The Cultural Landscape:
An Introduction to Human
Geography
10th Edition
Classroom Response System
Questions
Chapter 10
10-01 Complete the following analogy. Subsistence agriculture is
to shifting cultivation as commercial agriculture is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
dairy farming.
pastoral nomadism.
plantation farming.
swidden cultivation.
wet-rice farming.
10-01 Complete the following analogy. Subsistence agriculture is
to shifting cultivation as commercial agriculture is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
dairy farming.
pastoral nomadism.
plantation farming.
swidden cultivation.
wet-rice farming.
Explanation: Dairy farming is one of six types of commercial
agriculture found in MDCs.
10-02 Complete the following analogy. Subsistence agriculture
is to labor intensive as commercial agriculture is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
capital intensive.
driving intensive.
mentally intensive.
nature intensive.
worker intensive.
10-02 Complete the following analogy. Subsistence
agriculture is to labor intensive as commercial agriculture is
to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
capital intensive.
driving intensive.
mentally intensive.
nature intensive.
worker intensive.
Explanation: Commercial agriculture relies on fewer workers
and more machinery to produce food for market.
10-02
10-03 Shifting cultivation is most common:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
in the interior region of Australia.
in more developed countries.
in humid continental climates.
in close proximity to large cities.
within 20 degrees latitude of the equator.
10-03 Shifting cultivation is most common:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
in the interior region of Australia.
in more developed countries.
in humid continental climates.
in close proximity to large cities.
within 20 degrees latitude of the equator.
Explanation: Proponents of shifting cultivation argue that it is
the better-suited to the tropics than other forms of agriculture.
10-03
10-04 According to von Thünen, which of the following crops
will be grown closest to a city?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
butter
cheese
meat
milk
lumber
10-04 According to von Thünen, which of the following crops
will be grown closest to a city?
A. butter
B. cheese
C. meat
D. milk
E. lumber
Explanation: Because it spoils quickly, milk is more expensive
to transport to market than the other crops in this list.
10-04
10-05 Which of the following is the longest fallow period?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Forest fallow
Bush fallow
Short fallow
Annual cropping
Multicropping
10-05 Which of the following is the longest fallow period?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Forest fallow
Bush fallow
Short fallow
Annual cropping
Multicropping
Explanation: Boserup identified five stages in the intensification
of farmland, each with a shorter fallow period.
10-06 Compared to other grains, wheat:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
is of less economic importance.
cannot be stored as long.
grows less well in humid continental climates.
is grown almost exclusively in LDCs.
is the world’s leading export crop.
10-06 Compared to other grains, wheat:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
is of less economic importance.
cannot be stored as long.
grows less well in humid continental climates.
is grown almost exclusively in LDCs.
is the world’s leading export crop.
Explanation: The U.S. and Canada account for half of the world’s
wheat exports.
10-06
10-07 Ranching has declined in the western United States
primarily because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
growing crops is a more profitable use of land.
infectious diseases have killed herds.
the federal government prohibits cattle on public land.
dietary and ethical concerns have lessened the appeal
of meat.
E. widespread water shortages limit the number of animals
per acre.
10-07 Ranching has declined in the western United States
primarily because:
A.
B.
C.
D.
growing crops is a more profitable use of land.
infectious diseases have killed herds.
the federal government prohibits cattle on public land.
dietary and ethical concerns have lessened the appeal
of meat.
E. widespread water shortages limit the number of animals
per acre.
Explanation: Widespread irrigation and hardier varieties of crops
have replaced cattle.
10-08 The most fundamental shared aspect of regions that
practice Mediterranean agriculture is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a longstanding tradition of wine production.
a willingness to experiment with new crops.
similar climate conditions.
close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea.
shared use of Romance languages.
10-08 The most fundamental shared aspect of regions that
practice Mediterranean agriculture is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a longstanding tradition of wine production.
a willingness to experiment with new crops.
similar climate conditions.
close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea.
shared use of Romance languages.
Explanation: Generally located on the western shores of
landmasses, prevailing winds and ocean currents provide
moisture and moderate winters.
10-08
10-09 According to the von Thünen model, which of the
following factors is least important to a farmer when deciding
which crops to grow?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Distance to market
Transportation cost per kilometer
Yield per acre
Price per bushel
Nutritional value of the crop
10-09 According to the von Thünen model, which of the
following factors is least important to a farmer when deciding
which crops to grow?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Distance to market
Transportation cost per kilometer
Yield per acre
Price per bushel
Nutritional value of the crop
Explanation: In choosing a crop, commercial farms consider both
the value of a commodity and the cost of transporting it to
market.
10-09
10-10 Which of the following areas is least affected by
desertification?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
North Africa
American Southwest
Central Australia
Central Europe
Southwestern Asia
10-10 Which of the following areas is least affected by
desertification?
A. North Africa
B. American Southwest
C. Central Australia
D. Central Europe
E. Southwestern Asia
Explanation: Semiarid land degradation is one of the factors that
limits the amount of land available for agricultural expansion.
10-10
11-01 Complete the following analogy concerning industrial
areas. The Mohawk Valley is to the United States as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the Central Industrial district is to the United States.
Kuznetsk is to East Asia.
Middle Atlantic is to United Kingdom.
Silesia is to Eastern Europe.
Volga is to Western Europe.
11-01 Complete the following analogy concerning industrial
areas. The Mohawk Valley is to the United States as:
A. the Central Industrial district is to the United States.
B. Kuznetsk is to East Asia.
C. Middle Atlantic is to United Kingdom.
D. Silesia is to Eastern Europe.
E. Volga is to Western Europe.
Explanation: Although industry is located worldwide, the four
major industrial regions account for the majority of the globe’s
manufacturing.
11-02 Which of the following is an example of a site
consideration when locating an industry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The industry in question is bulk-reducing.
The manufacturing process is bulk-gaining.
The product is perishable.
The manufacturing process is labor intensive.
The product will be shipped a long distance.
11-02 Which of the following is an example of a site
consideration when locating an industry?
A. The industry in question is bulk-reducing.
B. The manufacturing process is bulk-gaining.
C. The product is perishable.
D. The manufacturing process is labor intensive.
E. The product will be shipped a long distance.
Explanation: The cost of the three main site factors—land, labor,
and capital—vary among places. Globally, labor is the most
important site factor.
11-03 Industrialization in the United States began in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the Midwest.
New England.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
the South.
11-03 Industrialization in the United States began in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
the Midwest.
New England.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
the South.
Explanation: Early New England factories produced textiles for
sale in Europe.
11-04 Beer brewing is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a bulk-gaining industry.
a bulk-reducing industry.
a break-of-bulk industry.
concentrated near mountain-fresh waters.
unaffected by situation factors.
11-04 Beer brewing is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a bulk-gaining industry.
a bulk-reducing industry.
a break-of-bulk industry.
concentrated near mountain-fresh waters.
unaffected by situation factors.
Explanation: Because their product becomes more bulky
through manufacturing, breweries seek out locations near
markets.
11-04
11-05 Which of the following statements about the
manufacturing of cars in the United States is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
There are relatively few factories in the South.
Each plant focuses on only one or a few models.
Plants are located near each major metropolitan area.
Factories are more dispersed now than they were in
the 1950s.
E. Factories locate near railroads and industrial canals to
ship their products.
11-05 Which of the following statements about the
manufacturing of cars in the United States is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
There are relatively few factories in the South.
Each plant focuses on only one or a few models.
Plants are located near each major metropolitan area.
Factories are more dispersed now than they were in
the 1950s.
E. Factories locate near railroads and industrial canals to
ship their products.
Explanation: Auto manufacturers have clustered near the
population center of the country.
11-05
11-06 The least expensive mode of transport for shipping goods
over long distances is by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
airplane.
automobile.
rail.
ship.
truck.
11-06 The least expensive mode of transport for shipping goods
over long distances is by:
A. airplane.
B. automobile.
C. rail.
D. ship.
E. truck.
Explanation: Ship transport is the most cost effective mode over
long distances.
11-07 Which type of manufacturing requires the lowest level of
skill?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
airplanes
automobiles
computers
consumer electronics
textiles
11-07 Which type of manufacturing requires the lowest level of
skill?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
airplanes
automobiles
computers
consumer electronics
textiles
Explanation: The textile industry is labor intensive. As a result, a
great emphasis is placed on finding low-cost labor.
11-08 It is especially important for aluminum processors to
locate near:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
beverage manufacturers.
cheap electricity.
inexpensive labor.
major metropolitan areas.
navigable rivers.
11-08 It is especially important for aluminum processors to
locate near:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
beverage manufacturers.
cheap electricity.
inexpensive labor.
major metropolitan areas.
navigable rivers.
Explanation: Reducing aluminum from bauxite ore requires large
amounts of electricity.
11-09 Within the United States, manufacturing has been most
likely to shift in which of the following directions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
North toward Boston
Toward Chicago
East toward New York City
South toward Houston
Manufacturing has tended to stay in the Midwest
and Northeast.
11-09 Within the United States, manufacturing has been most
likely to shift in which of the following directions?
A. North toward Boston
B. Toward Chicago
C. East toward New York City
D. South toward Houston
E. Manufacturing has tended to stay in the Midwest
and Northeast.
Explanation: Anti-union laws and federally funded infrastructure
have enticed industry to move south.
11-09
11-10 Outsourcing:
A. is one aspect of vertical integration.
B. is at the core of Fordist mass production.
C. leads to an increase in manufacturing jobs in less
developed countries.
D. is part of a just-in-time production strategy.
E. relies upon securing highly skilled labor.
11-10 Outsourcing:
A. is one aspect of vertical integration.
B. is at the core of Fordist mass production.
C. leads to an increase in manufacturing jobs in less
developed countries.
D. is part of a just-in-time production strategy.
E. relies upon securing highly skilled labor.
Explanation: Outsourcing is a key part of the new international
division of labor.
12-01 Where do service industries contribute the smallest
portion to the regional economy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Africa
Australia
Eastern Europe
North America
Western Europe
12-01 Where do service industries contribute the smallest
portion to the regional economy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Africa
Australia
Eastern Europe
North America
Western Europe
Explanation: Workers in LDCs remain concentrated in the
primary and secondary sectors of the economy.
12-01
12-02 In contrast to the United States, most people in the world
live in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
clustered rural settlements.
dispersed rural settlements.
small cities.
large cities.
moderate-sized towns.
12-02 In contrast to the United States, most people in the world
live in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
clustered rural settlements.
dispersed rural settlements.
small cities.
large cities.
moderate-sized towns.
Explanation: Villages and hamlets surrounded by agricultural
fields are common throughout Europe, Latin America, Africa, and
Asia.
12-03 The enclosure movement in Great Britain was carried out
primarily to:
A. advance democracy.
B. encourage rural citizens to move to clustered rural
settlements.
C. increase agricultural efficiency.
D. quell labor unrest.
E. squash the revolutionary spirit of the peasantry.
12-03 The enclosure movement in Great Britain was carried out
primarily to:
A. advance democracy.
B. encourage rural citizens to move to clustered rural
settlements.
C. increase agricultural efficiency.
D. quell labor unrest.
E. squash the revolutionary spirit of the peasantry.
Explanation: Using force, the British government consolidated
small rural landholdings into large farms.
12-04 A central place is located in order to maximize consumer:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
agricultural production.
access to raw materials.
access to services.
political control.
religious control.
12-04 A central place is located in order to maximize consumer:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
agricultural production.
access to raw materials.
access to services.
political control.
religious control.
Explanation: Sites are selected in order to minimize the range
and achieve the necessary threshold.
12-05 According to the gravity model, the optimal location for a
business is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
independent of distance from customers.
directly related to the number of people in the area.
next to businesses offering similar services.
in the Central Business District.
adjacent to large government facilities.
12-05 According to the gravity model, the optimal location for a
business is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
independent of distance from customers.
directly related to the number of people in the area.
next to businesses offering similar services.
in the Central Business District.
adjacent to large government facilities.
Explanation: Additionally, the gravity model assumes that the
optimal location for a service is inversely related to the distance
people must travel to access it.
12-06 Complete the following analogy. Bartender is to consumer
services as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
auto mechanic is to business services.
county clerk is to public services.
librarian is to consumer services.
corporate attorney is to public services.
zoning regulator is to consumer services.
12-06 Complete the following analogy. Bartender is to consumer
services as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
auto mechanic is to business services.
county clerk is to public services.
librarian is to consumer services.
corporate attorney is to public services.
zoning regulator is to consumer services.
Explanation: Although the distinctions among service workers
are not absolute, the classifications are useful for discussing
different spatial distributions.
12-07 A market area associated with a central place is an
example of a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
contagious region.
formal region.
functional region.
gravity region.
vernacular region.
12-07 A market area associated with a central place is an
example of a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
contagious region.
formal region.
functional region.
gravity region.
vernacular region.
Explanation: Central place market areas are arranged like
functional or nodal regions.
12-08 Which of the following is an example of a basic industry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
automobile assembly plant
dance studio
dentist
restaurant
supermarket
12-08 Which of the following is an example of a basic industry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
automobile assembly plant
dance studio
dentist
restaurant
supermarket
Explanation: Basic industries are those whose primary
customers live elsewhere.
12-09 CBD retail services are least likely to have the following
characteristic:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
primarily rural customers.
high threshold.
high range.
services for office workers.
None of these are typical of CBD retail services.
12-09 CBD retail services are least likely to have the following
characteristic:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
primarily rural customers.
high threshold.
high range.
services for office workers.
None of these are typical of CBD retail services.
Explanation: Three types of retail services concentrate in the
CBD: high threshold, long range, and cater to office workers.
12-09
12-10 In the United States, services are predominately moving
to locations:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
in scenic rural areas far from cities.
in the Central Business District.
dispersed evenly throughout cities.
in malls near suburbs.
with the lowest labor costs.
12-10 In the United States, services are predominately moving
to locations:
A. in scenic rural areas far from cities.
B. in the Central Business District.
C. dispersed evenly throughout cities.
D. in malls near suburbs.
E. with the lowest labor costs.
Explanation: Service providers have moved to the suburbs to be
near their customers.
12-10
13-01 Which of the following countries is least urbanized?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Brazil
United States
France
India
Japan
13-01 Which of the following countries is least urbanized?
A. Brazil
B. United States
C. France
D. India
E. Japan
Explanation: India has ten cities with populations over 3 million
yet the majority of Indians live in the countryside.
13-02 Over the last five decades urban growth rates have been
highest in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
LDCs.
MDCs.
the United States.
northern Europe.
Australia.
13-02 Over the last five decades urban growth rates have been
highest in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
LDCs.
MDCs.
the United States.
northern Europe.
Australia
Explanation: LDCs host eight of the ten most populous cities and
their growth is being sped by rural migration and natural
increase.
13-03 In the United States, which of the following is most likely
to have the largest area?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Metropolitan statistical area
County
Large city
Urbanized area
Micropolitan statistical area
13-03 In the United States, which of the following is most likely
to have the largest area?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Metropolitan statistical area
County
Large city
Urbanized area
Micropolitan statistical area
Explanation: MSAs account for an urban area’s extensive zone of
influence, e.g., commuting.
13-03
13-04 The ______________ model holds that cities expand
outward in circular rings.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
concentric zone
edge city
sector
multiple nuclei
peripheral
13-04 The ______________ model holds that cities expand
outward in circular rings.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
concentric zone
edge city
sector
multiple nuclei
peripheral
Explanation: Other urban models suggest that cities grow in
sectors and discrete nuclei.
13-04
13-05 Dwelling patterns in less-developed countries:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
vary dramatically based on ancient cultural practices.
tend to be similar to European cities.
tend to be similar to American cities.
are strongly regulated by governments.
lead to strong intermixing of rich and poor in the city
centers.
13-05 Dwelling patterns in less-developed countries:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
vary dramatically based on ancient cultural practices.
tend to be similar to European cities.
tend to be similar to American cities.
are strongly regulated by governments.
lead to strong intermixing of rich and poor in the city
centers.
Explanation: Most LDC cities have a colonial past and, like
European cities, the poor and worker predominate in the
suburbs.
13-05
13-06 In Latin American cities, the very poor tend to live:
A. on the periphery of the city.
B. in the central business district.
C. in narrow corridors radiating out from the central
business district.
D. in a ring that immediately surrounds the central
business district.
E. in edge cities physically separated from large cities.
13-06 In Latin American cities, the very poor tend to live:
A. on the periphery of the city.
B. in the central business district.
C. in narrow corridors radiating out from the central
business district.
D. in a ring that immediately surrounds the central
business district.
E. in edge cities physically separated from large cities.
Explanation: Like other cities in LDCs, the poor cluster on the
margins in squatter settlements.
13-06
13-07 The illegal process by which banks identify urban areas in
which they will not make residential loans is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
urban renewal.
black-listing.
filtering.
green-belting.
redlining.
13-07 The illegal process by which banks identify urban areas in
which they will not make residential loans is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
urban renewal.
black-listing.
filtering.
green-belting.
redlining.
Explanation: The Community Reinvestment Act requires banks
to demonstrate that loans are fairly distributed throughout their
service area.
13-08 The process by which an inner-city neighborhood is
renovated and attracts middle-class residents is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
annexation.
gentrification.
public housing.
redlining.
urbanization.
13-08 The process by which an inner-city neighborhood is
renovated and attracts middle-class residents is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
annexation.
gentrification.
public housing.
redlining.
urbanization.
Explanation: Renovated housing stock leads to higher tax
receipts for cities as well as higher rents that in turn displace
poorer residents.
13-09 Polls in the United States show that most people prefer to
live in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
city centers.
rural areas.
small towns.
suburbs.
any place that is within 5 miles of work.
13-09 Polls in the United States show that most people prefer to
live in:
A. city centers.
B. rural areas.
C. small towns.
D. suburbs.
E. any place that is within 5 miles of work.
Explanation: Suburbs are widely perceived to offer a host of
amenities and benefits
13-09
13-10 In the United States, local government can best be
described as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
consolidated.
fragmented.
national.
unitary.
urbanized.
13-10 In the United States, local government can best be
described as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
consolidated.
fragmented.
national.
unitary.
urbanized.
Explanation: There are thousands of general and special purpose
governmental units across the country.
14-01 The greatest proportion of energy use in the United States
involves:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
coal.
hydroelectric power.
natural gas.
nuclear power.
petroleum.
14-01 The greatest proportion of energy use in the United States
involves:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
coal.
hydroelectric power.
natural gas.
nuclear power.
petroleum.
Explanation: The rate of energy consumption in the U.S.
continues to grow, albeit at a slower rate since the 1970s.
14-01
14-02 Fossil fuels are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a source of renewable energy.
essentially infinite in supply.
distributed relatively evenly around the globe.
not a significant source of pollution.
None of the above is correct.
14-02 Fossil fuels are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a source of renewable energy.
essentially infinite in supply.
distributed relatively evenly around the globe.
not a significant source of pollution.
None of the above is correct.
Explanation: The supply of fossil fuels is finite and their spatial
distribution is uneven.
14-02
14-03 Which country or region produces the smallest amount of
petroleum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Europe
Middle East
North America
Russia
South America
14-03 Which country or region produces the smallest amount of
petroleum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Europe
Middle East
North America
Russia
South America
Explanation: The North Sea accounts for a small proportion of
the world’s oil.
14-03
14-04 Per capita energy consumption is highest in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
East Asia.
Europe.
Middle East.
North America.
South America.
14-04 Per capita energy consumption is highest in:
A. East Asia.
B. Europe.
C. Middle East.
D. North America.
E. South America.
Explanation: The proportion of energy reserves consumed by
LDCs is expected to rise rapidly in the 21st century.
14-04
14-05 Nuclear energy:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
has a high cost relative to other energy sources.
is most common in less developed countries.
is a renewable resource.
has yet to have significant environmental impacts.
was first produced in the late nineteenth century.
14-05 Nuclear energy:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
has a high cost relative to other energy sources.
is most common in less developed countries.
is a renewable resource.
has yet to have significant environmental impacts.
was first produced in the late nineteenth century.
Explanation: Proven reserves of uranium will last for 70 years at
current rates of use.
14-06 Of the following regions or countries, which is the least
important source of minerals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Australia
China
North America
North Africa
South America
14-06 Of the following regions or countries, which is the least
important source of minerals?
A. Australia
B. China
C. North America
D. North Africa
E. South America
Explanation: Australia and China are among the leading
producers of a host of minerals.
14-06
14-07 The temperature of the atmosphere was highest in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1880.
1920.
1960.
1980.
2000.
14-07 The temperature of the atmosphere was highest in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1880.
1920.
1960.
1980.
2000.
Explanation: The average temperature of Earth’s surface has
increase by 2° Fahrenheit during the past century.
14-07
14-08 Acid precipitation is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
a global phenomenon.
most prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa.
unrelated to prevailing winds.
most common downwind of industrial areas.
None of the above is correct.
14-08 Acid precipitation is:
A. a global phenomenon.
B. most prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa.
C. unrelated to prevailing winds.
D. most common downwind of industrial areas.
E. None of the above is correct.
Explanation: The worst damage from acid rain is not
experienced at the same location as the emission of the
pollutants.
14-08
14-09 Which type of renewable energy produces the most air
pollution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
biomass
hydroelectric
nuclear fusion
solar
wind
14-09 Which type of renewable energy produces the most air
pollution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
biomass
hydroelectric
nuclear fusion
solar
wind
Explanation: Among renewable energy sources, only biomass is
burned.
14-10 Biodiversity in the tropics is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
increased by deforestation.
a function of numbers of species only.
a function of distribution of species only.
unaffected by shifting cultivation.
decreasing due to species extinction.
14-10 Biodiversity in the tropics is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
increased by deforestation.
a function of numbers of species only.
a function of distribution of species only.
unaffected by shifting cultivation.
decreasing due to species extinction.
Explanation: Traditional shifting cultivation is being replaced by
logging, cattle ranching, and plantation agriculture.
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Slide 1