Institute on Beginning Reading II
Enhancing Core Reading Instruction
for English Language Learners in Grades 2-3
For
Each
Student
Assessment
For All
Students
Instruction
Goals
Acknowledgments
 Oregon Department of Education
 Institute for the Development of Educational
Achievement, College of Education, University
of Oregon
 U.S. Department of Education,
Office of Special Education Programs
Baker and Arguelles © 2003
2
Copyright
 All materials are copy written and should
not be reproduced or used without
expressed permission of Dr. Scott Baker
or Maria Elena Arguelles. Selected slides
were reproduced from other sources and
original references cited.
Baker and Arguelles © 2003
3
Objectives: What You Will
Learn and Do
The objectives of today’s session are to:
1. Understand the role of assessment in
Reading First with English Language
Learners (ELLs).
2. Identify instructional practices related to
positive academic outcomes for ELLs.
3. Identify methods to enhance core reading
instruction for ELLs.
Baker and Arguelles © 2003
4
Scientific Research in Education
A Body of Knowledge:
 established through analysis of information
collected in specific ways
 in Early Literacy provides foundation for
Beginning Reading Instruction
An Ongoing Process:
 providing principles for collecting new information,
plus analysis and interpretation of information
 in Beginning Reading, provides foundation for
determining ongoing effects
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The Role of Assessment in Reading
First with ELLs
Satisfy both conceptions of Research
 An existing body of knowledge indicates their
use (schools acting on the data) should
improve outcomes for students
 Formative Assessments!!
 Will be part of ongoing procedures to evaluate
effects
 Summative Assessments!!
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Research on How Assessment
Devices Work with ELLs
Examples from a 2-year study with English
Language Learners
Three objectives
1. Collect promising student reading measures
with ELLs in Grade 1
2. Systematically observe beginning reading
instruction in Grade 1 classrooms
3. Investigate the relationship between
instructional practices in reading and student
performance on reading measures
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Investigating Assessment Measures
with ELLs
Primary Languages of Participating Students
Spanish
266 (60%)
Cambodian 14 (3%)
English
85 (19%)
Cantonese 12 (3%)
Somali
23 (5%)
Tagolog
5
(.1%)
Vietnamese 19 (4%)
Chinese
3
(.1%)
Hmong
Laotian
2
(.1%)
16 (4%)
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Investigating Assessment Measures
with ELLs
Student Performance Measures
 DIBELS measures at the beginning and end of
the year
 Phonemic Segmentation Fluency
 Nonsense Word Fluency
 Oral Reading Fluency
 A measure of Reading Comprehension at the
end of the year
 Other “trial” measures
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Investigating Assessment Measures
with ELLs
Systematic Classroom Observations
 Moderate inference instrument
 30 items rated on a 1-7 scale
 General effectiveness items
 Items specifically targeting effective instruction for ELLs
 Items targeting instruction in Reading / Language Arts
Framework
 Observers w/ expertise in ELLs and beginning
reading
 All observations for the duration of the 2.5 hour
reading period
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Results from the Study
Evidence the primary measures had established
reliability and predicted outcomes for English
Language Learners




Meaningful variability in performance
Fluency as an index of “comprehension”
Ability to predict meaningful outcomes
Performance patterns that make sense in the
context of other students
 Providing pictures of growth over time
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Predictive Power with Two
Populations
English Language Learners
r = .62
1 60
1 60
1 40
1 40
O r a l Re a d in g Flu e n c y , S p r in g G r a d e 1
O r a l Re a d in g Flu e n c y , S p r in g G r a d e 1
Native English Speakers
r = .52
1 20
1 00
80
60
40
20
0
1 20
1 00
80
60
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
1 00
0
L e t t e r N a m in g F lu e n c y, F a ll G r a d e 1
20
40
60
80
1 00
L e t t e r N a m in g F lu e n c y, F a ll G r a d e 1
Evidence for both the Predictive
Variable and the Outcome Variable
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Results from the Study
Evidence for Predicting Outcomes with English language
learners
Correlations With Oral Reading Fluency, Spring Grade 1
English
Speakers
(n = 85)
ELL Not
Spanish
(n = 98)
ELL Spanish
(n = 265)
LNF Fall G1
.52
.53
.62
PSF Fall G1
.29
.33
.41
NWF Fall G1
.60
.62
.72
All correlations are significant, p < .01
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Results from the Study
But What about Comprehension?
Correlations With Reading Comprehension, Spring Grade 1
English
Speakers
(n = 85)
ELL Not
Spanish
(n = 98)
ELL Spanish
(n = 227)
LNF Fall G1
.39
.37
.47
PSF Fall G1
.27
.25
.42
NWF Fall G1
.31
.38
.45
All correlations are significant, p < .01
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Results from the Study
Predicting Reading Outcomes Over Time: The Shape
of Things To Come
DIBELS Sample
English Language
Learner Sample
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Relevancy of DIBELS Benchmarks
for English Language Learners
Students Who Met
Grade 2 Benchmark
Risk Status at End
of Grade 1
DIBELS Sample
(n = 342)
ELL Sample
(n = 247)
High:
ORF < 10
0 / 51
0%
2 / 42
5%
Moderate:
ORF = 10 - 39
About 64 / 193
33 %
12 / 105
11%
Low:
ORF > 39
95 / 98
97%
67 / 100
67%
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Results from the Study
Reading Growth of English Language Learners From Grade 1 to 2:
The “Matthew Effect” in Action
45
40
35
30
Actual
ORF 25
Growth 20
15
10
5
0
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
Grade 1 Percentile Rank
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General Conclusions of Study
Findings Related to Assessment
 Evidence that DIBELS also measures important
reading outcomes with English Language
Learners
 Initial evidence that outcomes of English
Language Learners at the end of Grade 1 is an
important predictor of future reading
performance
 If the second point is true then:
A key issue becomes determining what
influences reading performance at the end of
Grade 1
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General Conclusions of Study
Findings Related to Assessment
“Potential” Variables that Influence Reading
Outcomes
 Reading performance at beginning of the year
 Evidenced by correlations between measures at
beginning and end of the year
 English Language Learner Status: i.e., ELL or
fluent English speaker
 Among English Language Learners -- level of
English language proficiency
 Reading Instruction throughout the year
Also possible that some combination of variables
“interact” to influence optimal reading outcomes
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General Conclusions of Study
Findings Related to Assessment
Separate “Predictors” of Grade 1 ORF Benchmark
90
80
70
% of
Students 60
Meeting 50
40
Benchmark 30
20
10
0
Index on
Each
Variable
High
Moderate
Low
Nonsense English Explicit Sheltered
Word Proficiency Teaching Teaching
Fluency
Predictor Variables
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General Conclusions of Study
Findings Related to Assessment
Combination of Three Variables Influencing Grade 1
Benchmark Performance
100
90
80
% of
70
Students 60
Meeting
50
Benchmark
40
30
20
10
0
Very High
High
Low
Very Low
“Index” on 3-Variable Combination
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General Conclusions of Study Findings
Related to Observations and Outcomes
Explicit Teaching Improves the Odds of Strong
Outcomes
 Items from the Observation Instrument:




Models skills and strategies during the lesson
Makes relationships among concepts overt
Emphasizes distinctive features of new concepts
Provides scaffolds in how to use strategies, skills,
and concepts
 Focus of literacy activities changes regularly
 Adjusts use of English to make concepts
comprehensible
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General Conclusions of Study Findings
Related to Observations and Outcomes
Sheltered Teaching Techniques Improve the Odds
of Strong Outcomes
 Items from the Observation Instrument




Uses visuals and manipulatives to teach content
Provides explicit instruction in English language use
Encourages students to give elaborate responses
Uses gestures and facial expressions in teaching
vocabulary and clarifying meaning of content
Baker and Arguelles © 2003
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Objectives: What You Will
Learn and Do
The objectives of today’s session are to:
1. Understand the role of assessment in
Reading First with English Language
Learners (ELLs).
2. Identify instructional practices related to
positive academic outcomes for ELLs.
3. Identify methods to enhance core reading
instruction for ELLs.
Baker and Arguelles © 2003
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Instructional Practices Related to
Positive Academic Outcomes
 The common instructional practices found
across successful classrooms were the
following:





Many opportunities for students to produce the skill
Strategic integration of content
Judicious use of differentiated instruction
Ample review of skills
Specific instruction on vocabulary
Key finding: Highly successful teachers displayed a
seamless integration of instructional objectives.
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 The following examples demonstrate the
utilization and integration of the
instructional practices observed during
the study.
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill and
content integration.
 Instructional Objective: Integrating Phonics and Vocabulary
 First set of target words included the following:
 b oy
 en
joy
 oy
ster
 Student blended sounds and gave sentences with target words
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill,
content integration, and ample review.
 Instructional Objective: Integrating phonics and vocabulary
 Second set of target words included the following:
 Voice, spoil, noise:
 Each word defined by students or the teacher & used in a
sentence
 Discussion about similarity among words: voice, similar, noise,
boy, enjoy, oyster
 Students answer questions & discuss
 Critical objective was to make sure students understood sounds were the
same but spellings were different
 Review 30 minutes later: students given definitions and
required to identify target words
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Content integration, ample review,
and student production of the skill.
 Instructional Objective: Integrating Phonological Awareness
and Vocabulary
 Sound for the Day: /aw/ (saw, straw, haul)
 During Instruction: Teacher said sounds slowly & students said
the word
 Use of different methods of Vocabulary Instruction
 Multiple meaning words (e.g., two kinds of “saw”)
 Giving and discussing definitions (e.g., discussed meaning of straw)
 Multiple methods of understanding (e.g., vivid demonstration of
“haul”)
 Students had to use each word in a sentence
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill and
frequent vocabulary instruction
 Instructional Objective: Vocabulary building
 7 minutes into the lesson there was a short vocabulary activity
 Words from upcoming story were written on the board:
 Photo — student gives sentence; teacher shows a photograph,
discusses, & uses in a sentence
 Graph — teacher shows graph of class’s favorite character (Little Miss
Muffet); uses different colored chalk to highlight; students explain the
term
 Elephant — student gives a sentence; discussion of how an elephant is
different than other animals
 Telephone — two students gave definitions and used in sentences
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Judicious use of differentiated
instruction and opportunities to practice the skill
 Instructional Objective: Teaching phonological segmenting
 Most Intense Instruction with Students Most At Risk
 Daily small group instruction with three English language
learners
 During one lesson the target words were: fat, fit, fast, pit
 Lesson emphasis on:
 students hearing individual sounds;
 seeing patterns (beginning /f/, middle vowel);
 each student producing each sound multiple times
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Specific instruction on
vocabulary and opportunities to produce the skill.
Key Factors Related to Building Vocabulary
 Focus on a small number of critical words
 Multiple exposures to build depth of knowledge
 Provide many opportunities for oral & writing practice
 Introduce new words before they are encountered in
reading
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Integrating vocabulary and
comprehension instruction, opportunities to produce skill, and
specific instruction on vocabulary (previous day)
 Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story
“Clyde the Monster”
 Difficult vocabulary was taught the day before
 Students wrote vocabulary words in notebooks they would
use the next day
 Students read the story with the teacher
 Then they wrote a letter to Clyde
 Teacher modeled extensively
 Students required to use specific vocabulary
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Integrating vocabulary and
comprehension instruction, specific instruction on vocabulary
and opportunities to produce skill
 Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story
“Strange Bumps” by Arnold Lobel
 Before Reading Activities
 In preparing to read, students prompted to use “reading
strategies” -- students identified what those strategies were
 Emphasis on doing “what good readers do”)
 Class browses through the book
 Importance of understanding: “Brain can see what’s
happening in the story”
 Teacher uses “think alouds” during this warm-up to model
getting ready to read
(Lesson continues on next slides)
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading
the story “Strange Bumps” by Arnold Lobel
(continued from previous slide)
 Before Reading Activities
 Prior to reading the story there was a short vocabulary
lesson
 Target words included: darkness, pleasant, tonight
 Explanations / discussions of target words were short
& context specific; usually with synonyms
 Students explained word meanings;
 Teacher gave summary definition of each word
(lesson continues)
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story
“Strange Bumps” by Arnold Lobel (continued from previous
slides)
 During Story Reading Activities
 During the reading of the story, target words were identified
and students and teacher discussed briefly
 During this initial reading of the story, frequent pauses to
address comprehension
 Students’ attention drawn to central question: “What could
those bumps be?” (interjected throughout story)
 Students required to use clues and “evidence” from the story
to discuss this central question and other story-related
questions.
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Opportunities to produce
skill and ample review of skills
 Instructional Objective: Building fluency
 Less commonly observed than instruction on the other
essential early literacy skills
 When observed, teachers provided fluency building
by:
 Working in pairs or partners for practice
 Providing specific time for rereading texts
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Positive Instructional Practices
Related to ELLs
 Instructional Practices Used: Opportunities to produce
skill and ample review of skills
 Instructional Objective: Building fluency through
pairing or partnering students
 Short focused interactions -- teacher monitored and listened for
“good” reading and discussions
 Students took turns reading -- always discussed what was
read;
 Connections made to the text and their own experiences
 Discussion with partner about what they do when afraid; after reading
“Strange Bumps” with partner
 Partner work was also a vehicle for language use
 Followed by “seminars” with the whole class
 Strong academic emphasis in partner work
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Application Activity
 Think about this discussion and write
down two ideas or instructional practices
you can use with your ELL students to
improve their reading skills.
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Objectives: What You Will
Learn and Do
The objectives of today’s session are to:
1. Understand the role of assessment in
Reading First with English Language
Learners (ELLs).
2. Identify instructional practices related to
positive academic outcomes for ELLs.
3. Identify methods to enhance core reading
instruction for ELLs.
Baker and Arguelles © 2003
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Essential Skills for ELLs in 2nd & 3rd
Grades
 Vocabulary and Language Development
 Fluency and Accuracy in Reading Connected
Text
 Comprehension Skills and Strategies
 Instructional Features in Analyzing Text
 Vocabulary
 Grammatical structures
 Cohesive devices
 Rhetorical devices
 Phraseological patterning
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Analyzing Text
Text 1: Icebergs and Glaciers
The thicker the glacier the faster it moves. That’s
because the greater weight of the glacier causes the
crystals of ice to creep more rapidly. Also, a steep
glacier will flow much more quickly than one on level
land.
Temperature is a third factor that affects the speed of
a glacier. The warmer the glacier the faster the ice
moves because there is a greater amount of meltwater
beneath the ice. In fact, scientists sometimes group
glaciers together depending upon whether they are cold
or warm. But even “warm” glaciers are still freezing.
From Icebergs and Glaciers, by Seymor Simon ©1993 by Creative Education
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Analyzing Text
Text 2: Collecting Rocks and Crystals
Introducing Rocks and Crystals
Rocks and crystals are the raw materials of the
Earth’s surface-the material beneath every hill and
valley, mountain and plain. Some are just a few million
years old. Others are almost as old as the Earth.
What are rocks?
Rocks are never far beneath the ground. They are
only exposed on the surface in a few places-such as
bare rock outcrops, cliff faces and quarries. But dig
down almost anywhere on the Earth’s surface and you
will come to solid rock before long.
(lesson continues)
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Analyzing Text
Text 2: Collecting Rocks and Crystals (cont.)
Like the other smaller planets in the solar
system, our world is made almost entirely from
rock. The Earth is a bit like a perfectly boiled eggwith a semi-liquid yolk or “core,” surrounded by a
thick, soft layer called the mantle, and covered by
a thin hard shell called the crust. The core in the
very center is metal but the crust and the mantel
are entirely from rock.
From collecting Rocks and Crystals, by John Frandon ©1999 by Quarto, Inc
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Analyzing Text
Text 3: Mourning Cloak Caterpillar
What It Looks Like
The mourning cloak caterpillar is black with white
speckles and a row of red diamonds on its back with
black bristles. It has shiny eyes. It grows about as
long as your ring finger.
When this caterpillar becomes a butterfly, its
wings are mostly dark-colored, like old-fashioned
funeral shawls worn by women. That is how they got
the name “mourning cloak.”
From Caterpillars, Bugs, and Butterflies, by Mel Boring ©1996 by NorthWord Press
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Analyzing Text
Text 4: Volcanoes
Volcanoes that erupt regularly are known as Active
Volcanoes. There are about six hundred active
volcanoes on the Earth’s surface. However, only fifty to
sixty active volcanoes erupt in any given year.
Whether sitting in silence or erupting with violence,
volcanoes have intrigued people for thousands of years.
In an attempt to explain the immense power and
unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, our ancient
ancestors created myths about evil gods that lived within
volcanoes. When angered, the gods would display their
fury with eruptions.
(lesson continues)
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Analyzing Text
Text 4: Volcanoes (cont.)
Today, scientists explain volcanoes without relying
on angry gods. However, the true causes for Volcanic
Eruptions are as fascinating as the ancient myths.
From Volcanoes, by Michael George ©1993 by Creative
Education.
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General Principles for Instruction
When Teaching ELLs
Instructional Principle
Why Important?
Provide “think alouds”
Set clear goals for
language and content
Tap student’s prior
knowledge
Use visuals &
manipulatives
Teach key vocabulary
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General Principles for Instruction
When Teaching ELLs
Instructional Principle
Why Important?
Adjust speech
Provide practice and
application
Provide corrective
feedback
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Focusing on Language
“No matter what subjects teachers are
teaching, no matter what materials they are
covering, they must give some attention to
language every single day and on each and
every subject which is being taught.”
Lily Wong Filmore (2001)
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Conversational v. Academic
Language
 Distinguishing between different purposes of
language used in school settings is important.
 Students learning a second language require different
periods of time to develop age-appropriate levels of
conversational skills when compared to academic
language skills (Cummins, 1981). While there will be
individual differences, most children approach nativelike proficiency of conversational skills in two years,
but seven to 10 years of school exposure for are
required for the development of academic language
skills.
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Vocabulary & Language
Development
 Focus on a small number of critical words
 Emphasize the words over time
 Use stories and writing projects as contexts for
vocabulary learning
 To the extent possible, choose readings
containing only a limited number of new words.
Readings should be considered
comprehensible input i.e. just slightly above the
student’s true reading level at present.
(Gersten & Baker, 2000)
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Vocabulary & Language
Development
 Teach students different word learning and
recognition strategies to apply on their own
while they are reading.
 Use segments of class time in which the
teacher directly teaches key vocabulary.
 Provide multiple exposures of the word to build
depth of knowledge.
 Preteach critical vocabulary prior to student
reading (Rosseau, Tam, & Ramnarain, 1993).
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Vocabulary & Language
Development
 Provide ELLs with frequent opportunities to use
oral language in the classroom.
 Active, daily language use should be structured to
include both conversational and academic
discourse (Gersten & Baker, 2000).
 Teach students to distinguish and look-up words
that seem most essential to the meaning of the
text such as those that are repeated four or five
times (Birch, 2002).
 Teach students how to look at morphological cues
within the word that might indicate something
about its meaning or part of speech (Osburne & Mulling, 2001).
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Fluency and Accuracy in Reading
Connected Text
 Using repeated reading, teacher modeling, and
progress monitoring was effective in improving
the oral reading fluency, and to a lesser degree,
reading comprehension, for at risk, beginning
bilingual readers (De la Colina, Parker, Hasbrouk, & Lara-Alecio, 2001).
 Disfluent ELL often read syllable by syllable in
their native language and may attempt to use
this strategy while reading in English.
 Purposefully partner students to provide ample
opportunities for practice in fluent reading (Klingner
& Vaughn, 1996).
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Fluency and Accuracy in Reading
Connected Text
 Provide opportunities for choral reading.
 Choral reading encourages ELL students to read
aloud, provides them with models of pronunciation
and rhythm for reading, and prepares them to read
the selection on their own (Lapp, James, & Tinajero 1994).
 Make explicit the skills good readers use and
model how they are applied to reading in
English.
 Provide opportunities for students to reread
books using audiotapes (Blum, Koskinen, Tennant, Parker,
Straub, & Curry, 1995).
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Comprehension Skills and Strategies
 Provide explicit instruction in comprehension
strategies before, during, and after reading.
 Use different levels of questions when
discussing text.
 Be aware of teacher talk that may be confusing
to ELL.
 Provide support to students by “thinking aloud”
(Gersten & Jiménez, 2002).
 Preview new concepts.
 Use photos, artifacts, and hands-on activities before
the lesson and discuss the concepts after the lesson to
clarify and review.
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Comprehension Skills and Strategies
 Use semantic maps that delineate an array of
relationships (Reyes & Bos, 1998).
 Use visuals based on text structures such as think
sheets, story maps, because they help students
visualize the abstractions of language. Because
the spoken word is fleeting, visual aids such as
graphic organizers, concept and story maps, and
word banks give students a concrete system to
process, reflect on, and integrate information (Gersten &
Baker, 2000)
 Build background knowledge before reading
(Saunders, 1998).
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Comprehension Skills and Strategies
 Actively involve all students and summarize
frequently.
 Include opportunities for discussions of read
alouds.
 Check comprehension and monitor progress
frequently.
 Provide explicit instruction in the physical
presentation of text and/or text structure.
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Comprehension Skills and Strategies
 Engaging students in identifying big ideas in a
text and in graphically depicting the
relationships among these ideas improves
student recall and comprehension of text (RAND,
2002).
 Teaching comprehension strategies explicitly
improves student outcomes.
 There is some evidence that ELLs have more
difficulty utilizing context than their monolingual
peers (Nagy, McClure, & Montserrat, 1997).
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
 Key features of text that might present
difficulty for ELL students
 Vocabulary
 Grammatical structures
 Cohesive devices
 Rhetorical devices
 Phraseological patterning
(Snow & Wong Filmore, 2001)
The following text selections will be used to
illustrate these features.
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Vocabulary
 Which words and phrases from the Text 4 are
associated with a volcano schema?
____________________________________
 Which words are associated with geology?
____________________________________
 Words must be considered in their context
 Examine the phrases in which words are used
 How would you call attention to these phrases?
___________________________________________
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Grammatical Structure and Devices
“In an attempt to explain the immense power and
unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, our ancient
ancestors created myths about evil gods that lived
within volcanoes.”






Who was attempting to explain?
What does ancient ancestors mean?
What were these people attempting to explain?
Why were they attempting to explain it?
What does “unpredictable behavior” mean?
So how did the ancient ancestors explain the power
and unpredictability of the volcanoes?
 What were the myths about?
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Grammatical Structure and Devices
 Once unpacked, the sentence might look like this:
“People in ancient times didn’t understand how
volcanoes worked and why they were so powerful.
They knew they were powerful, but did not know
how they got their power. They could not predict
what volcanoes would do. They tried to explain
volcanoes by inventing stories about them. They
created myths about gods. The gods in these
myths were evil. These evil gods lived inside the
volcanoes?
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Grammatical Structure and Devices
 Relative clauses provide explicit information about
someone or something.
“Volcanoes that erupt regularly and evil gods that
lived within volcanoes”
 Other relative pronouns are
who, whom, which, whose X, and where
Snow & Wong Filmore, 2001
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Cohesive Devices
 How could you help your students become aware of
various sentence structures?
____________________________________________
 Why is it important for ELL students to be aware of
differing sentence structures?
____________________________________________
Whether sitting in silence or erupting with violence,
volcanoes have intrigued people for thousands of years. In
an attempt to explain the immense power and
unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, our ancient
ancestors created myths about evil gods that lived within
volcanoes. When angered, the gods would display their
fury with eruptions.
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Rhetorical Devices
 What is the writer doing here?
“our ancient ancestors created myths” instead of
“ancient myths told about…”
 Why is it important to bring ELLs attention to this
type of rhetorical device?
 Why does the author begin two sentences with the
word “however”? How is it used and what does it
mean?
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
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Instructional Features in Analyzing
Text
Phraseological Patterning
 Academic texts often include phrases such as:
“in any given year,”
“in an attempt to explain,”
 What other phrases can you find in our sample
passage that might be difficult for an ELL student
to understand?
_______________________________
_______________________________
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Application Activity
 What information do you want to share
with your school team members regarding
this discussion?
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