GCSE Revision
URBAN
Challenge yourself
mailto:http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gc
sebitesize/geography/urban_environm
ents/urbanisation_medcs_rev1.shtml
Urbanisation…define and describe
where it is happening..
• What is it and where is it
happening?
• THE INCREASE in the
proportion of people living in
an urban area – town and
city.
• Over half the worlds pop
lives in towns and cities.
• It increased first in MEDC
now most rapidly in LEDCs.
• Over 80 % in Uk live in urban
area.
• Compared with 25% in
Bangladesh.
• MOST urbanisation today is
in LEDCs – a fast pace.
Why urban areas are growing so
rapidly…. 2 reasons…
1. Natural Increase – young people move
….to find work…have children in the
cities.Better health care people live
longer.
2. Rural urban migration – people move
from countryside for PUSH and PUL
reasons…..
GIVE ME 4 of each…..
PUSH or PULL????
PUSH
Shortage of services
e.g. schools,access to
water and power.
Hazards – earthquakes
and volc risk.
Access to better health
care
PULL
Believe there will be a
better standard of
living in the city.
More jobs
Industry
Lack of food – famine
War
* DON’T forget reasons
were different in
MEDCs – such as.
Parts of a city – in each zone write down 3 things
you would see on a photo or OS map.
CBD
INNER CITY
SUBURBS
RURAL _ URBAN
FRINGE
Parts of a city – in each zone write down 3 things
you would see on a photo or OS map.
CBD
INNER CITY
Major shopping outlets Offices Surrounds CBD
Bus / train station
Poor quality terraced housing
Tall high rise
Older industry
Run down/ deprived
Transport routes meet
Newer housing and ind – some
redevelopment
SUBURBS
RURAL – URBANFRINGE
Housing semi det and
detatched
Land cheaper – garage spaces
Gardens
Nice environment pollution free
Edge of city
Where city meets fields
Fewer larger houses
Golf courses
Parks
New housing BROWN or
GREENFIELD??
BROWN FIELD
ADV –
*
*
GREENFIELD
ADV –
*
*
DISADV
*
*
DISADV
*
*
Urban issues..
1. SHORTAGE of housing
2. RUN down CBDs – threat from out of
town… M Hall
3. TRAFFIC – pollution and congestion
4. ETHNIC segregation
Explain each to your partner ….before
sharing.
SOLVING HOUSING CRISIS
1. Urban renewal schemes – 1990s – invest
new housing – Patio est Swinton Fitzwilliam
Est - new Inner City dev London Docklands
and Lower Don Meadowhall Sheff.
2. NEW Towns – for overspill – Milton Keynes
1970’s Londoners.
3. RELOCATION incentives – Bedroom tax –
down size fewer bedrooms.
SOLVING CBD’s Rotherham and
Sheffield
• Pedestrianised – All
Saints Sq – safer nicer
seats fountains.
• Better transport links and
parking – Rotherham
New Rail and Bus Station
• Converting old buildings
into shops restaurants
and museums – Old
Town Hall
• Improve public areas
parks and squares –
Clifton and All Saints
• Special markets at
Christmas
• Pedestrianised – The
Moor
• Better transport links and
parking – Sheffield New
Rail and Bus Station
• Converting old buildings
into shops restaurants
and museums – The
Lyceum theatre area
• Improve public areas
parks and squares –
Fargate and The Moor
• Special markets at
Christmas
Transport transport transport ….
PROBLEMS
• More cars
• More air pollution
• Affects health – asthma
• More road accidents
Damage to buildings from
air pollution
• Traffic jams congestion –
time wasted esp for
lorries
SOLUTIONS
• Improve public transport
– so people will leave car
at home
• Inc car parking charges –
people leave cars at
home
• Bus lanes – priority
• Pedestrianise – exclude
car physically – improve
air – more attractive for
shoppers.
MULTI CULTURAL issues…
WHY SEGREGATED?
1. Prefer to live near
others of same race –
safety in numbers
2. Speak same language –
same food –
supermarkets – same
religion – mosque
3. All they can afford
• STRATEGIES to help..
1. Give access to all – print
info leaflets different
languages
2. Improve involvement –
get community leaders
into decision making
groups
3. Provide inerpreters in
hosp and police stations
4. Suitable services –
same sex doctors –
single sex swimming etc
LECDS – SQUATTER
SETTLEMENTS ….. Issues
1. Built illegally out of waste materials
2. Don’t own land – can be bulldozed
3. Lack of basic services – water sewerage and
electricity.
4. Lack of medical help
5. Poverty – crime
6. Lack of formal work – informal sector
7. Long hours little pay
8. Lower life expectancy
9. Strong community spirit – Rocinha Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
Ways to improve ….
1. SELF HELP –Gov and locals work together to
improve conditions.Gov supplies materials and
locals build their own homes – develops skills
saves money includes water , elec and
sewers.
2. SITE and SERVICE – People pay small rent –
borrow money, build or improve housing on
their plot. Rent provides money for basic
services .Dandora Nairobi.
3. LOCAL AUTHORITY housing schemes –
Funded by L A. Improve temporary
accommodation built by squatters Rio Brazil
Favela – Bairro project – improve life of
residents .
CASE STUDY Favela – Bairro Rio de Janeiro
Brazil.
FAVELA BAIRRO PROJECT – Rio de janeiro Brazil.
–
–
–
–
–
–
Located in SE Brazil
600 squatter settlements – over 1 mill people.
Started in 1995 – successful
253, 000 people in 73 favelas helped
40 % of money from Local authority.
Rest fm Inter – American Development Bank
•
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC and ENVIRONMENTAL improvements.
SOCIAL –
•
Day care centres
•
After school clubs – so parents can work
•
Adult classes – improve literacy – job prospects
•
Services to help drug and alcohol addicts
ECONOMIC –
•
Residents can apply to LEGALLY own home
•
TRAINING scheme for new skills – improve job prospects
ENVIRONMENTAL –
•
Replace wooden buildings with brick
•
Remove homes on dangerous steep slopes
•
Widen pavements
•
Basic services – water, sewage weekly rubbish collection – healthier.
COMMUNITY INVOLVED- locals decide what they want in their favela.
•
NEIGHBOURHOOD associations set up.
•
SERVICES – employ locals
VERY SUCCESSFUL – Standard of living and health improved.
•
Properties more valuable
More local businesses.
Urbanisation – Environmental issues
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION
•
Cities create waste
•
Damage health and environment
•
Toxic?
•
Air pollution from cars – exhaust and factories.
•
Water pollution – pollutants and sewage gets into rivers
- health problems and wildlife.
WASTE DISPOSAL
•
Occurs in LEDCs and MEDCs .
•
In poor countries lack of money to waste dumped including toxic waste.
•
Don’t have technology and infrastructure.- poor roads and lorries.
•
Problem is huge.
•
In MEDCs land fill sites getting full – incinerators ??
AIR and WATER POLLUTION - EFFECTS
AIR
WATER
Acid rain
Kills fish
Damages buildings
Disrupts food chains
HEALTH problems
Harmful chemicals
Head aches and bronchitis
Contaminated
Destroy ozone
sewage spreads diseases e.g
typhoid
MANAGEMENT
•
Monitor air quality
Build sewage treatment works
•
Enforce by law the standards
•
COSTS a lot of money – needs technology
Sustainable Cities
Sustainable – means maintaining standard of living without harming the environment for future generations.
Will not use up the resources.
WHY Do we need to become more sustainable ?
•
Maintain standard of living
•
Conserve resources for future
•
Reduce effect on climate change- environmental damage
•
Difficult with large numbers in cities
SCHEMES to reduce waste.
•
Recycle
•
Less waste
•
Reduce landfill
•
Safe disposal of toxic waste – prevent air and water pollution
CONSERVE ENVIRONMENT and buildings
•
Restore historic buildings
•
Conserve cobble stones e.g. Shambles York
•
Protect or leave alone
BUILD on BROWNFIELD sites
•
Derelict areas
•
Saves virgin Greenfield sites
•
Looks nicer than derelict land
CARBON NEUTRAL HOMES
IMPROVE TRANSPORT
•
Solar panels
Cycle routes
•
Wind turbines
Supertram
•
Large windows
energy effic cars - electric
•
Energy efficient
hydrogen buses London
•
Bedzeds London
Case Study - Curitaba Brazil
SUSTAINABLE CITY case study – Curitaba
Brazil
•
Located in S Brazil 1.8 mill people
•
Improve environment reduce waste
•
$600 mill every year.
•
£ ways forward
A - REDUCING CAR USE
•
Good bus system – 1.4 mill passengers per
day
•
Express bus system
•
Bus only lanes
•
Cheap fares
•
200 km cycle routes
•
Bus and bike system
B – OPEN SPACES and PARKS
•
Inc from 0.5 m per person to %£ m per
person in 1990
•
1000 + parks
•
Areas were prone to flooding
•
1.5 mill trees planted
•
Builders got tax breaks to put I parks
•
99% said nicer place to live
C- Good recycling
• 70 % rubbish recycled
• Saves 1200 trees per day
• Residents given bus tickets for
waste recycling
• GREAT success??
• Reduced use of cars
• Less pollution
• Fewer accidents
• Open spaces
• Reduced landfill
• 99% said nicer place to live
Descargar

GCSE Revision