FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING
GRAMMAR REVISION AND EXERCISES
2&3
PRESENT PERFECT & PASSIVE
MARIJA KRZNARIĆ
1
TALKING ABOUT THE PRESENT PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE : PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
HAVE
PAST
HAS
PARTICIPLE
S
up to now
time ----------------------------------------------------------------------
present perfect
present
future
Present Perfect connects the past and the present, something happened in the
past and has some connections with the present moment.
Negative – haven’t, hasn’t
Interrogative - inversion
2
It is used
- to connect the past and the present; the action happened in the past but
we either do not know when it happened or it does not seem to be
important to us - the results or consequences of that action are evident
now:
I have broken my glasses; I am as blind as a bat.
Peter can’t go on holiday, he has broken his leg.
- for things which have happened during a period of time that continues up to
now:
I have been to Africa several times.
John has crashed his car again.
- with adverbs of indefinite time: already, so far, yet = već (?), just , yet = još
(neg.), lately, ever, recently, never, nearly, before ( = već prije):
What’s the best film you have ever seen?
I have never eaten Chinese food.
3
It is used
- if the period of time we are talking about has not finished yet: today, this
morning, this week:
I have written six e-mails this morning. (it is 10 a.m.)
No more cinemas, Mary! You have been to the movies five times this week.
-
with since (+ the starting point of period) and
for (+ length of time):
I have not seen Peter since Christmas.
I have not seen him for six months.
I haven't seen him since he returned.
I haven't seen him since he returned last month.
4
SUPPLY THE PRESENT SIMPLE, PRESENT CONTINUOUS or PRESENT PERFECT
SIMPLE:
1. Someone (use) has used
my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and
the day before!
Well, it wasn't me. I (not, be) haven’t been
2. John (not, be)
out of the house for a week!
at home. He (go) has gone to the pictures again
isn’t
although he (be) has been twice already this week.
3. Why (John, go) does John go to the pictures so often?
I (not, know) don’t know , maybe because he (not, like)
4. Bad students never (work) work
coffee bars or (play) play
TV.
hard, they (spend) spend their spare time in
stupid video games.
5. That girl who (cross) is crossing the street now (be)
friend. She (live) lives
doesn’t like
is my brother’s girl
in London.
And why (she, come) has she come here?
Well, my brother (be) has been in hospital5 for a week now, so she (probably,
come)
has probably come to visit him.
SUPPLY THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or SIMPLE PAST:
1. Columbus (discover)
discovered
2. I (not, see) haven’t seen
America more than 500 years ago.
you for more than a week.
3. I (not, eat) haven’t eaten since I (be) was in Moscow.
4. Since when (you, know) have you known him?
5. How long ago (the last war, be) was the last war ?
6. (You, ever, hear) Have you ever heard Pavarotti singing?
7. I (listen) listened to Pavarotti when I (be)
8. Peter (just, go)
was
in London.
has just gone out, but you can leave a message for him.
9. We (know) have known each other for a long time.
10. She (work) has worked here since 1997.
11. I can’t go on holiday because I (break) have broken my leg.
12. I’m sure we (meet) have met before.
13. I (meet) met
Peter when he (come)
came
6
here last month.
COMPLETE THIS CONVERSATION BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO
THE PRESENT PERFECT or SIMPLE PAST.
Mark: Hello, Jenny.
Jenny: Hello. I (not, see) haven’t seen you since my graduation ceremony.
M.: I (see) saw you downtown a few days ago, but you (not, see) didn’t see
me. I (be) was on a bus.
J.: Well, how are things? Are you still living with your parents?
M.: No, I (move) have moved. I (find) found a small flat just before I (get) got
the job. I (be) have been there for a year now.
J.: (You, pass) Have you passed your driving test yet?
M.: Yes, I have .I (pass) passed it as soon as I (start) started to work. I (not,
buy) haven’t bought a car yet, though. What about you, Jenny? (Anything
exciting, happen) Has anything exciting happened to you lately?
J.: Well, I (get) got married after our graduation.
M.: Congratulation, Jenny! Who is the lucky guy? Do I know him?
J.: I don’t know. We (go) went to high school together.
M.: I (not, know) didn’t know you then. Any children?
J.: Yes. I have a girl. She (be) was born in July last year. And you?
M.: I (not, find) haven’t found my soul-mate yet. And you (not, want) didn’t want
me, remember?
J.: Oh, we (be) were kids then. By the way, you (be) were crazy about Laura, or
(you, forget) have you forgotten ?
haven’t . It (be) was only because
7
M.: No, I
you …..
J.: OK, let’s drop the subject. How about a cup of coffee, my treat?
TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES
1. Sekretarica gospođe Brown je pred jedan sat dobila puno pisama, ali ih još nije
otvorila. Ima pune ruke posla otkako je ušla u ured.
2. Peter, gdje je moja prtljaga? Treba mi mobitel.
Nije ovdje, nosač ju je već odnio u našu sobu. Što će ti mobitel?
Moram nazvati mamu i reći joj da smo stigli.
Nazvat ćeš je kad dođemo u sobu, ima vremena.
3. Peter je posjetio Brownove kad je bio u Londonu, ali ih od tada više nije vidio.
4. Jesi li sinoć vidio prometnu nesreću ispred tvoje kuće?
Ne, nisam.
Ne mogu vjerovati! Zar nisi čuo jedan strašan tresak?
Ne, spavao sam i ništa nisam čuo.
5. Vrijeme je u zadnjih nekoliko dana užasno. Iako je proljeće svaki dan kiša pada i
puše vjetar.
Da, u pravu si. I hladno je već danima.
6. Jesi li u posljednje vrijeme čuo nešto o Tomu? Znaš li gdje je?
8
Ne, ali netko mi je rekao da je otišao u inozemstvo.
Dobio je stipendiju i odlučio da
će studij nastaviti u Poljskoj.
7. Peter mi kaže da si se upravo oženio. Kada je ceremonija održana?
8. Zdravo, Pero. Tako mi je drago što te vidim. Reci mi gdje si bio otkako sam te
zadnji puta vidio.
9. Ne znam što da napravim, izgubio sam ključ od auta i ne mogu se sjetiti gdje sam
ga ostavio.
I što ćeš sada napraviti?
Ako ga ne nađem, razbit ću jedan prozor i ući u auto.
10. Moji su susjedi bili tako dobri prema meni kad su mi roditelji doživjeli prometnu
nesreću da do današnjeg dana nisam zaboravio njihovu ljubaznost. Uvijek su me
pozivali na ručak, vodili u bolnicu posjetiti roditelje i brinuli o mojim ocjenama.
11. Tako mi je drago da je prestala padati kiša. Hajdemo van!
Ali ja još nisam napisao zadaću. Pričekaj još nekoliko minuta.
9
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
HAVE
S
BEEN
-ING
HAS
Negative - haven’t, hasn’t
Interrogative - inversion
It is used
- to express an action beginning in the past, continuing up to the present moment
and probably going on in the future; it emphasises the continuity of the action:
You look tired.
Yes, I have been working all day.
I’ve been translating this letter for two hours but I haven’t finished it yet.
Peter has been sleeping since he came home from school. Is he all right?
Peter has been trying to buy a car since he got the job, but he still hasn’t managed
to save enough.
10
SUPPLY THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS or SIMPLE:
1. Nobody (come) HAS COME to see us since we (live)
this out-of-the-way place.
2. What (you, do)
HAVE BEEN LIVING
in
HAVE YOU BEEN DOING here all day?
I (sit) HAVE BEEN SITTING here writing my presentation, but I (not, quite, finish)
it yet.
HAVE NOT QUITE FINISHED
3. That helicopter (fly) HAS BEEN FLYING
think it’s taking photographs?
round the house for the last hour; do you
4. Do you know that Mary (cry) HAS BEEN CRYING in the kitchen for five minutes?
No, she (not, cry) HASN’T BEEN CRYING , she (peel) HAS BEEN PEELING
onions.
5. Your fingers are very brown. You (smoke)
HAVE BEEN SMOKING
6. Ever since he came to work here that man (try)
trouble.
HAS BEEN TRYING
too much!
to make
7. Peter (not, be) HASN’T BEEN
here since Christmas. I wonder where he (live)
11
HAS BEEN LIVING since then.
INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS:
(HOMEWORK!!!!)
was walking through Hyde Park yesterday afternoon, I (hear)
1. While I (walk) ____________
heard
got
________________
a scream, but before I (get) _____________
to the place where a
was screaming
had already run away.
woman (scream) _________________,
the thief (already, run) ______________
Did he steal
(He, steal) __________________
anything from her?
didn’t
didn’t have
No, he ___________.
He (not, have) ___________________
enough time. She (begin)
began
saw
________________
screaming as soon as she (see) _______________
him.
went
thought
2. Mary (go) ____________to
hospital last week. She (think) _____________
(that) she
hasn’t left
(come) ______________
home in two days but she (not, leave) _______________
her
would come
said
hospital bed yet. The doctor (say) ______________
to her mother that she (probably,
would probably stay in hospital for two weeks to run all the necessary tests.
stay) __________________
has just called
don’t go
3. Peter, (not, go) ______________
anywhere now. Mary (just, call) _______________
would come/was coming in half an hour.
said
and (say) ___________
she (come) _______________________
4. Mr Brown’s secretary (receive) ________________
a lot of letters an hour ago, but
received
doesn’t open
hasn’t opened
she (not, open) __________________
them yet. If she (not, open) ________________
will take
answer
them by noon, her boss (take) ______________
them home and (answer) __________
them himself first thing tomorrow morning.
Taking the Browns’ luggage to the platform, the porter (remember) remembered
5. (Take) _____
_________
12 last week. As Mrs Brown (have) _____
had seen them at the same station
had
he (see) ___________
asked
so many bags and suitcases, he (ask) ____________
another porter for help.
came
to see
6. The Browns (come) __________
(see) __________
me last night. When I (invite)
invited
to stay
said
____________
them (stay) ____________
for dinner, they (say) ________
they (be)
were
was waiting
___________
in a hurry. A friend (wait) ___________________
for them in his hotel.
happens in this village! It (become) ________________
has become
7. Nothing ever (happen) ___________
have drifted
a dead place – all young people (drift) _________________
to towns.
Have you seen Philip lately? I (phone) ____________
phoned
8. (You, see) ________________
several times
answered
last week but nobody (answer) _____________.
has been
flew
Oh, he (be) _______________
in America for the last month. He (fly) _____________
made
to stay
for a conference but then he (make) ____________
up his mind (stay) ____________
for six weeks.
Have you heard from him?
(You, hear) ________________
got
had arrived
Yes, I (get) ____________
an e-mail letter shortly after he (arrive) _______________.
go
was
9. We often (go) ___________
out on Saturday evenings, but it (be) ________
so cold
played
last Saturday that we (stay) _____________
in and (play) ____________
cards.
stayed
did you play
What (you, play) ____________________?
played
lost
We (play) ____________
poker. I (lose) ____________
five pounds. (You, play)
Do you play
_______________
poker?
haven’t played 13 since I (graduate) ____________.
graduated
do
I _______,
but I (not, play) _______________
10. What (the matter, be) ____________
is the matter with you? You (look) _____________
look
awful.
have had a terrible toothache for days.
I (have) ____________
Have you been to the dentist?
(You, be) ______________
have
to take
Yes, I __________,
but he just (tell) _____________
me (take) _____________
some
told
disappears , he (take)
pain-killers and antibiotics. When the swelling (disappear) ____________
will take
_______________
that tooth out.
asked
met
11. When I (meet) _______________
Tom last night, I (ask) ___________
him when
would take
was
he (take) _________________
his degree. I (be) ________
really surprised (hear)
to hear
had already taken it.
____________
that he (already, take) ____________________
was mounting
fell
12. Yesterday our neighbour (fall) ________
while he (mount) _________________
was
the new antenna system on the roof. Fortunately, my father (be) ___________
at
home, so he (take) _________
him to hospital at once. The doctor (say) ___________
took
said
would stay overnight, because he (be) ___________
he (stay) ___________
afraid of possible
was
complications. We (go) ____________
(visit) ___________
him this afternoon.
are going
to visit
is Peter
13. Where (Peter, be) _______________?
was still writing
14 yet. He (still, write) ________________
hasn’t finished his test
Well, he (not, finish) ______________
left / was leaving the classroom.
when I (leave) _________________
PUT THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER (the first words are written in capital
letters):
1. Peter’s, his, dirty, because, has, hands, he, are, mending, bike, been
Peter’s hands are dirty because he has been mending his bike.
2. a, been, since, tennis, I, small, have, I, playing, child, was
I have been playing tennis since I was a small child.
3. was, the, Jenny, good, until, friend, was going to, latest thriller, see, her, no, told, it,
her
Jenny was going to see the latest thriller until her friend told her it was
no good.
4. an, While, was planning, the owner of the company, to give, Mr Black, decided, him,
to retire, extra bonus
While Mr Black was planning to retire, the owner of the company
decided to give him an extra bonus.
5. In, 10, Britain, at night, big, at, o’clock, supermarkets, 7, open, o’clock, close, as late
as, in the morning, and
In Britain big supermarkets open at 7 o’clock in the morning and close as
15
late as 10 o’clock at night,
6. you, any further, You, for two hours, won’t make, study, progress, every other day, if
You won’t make any further progress if you study for two hours every
other day.
7. has, Oxford University, different, which, in the world, colleges, one of the oldest, is,
many
Oxford University, which is one of the oldest in the world, has many
different colleges.
8. manager, her, a, later, promised, Sally’s, in pay, get, year, rise, would, she, that
Saly’s manager promised her she would get a rise in pay later that year.
9. his roommate, he, yesterday, him, Peter, was, that, visit, sure, but, was, going to,
didn’t
Peter was sure that his roommate was going to visit him yesterday but
he didn’t.
10. you, been, Where, so long, have?
Where have you been so long?
met, a cup of coffee, I, and, Well, had, a friend, we
Well, I met a friend and we had a cup16of coffee.
*
CAN & MUST
TENSE
CAN
PRESENT
CAN
SIMPLE
PAST
PRESENT
PERFECT
PAST PERFECT
FUTURE IN THE PAST
WILL
HAVE / HAS
HAD
WOULD
BE ABLE
TO
BEEN ABLE
TO
BEEN ABLE TO
BE ABLE TO
WILL
HAVE / HAS
HAD
WOULD
HAVE TO
HAD TO
HAD TO
HAVE TO
COULD
MUST
MUST
FUTURE
HAD TO
HAVE TO
HAS TO
no continuous; no –s in the 3rd person sing.
must not = ne smjeti; ne morati = don’t have, doesn’t have
17
have to = negative and interrogative with
“TO DO”
TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH:
1. Moram napisati prezentaciju o osiguračima, ali nemam pojma kako se to radi.
Možeš li mi pomoći?
I have to make a presentation about fuses but I don’t have a clue how to do
it. Can/Could you help me?
2. Ne znam ni ja. Pitaj Petra, siguran sam da će ti on moći pomoći.
I don’t know either. Ask Peter, I’m sure he’ll be able to help you.
3. Zdravo, jesi li napravio prezentaciju o kojoj smo pričali neki dan?
Hi, have you made the presentation we were talking about the other day?
4. Ne, još je nisam završio. Petar jučer nije mogao doći i pomoći mi. Sutra ću se
morati primiti posla, rok je blizu.
No, I haven’t finished it yet. Peter couldn’t come and help me yesterday.
I’ll have to get down to work tomorrow, the deadline is near.
5. Kada moraš predati tu prezentaciju?
When do you have to hand in that presentation?
6. Prekosutra.
The day after tomorrow.
18
*
TYPE 0
IF – CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
PRESENT SIMPLE
PRESENT SIMPLE
- is used to express that one thing always follows automatically from another:
If you heat metal, it expands.
If the mains supply fails, the batteries take over.
If you press this switch, the computer comes on.
She glares at me if I go near her desk.
What happens if one bulb in a series circuit burns out?
19
TYPE 1
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
PRESENT SIMPLE
FUTURE
PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT PERFECT
PRESENT (CAN,
MUST...)
-is used to express an open condition (something will happen or it will not happen
in the future):
If it doesn’t rain, the wedding reception will take place in the garden.
Ako ne bude padalo, vjenčanje će se održati u vrtu.
If we are expecting twenty guests, we’ll have to borrow a few chairs from our
neighbours.
Ako očekujemo 20 gostiju, morat ćemo posuditi stolice od susjeda.
20 I’ll buy you an ice-cream.
If you have been a good boy,
Ako si bio dobar, kupit ću ti sladoled.
If you are afraid of flying, take a bus.
Ako se bojiš letenja, idi busom.
If it is raining already, don’t go without an umbrella.
Ako već sada pada kiša, nemoj ići van bez kišobrana.
If you have finished your homework, help me with the dishes.
Ako si završio sa zadaćom, pomozi mi oko suđa.
If I see Ann at school, I can give her the book.
Ako vidim/budem vidio Anu u školi, mogu joj ja dati knjigu.
If it isn’t raining, we can eat outside.
Ako ne pada, možemo jesti vani.
If they have offered you the job, you must accept it.
Ako su ti ponudili posao, moraš ga prihvatiti.
21
SUPPLY THE CORRECT CONDITIONAL VERBAL FORMS (0 or 1) :
1. If you (lift) LIFT up a heavy object, you (use) USE up energy.
2. If I (miss) MISS the bus this afternoon, I (get)
‘LL GET
3. They (refund) REFUND your money if you (keep) KEEP
4. If I (make) MAKE some coffee, (you, cut)
a taxi instead.
your receipt.
WILL YOU CUT
the cake?
5. If you (smoke) SMOKE in a non-smoking compartment, the other passengers
(object) OBJECT/WILL OBJECT .
6. If you (feel) FEEL too hot during the night, (turn) TURN
off the central heating.
7. I always (wake) WAKE up in time even if I (not, set) DON’T SET my alarm clock.
8. If there (not, be) ISN’T enough wine in that bottle, (go) GO
(bring) BRING a new one.
9. The ship (run) WILL RUN
to the cellar and
aground if the pilot (make) MAKES one mistake.
10. They (force) WILL FORCE
DOESN’T COME out.
22 into the house if the convict (not, come)
their way
MAKE A NEW SENTENCE WITH THE SAME MEANING:
1. Mary left this morning. She will probably send us an e-mail tonight.
If Mary leaves/has left this morning, she’ll probably ……..
2. Stop making that noise, I’ll hit you.
If you don’t stop making that noise, I’ll …..
3. You are driving too fast. The police will stop you.
If you are driving too fast, the police …….
4. Be in touch. Use a Samsung mobile phone.
If you want to be in touch, use ……
If you use a Samsung mobile phone, you’ll be in touch.
5. Save money by buying an IBM computer.
If you buy an IMB computer, you’ll save money.
6. The children mustn’t go near Tom’s dog. He’ll bite them.
If children go near Tom’s dog, he’ll bite them.
7. It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside.
23
If it rains, everyone can eat inside.
The Future Perfect
•
Future Perfect has two different forms:
subject
will have done
You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the UK.
and
subject
am
are
is
going to have done
You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the UK.
•
Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.
24
Completed Action Before Something in the Future
The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before
another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen
before a specific time in the future.
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
Will she have learned enough Italian to communicate before she moves to Rome?
Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this
afternoon.
By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
25
How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?
Duration Before Something in the Future
(Non-Continuous Verbs)
The Future Perfect with non-continuous verbs shows that something will
continue up until another action in the future.
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
The Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions
such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc.
Instead of Future Perfect, the Present Perfect is used.
26
I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework.
ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always,
only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
You will only have learned a few words.
Will you only have learned a few words?
You are only going to have learned a few words.
Are you only going to have learned a few words?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passiv 27
FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE or FUTURE
PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1. By 2018 we (live) will have been living in Madrid for 20 years.
2. He (write) will have written a book by the end of the year.
3. (finish, you) Will you have finished this novel by next week?
4. He (read) 'll have been reading this book for 15 days by the end of this
week.
5. They (be) 'll have been married for 40 years by the end of this month.
6. (be, she) Will she have been pregnant for three months this week?
7. When will you send this message? - We (deliver) will have delivered it
by Friday.
8. How long does it take you to rewrite such a report?
Tomorrow I (work) will have been working on it for three days. And I
(finish) will have finished it by 6 p.m.
28
9. Will Sam be ready for the test on Monday?
He (revise)will have been revising for a couple of weeks. But he (not,
revise) will not have revised everything by Monday.
10. Can I have a look at your photos tomorrow?
No, I'm sorry. They (not, develop) will not have been developed
by
tomorrow.
11. Can we start the party at 3 o'clock?
I don't think so. All our guests (not, arrive) will not have arrived by then,
I'm afraid.
The difference between
future perfect and future continuous

29
Future perfect and future continuous
1. (you / retire) Will you have retired by the time you're 60?
2. Next year, I (study) ‘ll be studying maths at university.
3. Hurry up! The film (start) will be starting
soon.
4. There won't be anyone in the office. Everyone (go)
5. Julie (not, work)
won’t be working
will have gone
home.
this time next week. She'll be on holiday!
6. I'm only halfway through my homework. I (not, finish) will not have finished it
before the teacher arrives.
7. Do you think that Les (fix)
will have fixed
8. Don't phone me before 8 o'clock, we (have)
the car by tomorrow?
will be having dinner.
30
ACTIVE
PRESENT TENSES
time -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
present perfect
present
future
continuous
continuous
continuous
HAVE
S
HAS
do
BEEN - ING sada
i
dalje
present perfect
simple
HAVE
PAST
AM
sada
S ARE -ING
IS
sutra
S
BE -ING
WILL
present
simple
future
simple
do
SHALL
S INFINITIVE inače
S
HAS
SHALL
PARTICIPLE sada
S
INFINITIVE
WILL
-(E)S
31
PAST TENSES
time ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
past perfect
continuous
S HAD BEEN - ING
past
continuous
radnja
prije
yesterday
WAS
S
- ING
WERE
past perfect
simple
PAST
S HAD
PARTICIPLE
future-in-the past
continuous
yesterday
past
simple
radnja
prije
yesterday
S
-(E)D
32
S WOULD BE
- ING
future-in-the-past
simple
yesterday
S WOULD
INFINITIVE
DO
DOES
DID
S
who=koga,
kome?
what=što?
where
why
when
how
how much
how many
how often
how long
N
O
T
INFINITIVE
DO
DOES
S
INFINITIVE
DID
-(E)S
WHO = tko?
WHAT = što?
/
/
33
-(E)D
PASSIVE
PRESENT TENSES
time ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
present perfect
present
future
continuous
S
AM
ARE
IS
PAST
BEING
PARTICIPLE
present perfect simple
present simple
B
E
E
N
AM
PAST
S ARE
IS
PARTICIPLE
HAVE
S
HAS
PAST
PARTICIPLE
34
future simple
PAST
S WILL BE
PARTICIPLE
PAST TENSES
time -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
past perfect
past
future-in-the past
continuous
WAS
S
BEING
WERE
past perfect simple
PAST
B
S HAD E
E PARTICIPLE
N
PAST
WAS
PARTICIPLE
past simple
future-in-the past simple
PAST
PAST
S
S WOULD BE
WERE PARTICIPLE
negative  NOT
35
interrogative  INVERSION
PARTICIPLE
INFINITIVE
ACTIVE
PASSIVE
TO INCREASE
TO BE INCREASED
They are going TO INCREASE
overtime rates.
Overtime rates are going TO BE
INCREASED.
CAN, COULD
MUST
HAVE TO, HAS TO
HAD TO
WILL HAVE TO
SHOULD
MAY
MIGHT
BE
36
PAST
PARTICIPLE
TALKING ABOUT THE PASSIVE VOICE
TENSE
ACTIVE
PASSIVE
present
simple
We serve lunch at 12 o’clock
every day.
Lunch is served at 12 o’clock
every day.
present
continuous
We are serving lunch now.
Lunch is being served now.
future
We will serve lunch at 1 o’clock
tomorrow.
Lunch will be served at 1 o’clock
tomorrow.
present
perfect
We have already served lunch.
Lunch has been already served.
past simple
We served lunch at 12
yesterday.
Lunch was served at 12
yesterday.
past
continuous
We were serving lunch from 12
till 1 p.m. yesterday.
Lunch was being served from 12
till 1 p.m. yesterday.
past perfect
We had served lunch before
you came.
Lunch had been served before
you came.
negative: be + not
interrogative: inversion
37
THE PASSIVE VOICE
- is used when the speaker is more interested in the action than in the person(s)
doing the action:
The streets are swept every day.
The gates will be closed this evening.
- is used when we either do not know who the doer of the action is, or it is of little or
no importance:
This castle was built in the 18th century.
My car has been crashed.
- is used far more often in English than in some other languages (in French it is “on”,
in German “man” and in Croatian, the passive voice is often replaced by reflexive
verbs),
- is more usually found in written language than in speech, particularly in scientific
and technical writing to convey information and to develop logical arguments.
38
The first step toward the passive would be converting active into passive. Such
exercises are useful for practical purposes, but the process is essentially an artificial
one. Nevertheless, it will teach us how to form the passive.
The passive tenses are made by putting the verb TO BE into the required tense
(the rules for the use of passive tenses are the same as those for the active) and
adding the Past Participle of the main verb. The object of the active sentence
becomes the subject of the passive one:
They make these suits in Italy.
These suits are made in Italy.
When did they produce the first video
recorders?
When were the first video recorders
produced?
They told us to stop talking.
We were told to stop talking.
Has anyone corrected the mistakes?
Have the mistakes been corrected?
They are making a new road here.
A new road is being made here.
39
Defectives and modals (can, must, may, should..) are followed by BE and the
past participle:
They must take the luggage to the The luggage must be taken to the
check-in desk.
check-in desk.
Somebody can easily mend this door.
This door can easily be mended.
They will have to operate on him
tomorrow.
He will have to be operated on
tomorrow.
Nobody can repair the broken vase.
The broken vase cannot be repaired.
People should cut down that tree.
That tree should be cut down.
Verbs which cannot be passive: become, happen, have (=own), lack,
resemble, seem, stay, suit (=be right for).
Verbs which can be passive: believe, contain, include, intend, know, like, love,
mean, need, owe, own, understand, want.
The agent (the doer of the action), if required, is introduced at the end of the
sentence with BY.
40
PUT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE:
1. Boys play football all over the world.
Football is played all over the world.
2. She is just washing your pullover.
Your pullover is just being washed.
3. They had to write the report yesterday.
The report had to be written yesterday.
4. You will take it to the cleaner's.
It will be taken to the cleaner’s.
5. They have repaired her steering wheel.
Her steering wheel has been repaired.
6. She can serve dinner at 6 p.m.
Dinner can be served at 6 p.m.
7. Her attitude shocked me. (agent)
I was shocked by her attitude.
41
8. Someone must teach that boy a lesson!
That boy must be taught a lesson!
9. When will they paint the house?
When will the house be painted?
10. He hasn’t painted the house since they built it ten years ago. (two passives)
The house hasn’t been painted since it was built ten years ago.
11. Why did they send him to prison?
Why was he sent to prison?
12. Haven’t they promised you a rise in salary?
Haven’t you been promised a rise in salary?
Hasn’t a rise in salary been promised to you?
13. Dickens probably wrote this play. (agent)
This play was probably written by Dickens.
42
PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE
1. All these grammar drills (already, print) HAVE ALREADY BEEN PRINTED
for the students.
2. The museum (open) IS OPENED to visitors every day.
3. These lorries (produce) HAVE BEEN PRODUCED in our factory for ten years.
4. Mary (take)
WAS TAKEN to hospital last week.
5. This picture (always, admire) IS ALWAYS ADMIRED.
.
6. The box (not, open) HASN’T BEEN OPENED for 200 years.
7. The living-room window (break) WAS BROKEN
yesterday.
8. This tragic accident (forget) WILL BE FORGOTTEN in a few years' time.
9. The Browns' children (usually, dress) ARE USUALLY DRESSED very badly.
10. In the past the Tower of London (use) WAS USED as a prison.
11. Mary (give) WAS GIVEN a bulldog for her last birthday.
12. Two of my dinner-plates (break) HAVE BEEN BROKEN so far.
13. My book (publish) WILL BE PUBLISHED next year.
43
PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE:
1. A lot of destroyed houses (re-build) HAVE BEEN RE-BUILT here since my last
visit.
2. The matter (discuss) IS BEING DISCUSSED just now.
3. I (give) WILL BE GIVEN all the details about the trip next Saturday.
4. The door (already, shut) HAS BEEN ALREADY SHUT.
5. Sometimes dinner (serve) IS SERVED here at 7 p.m.
6. Lots of things (find) ARE FOUND on trams and buses every day.
7. I (punish) WILL BE PUNISHED for something I didn't do.
8. Peter (tell) WAS TOLD that all the tickets (already, sell) HAD BEEN ALREADY
SOLD out.
9. A strange man (see) WAS SEEN here an hour ago.
10. Peter (teach)
WAS TAUGHT French when he was in France.
11. After the thief (give) HAD BEEN GIVEN a fair trial, he (send) WAS SENT to
prison.
12. The box (lock) HAS BEEN LOCKED and it can’t (open) BE OPENED now.
13. Several new motorways (build) HAVE BEEN BUILT here but European
standards (not, reach) HAVEN’T BEEN REACHED yet.
14. (You, tell) WERE YOU TOLD at the meeting yesterday that our company (sell)
WOULD BE SOLD to an American businessman?
15. Have you read that our railway system (modernize) WILL BE MODERNIZED
before the beginning of the next holiday season?
44
TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO ENGLISH. USE THE PASSIVE
VOICE WHEREVER POSSIBLE:
1.Ne možete ovdje prelaziti rijeku jer se most upravo popravlja.
The river cannot be crossed here, the bridge is just being repaired.
2. Ljudi se boje jer su pokraj skijaške staze viđeni vukovi.
People are afraid becuase woolves have been seen near the ski track.
3. Shvatio je da će biti kažnjen za ono što je učinio.
He realized that he would be punished for what he had done.
4. Ovo je strašno. Pogledaj! Ozlijeđenog igrača upravo iznose sa terena.
This is terrible. Look! The injured player is being carried away from the
playground.
5. Smeće opet nije odneseno! A svi su računi plaćeni.
Again the garbage hasn’t been taken away! And all the bills have been paid.
6. Ako ti je ruka slomljena, morat će se slikati.
If your arm is broken, it will have to be x-rayed.
45
7. Upravo je objavljeno da je sinoć ubijen jedan od ministara.
It has just been announced that one of the ministers was killed last night.
8. Ovo mi već ide na živce! Takva vrsta oglasa može se vidjeti posvuda.
This is getting on my nerves! Such an advertisement can be seen everywhere.
9. Vjeruje se da Tom ima informacije koje će policija koristiti u istrazi.
It is believed that Tom has the information which will be used in the police
investigation.
10. Čuo sam da nam neće platiti prekovremeni rad.
I have heard that we will not be paid for our overtime hours.
O čemu ti pričaš? Pa nikad nismo ni bili plaćeni za prekovremeni rad.
What are you talking about? We have never been paid for our overtime work.
11. Da li je Tom sinoć uhićen?
Was Tom arrested last night?
Mislim da je, oko 2 u noći probudila me buka policijske sirene.
I think he was, at about 2 a.m. I was waked up by the police siren.
46
PAST PARTICIPLE
ACTIVE
TENSES
PASSIVE
TENSES
ADJECTIVES
SHORTENED PASSIVE
SENTENCES
HAVE/GET SOMETHING
DONE
Peter has
bought
a new car.
If your hand is
broken, it will
be
X-rayed first.
stolen
money
The letter written
yesterday has to be
mailed at once.
While I was having my
hair cut the police towed
away my car.
He said he
The rubbish
had paid
hasn’t been
$ 20.000 for collected yet.
it.
broken
glass
The house built at the
end of the street looks
great.
His house is too small
and he is having a room
built on.
She
wondered
who had
left
the door
open.
The streets in
our town are
swept every
day.
an
infuriated
woman
We have
known
each other
for a long
time.
Those
pyramids were
built around
400 A.D.
a
written
report
Convinced that they were
Do you have your car
trying to poison him, he washed or do you wash it
refused to eat anything.
yourself?
The printer bought
yesterday does not give
good copies.
47
I’ve been getting a lot of
annoying phone calls so
I’m going to have my
number changed.
INSERT PRESENT or PAST PARTICIPLES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
1. There is a (break)
BROKEN
window in the hall. It should be (repair)
BE REPAIRED at once.
2. You said you were (bore)
BORED but I think the lesson was quite (interest)
INTERESTING .
3. Who’s the fat man (sit)
SITTING
in the corner?
I don’t know. I have never (see) SEEN him before.
4. The speaker was so (bore) BORING that most people left before the lecture was
over.
5. Peter is so (interest) INTERESTED
in astronomy that he has already (decide)
DECIDED to study it.
6. I’ll never get (marry) MARRIED ! I don’t want to spend my life (surround)
SURROUNDED by dirty washing and (scream) SCREAMING children.
7. Most of the people (invite) INVITED to the party didn’t turn up so the food was
(take) TAKEN to a charity home.
48
8. Peter’s scholarship will be (grant) GRANTED in a few days. At least he was (tell)
TOLD so.
9. If a story is (excite) EXCITING , you will be (excite) EXCITED when you read it.
10. (Open) OPENING the door of my room, I saw him (drink)
DRINKING my
whisky.
11. He told me somebody had (phone) PHONED while I was out.
12. They were (quarrel) QUARRELLING about the property their father had (leave)
LEFT them when he died.
13. I wanted to go to the theatre last night, but when I got there I saw that it was
(close) CLOSED by the police on the orders of the mayor.
49
ACTIVE : PASSIVE
Active is used when the subject of the
sentence actually DOES the action
expressed by the verb.
Passive is used when the subject of the
sentence DOES NOT DO the action
expressed by the verb, it “suffers” the
action of the verb. Remember the Croatian
word for the Passive Voice!
50
INSERT THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE or ACTIVE:
Solar energy (be)
clean green electricity that (either, create)
IS EITHER CREATED from sunlight or from heat from the sun.
Having solar energy in your home, usually (mean) MEANS setting
up a solar photovoltaic system on your roof. What (photovoltaic,
mean) DOES PHOTOVOLTAIC MEAN ? Photo (stand) STANDS for
light and photons (be) ARE energy particles coming from
sunlight. Voltaic (denote) DENOTES “producing a voltage or
volts”. Abbreviation for “photovoltaic” (be) IS PV.
IS
Solar energy (be) IS one of the renewable energy sources.
Although it (not, be) ISN’T inexhaustible, it (be) IS sustainable
unlike fossil fuels which (be) ARE finite. It is also a non-polluting
source of energy and it (not, emit) DOESN’T EMIT any greenhouse
gases when electricity (produce) IS PRODUCED.
51
The solar energy that (produce) IS PRODUCED can supplement
your entire or partial energy consumption. Using solar power
(mean) MEANS reducing your energy bills and saving money. If a
PV system (install) IS INSTALLED on the roof of your home, the
value of your home (increase) IS INCREASED INCREASES. The
system (require) REQUIRES low maintenance. Solar thermal
applications (be) ARE the most widely used category of solar
energy technology. They (use) USE heat from the sun for water
and space heating, ventilation, and many other applications.
52
INSERT ACTIVE or PASSIVE:
The power of moving water (recognize) WAS RECOGNIZED a long time ago
and rivers (use) HAVE BEEN USED as transport corridors for thousands of years. The
ancient Egyptians, for example, (float) FLOATED down the Nile River on the water
current and they (learn) LEARNED to harness the wind’s energy to sail up it again.
Essentially, river-based water power (be) IS another form of indirect solar energy
because it (use) USES
(drain)
the potential energy in rain water (or melted snow) as it
DRAINS back to the oceans. The available energy (depend) DEPENDS on
the quantity of water and the drop in elevation along the path of flow. The energy in the
stream of water (convert) IS CONVERTED to rotational energy by means of a water
wheel or turbine. One liter of water, falling about 150 meters per second, can generate
one kilowatt of electricity.
Around 200 BC, the water wheel (be)
WAS the first invention created to
harness the mechanical power of water. The water wheel (develop) WAS DEVELOPED
more than 2000 years ago in two forms - horizontal
and vertical. The vertical wheel (first,
53
use) WAS FIRST USED to lift water and drain mining pits.
Soon afterwards, people (recognize) RECOGNIZED that flowing water (can) COULD
turn the wheel. Then dams and channels (build) WERE BUILT to control the flow of
water. The horizontal wheel (can)
COULD drive millstones directly and (be) WAS
simple to build and repair. The vertical wheel (need) NEEDED a pair of gear wheels to
turn the rotating force through 90 degrees but it (be) WAS much more powerful and
efficient.
Water wheels (put)
WERE PUT
to work in a wide variety of activities
during the Middle Ages, which (last) LASTED until the fifteenth century. The power of
water wheels (use) WAS USED to grind grain, make paper and cloth and operate
some kinds of ancient tools. In 1090, a 12-metre high clock driven by waterwheels
(build) WAS BUILT in China.
54
INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS (ACTIVE or PASSIVE, all tenses):
1. Where (transformers, use) ARE TRANSFORMERS USED ?
2. They (tell) WERE TOLD she'd meet them.
3. This project must (study) BE STUDIED
very carefully.
4. The meeting (organize) WAS ORGANIZED as a protest against the war but in the
end it (use) WAS USED by politicians for their own promotion.
5. She (tell) WAS TOLD
to meet them at the airport at 9 p.m..
6. She (tell) TOLD me she (meet) WOULD MEET them at the airport at 9 p.m.
7. We (ask) WERE ASKED what device (use) WAS USED to prevent the short circuit,
but nobody had a clue.
8. The boiler (explode) EXPLODED
while the steam (heat) WAS BEING HEATED to
the temperature of more than 200o C.
9. What (you, do)
WILL YOU DO
if you (win) WIN
55
a million pound?
10. Mary, all these letters must (answer) BE ANSWERED
before you (go) GO
home.
11. Yesterday our geography teacher (explain) WAS EXPLAINING
why Africa
(discover) HAD NOT BEEN DISCOVERED before Australia.
12. The induction motor (construct) WAS CONSTRUCTED more than a hundred
years ago. Tesla (patent) PATENTED it in 1888.
13. What (a power plant, supply)
DOES A POWER PLANT SUPPLY us with?
14. Although it was C. Columbus who (discover) DISCOVERED America, the
continent (name) WAS NAMED
after Amerigo Vespucci.
15. President John F. Kennedy (assassinate) WAS ASSASSINATED in Dallas in 1963,
but the truth about his assassin (never, confirm) HAS NEVER BEEN CONIFIRMED.
.
16. Oldtimers can (see) BE SEEN in the Technical museum from 9 a.m. till 6 p.m.
every day.
17. (You, ever, visit) HAVE YOU EVER VISITED
56
the Mimara art collection?
Not really, but I (hear) HAVE HEARD that since it (open) WAS OPENED
(visit) HAS BEEN VISITED
in 1986, it
by thousands of people.
18. Yesterday evening the club (close) WAS CLOSED by the police because a snitch
(badly injure) HAD BEEN BADLY INJURED
and (leave) LEFT under the staircase.
19. The principles of electromagnetism (first, formulate) WERE FIRST FORMULATED
by Ampere, in whose honour the unit of current intensity (later, name)
WAS LATER NAMED .
20. Energy may (define) BE DEFINED as the capacity for doing work.
21. The principle of the conservation of energy may (state) BE STATED as follows:
"Energy cannot (create) BE CREATED or (destroy) DESTROYED but it may
(convert) BE CONVERTED from one form to another.
22. When the police (open) OPENED his apartment they (find)
FOUND out that he
(be) HAD BEEN dead for two days.
23. The method for storing solar energy (not, discover) HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED
yet although scientists (work) HAVE BEEN WORKING on it very hard for years.
57
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ENGLISH IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 2