ciuri”are
songs of two or three lines,popular among the jails; Arie or Ariette, was
sung with accompanyment of guitars;The “Storii” are legends;”Jocura”
are childish games.”Le Orationi” are short sacred legends,sung in the
evening in the streets or in front of the houses of devout people by
blind singers,celebrating the saints venerated by people;”Le Diesille”are
songs aimed at remembering the spirits of defuncts;
One of the ways in order to examine the function of the popular songs is
defining the function, in the society. One of the types more famous than
popular music is the danced one, the song that, in a succession of strofe,
narrates one history centered on an only main event. Their textes tells
about unfortunate loves, crimes, history of war and tragedies. An other
type of novellistic song is the epic, that heroic figure tells the enterprises
of one or the conflict between Christians and Muslims. An other example
of epic songs narrated to you, is the sicilian “Pupi”. A big group is then the
rituals “canti calendariali” that they accompany reguarding special events
of personal life or to cycles of the year. Another kind of popular music
includes the songs concerning tragic events, like a war or a disease. Among
the other types of popular songs, beyond to those of love or generically of
entertainment, and the march songs, diffused among the soldiers centuries
ago, are the childish songs, they includes the “ninne nanne”, the songs to
play games and the “conte”, beyond to the “filastrocche” which have
didactic aim. Another type there is also of religious popular songs: namly
hymns singing in the country churches and belongig which a part of oral
tradition.
The song developed among peasant poets of countries and
disowned villages, became the song of everybody; the
people rewarded their merit, handing on this melody,
with learning it, passing it from mouth is… gradually they
changed. In a short time, the commerce, the
communications, the pilgrimages, the wars, the great
religious festivities, diffused the songs that were
adopted, embellished, received, modified, accordin to the
habits and the character of the people. Often it
happened that some songs exceeded the borders of the
island assuming other dialectal shapes. In the popular
songs, the sicialian has documented their life every day,
the daily life of the people; they are become an historical
and philosophical, moral and religious document.
At the beginning it was the melos… therefore we
could say of the sicialian popular song of oral
tradition. People have created and recognized an own
melody on which adapted the poetry inherited from
the fathers, the language speech melted docilely with
the rhytm of its music. The sicialian people, listened
to the nomos Greek, the maqam Arabic, the
bizantinian hymn, the courtly song of the Trovatori,
the poliphony of sixteenth and seventeeth centuries,
a mixture of styles from which it is difficult to trace
the beginning of sicialian popular music.
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