Jefferson: Liberty and Literacy BASIC EDUCATION Crusade Against Ignorance “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, it expects what never was and never will be.” Thomas Jefferson “the most important bill in our whole code is that for the diffusion of knowledge among the people.” (1786) Tozer, 32 For a deist like Jefferson, ignorance was sin. Classical Liberals REACT AGAINST Feudalism Things that the colonies didn’t like…. Wanted to avoid in the future…. A CLOSED SOCIETY Hierarchy King, Nobility, Clergy, Knights, Peasants Aristocracy at the top, and no middle class. Classical & Modern Liberals believe in the idea of an OPEN SOCIETY with social mobility with some limits (women, slaves). Feudalism Classical Liberalism State control economy State religion Divine Right of Kings Merchant Capitalism Separation of church/state Republicanism (Citizens) Enlightenment Period CHANGING VIEW OF MAN SEEDS OF CHANGE for Liberalism For Example: Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Tozer, 29-34) REASON Belief in man’s ability to reason, to explain the world through scientific exploration. Galileo claimed the sun is the center of the solar system (geocentric vs. heliocentric universe). What was the reaction of the Church to this claim? In 1632, he was tried by the Inquisition, forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. GOVERNMENT OF LIBERAL STATE British political philosopher JOHN LOCKE --more open society, freedoms, & participation Tozer, Chapter 2, 29-34 DEMOCRACY John Locke (1632-1704) “Two Treatises on Government” Outlines a liberal state (1690) Representative Government Not simply Jefferson’s ideas But of a long list of Classical Liberal Philosophers Inalienable Rights “no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possession” “No man's knowledge can go beyond his experience.” Reasonable people would follow the laws of civil society, not everyone is as reasonable as needed, so the state is allowed some control over citizens. JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY CLASSICAL LIBERALISM CONCERNS…. Balance between INDIVIDUAL FREEDOMS and the stability of a STATE which protects freedoms. COMMUNITY, STATE, FEDERAL Levels In a Liberal Democratic State, Government….a delicate balance Could infringe upon civil liberties by government only for important reasons. But government had to be controlled because of the fear of too much governmental inference (laissez faire) Free from control by the church. Free of corruption from elected officials. What was needed? The right education. A system to educate citizens to control appetites and exercise tempered reason to participate in self-governance. HUMAN NATURE HUMAN POTENTIAL Locke’s most famous concept about human nature and learning Mind is a BLANK SLATE (destiny in your own hands, not pre-destiny determined by God) (Tozer, 31) Man is not born ready for self-governance, but man has capacity for reason and virtue. Needs to be shaped in childhood through EXPERIENCES and EDUCATION. JEFFERSON’S VISION OF DEMOCRACY Liberal States need citizens educated to be: Self-governing Trustworthy Hard working individuals Obey laws and participate in making laws (voice) Contribute to governing the larger community JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY WAS BUILT UPON: Six Elements of Classical Liberalism IDEOLOGY Views of how society should work, justifies institutions, defines human nature, and progress. What kind of schooling was needed? Reason Man had the ability to reason, to understand, and discover truth, but capacity differed Certain groups were excluded from full freedoms and rights because they were viewed as having limited reason and restricted public roles due to their function in society (for example—women, African Americans) Virtue Austerity, hard work, sacrifice for common good, duty to God, follow dictate of conscience Women had special virtues modesty, piety, caring, follow authority in private sphere Men had to bring their virtues to the public sphere Progress Control over physical and social relations through the right institutions and education Improve the quality of life, through improvement of imperfect social conditions Nationalism Commitment to the nation state, American identity Natural Law World was governed by discoverable laws, discover what OUGHT to be, “the universe is a machine” Four Freedoms: intellectual (capacity to discover truth, break from Church control, faith in progress, faith in science) political (break from Church control, voting for white, male land owners) civic (daily life—Bill of Rights) economic (to keep what you earned) JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY LIBERTY AND LITERACY Jefferson’s schooling goal for ordinary citizens was basic literacy. A beginning…led to Political skills by white males were learned over time by reading the newspaper and experiences in local politics. After local political experience, some would become leaders at the state and federal levels. Tozer, Chapter 2, 36-37 DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS Jefferson characterizes democracy as the best form of government, not just so people can be free, but because PARTICIPATION in democratic government allows them to develop their moral and rational capacities. SCHOOL Jefferson’s Education Plan for Virginia See Tozer, 38-45 Jefferson’s Ideal to Educate Citizens for a Liberal Republic PROPOSAL The 4 interrelated tiers and their purposes: 1. Elementary for boys and girls (3 years, basic skills) 3 years of FREE elementary school for both boys and girls who were white Subject matter: reading, writing, arithmetic, history (Greek, Roman, English, American-- to judge mistakes of the past) 2. Grammar for boys only (up to 6 years, advanced skills and languages). Model already existed as tuition schools for a small group able to afford it. Languages were at center of curriculum (Greek, Latin, English), advanced math, geometry, geography, and navigation 3. University for some boys (study of science) 4. Self-Education and life-long learning (Libraries, newspapers) “The people are the ultimate guardians of their own liberty.” Difference of opinion leads to inquiry, inquiry leads to truth. AIMS What were Jefferson’s two main goals for his proposed school plan in Virginia? JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY NEEDED CITIZENS & AN EDUCATED LEADERSHIP GOALS WERE: 1. To equip the population to function effectively in the political, economic, and private spheres of life (3 years of basic education, boys and girls). 2. To identify future political leaders, a new “natural aristocracy (grammar and university for some boys). Education was a way to maximize happiness, provide opportunity for individuals, and to benefit society. How did Jefferson plan to break the hold of family privilege (aristocracy) and the power of wealth in politics, and replace it with a natural aristocracy? The old aristocracy was born to hold power Jefferson’s view of the natural aristocracy– elite should be based on virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38) Belief in merit supported a sorting model for advancing in school. “the best geniuses would be raked from the rubbish” and educated at public expense” “brains over wealth” (Jefferson) AN EDUCATED ELITE Work your way up Jefferson proposed 3 levels of formal education for boys -basic education for all, select certain boys for the grammar school, and a few for the university. University Grammar Basic What kind of a social system? Select the correct answer. 1. A social system that provides an equal chance for all to develop their abilities and to advance in the social hierarchy is a ____________. a. democracy b. autocracy c. meritocracy d. hegemony MERIT *Those who are the most talented and work hard deserve rewards. How does it operate in schools? Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and ability (merit), AND NOT BY rather than by wealth (plutocracy), family connections (nepotism), class privilege (oligarchy), friends (cronyism), seniority (gerontocracy), popularity (as in democracy) or other historical determinants of social position and political power. In a meritocracy, society rewards (by wealth, position, and social status) those who demonstrate talent and competence, demonstrated through past actions or by competition. JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY carried the limits-Only middle class, white men with property were viewed as full citizens. Jefferson’s educational plan reflected the limits of liberalism’s ideas about capacities and roles of women, Native Americans, and African Americans (see Tozer, 43-46). Slaves sought schooling secretly, for example, in “sewing schools”, they associated literacy and freedom Why was education limited for women? IDEOLOGY Traditional liberal views of women and their roles shaped women’s position in society and views about their education. (Tozer, Ch. 2) BELIEF RELIGION Protestant view that Adam formed first, and women were responsible for original sin. BELIEFS of SCIENCE --WOMEN’S NATURE more emotion, less reason (physically smaller brains, weaker) BELIEF WOMEN’S ROLE IN PRIVATE SPHERE--duties as wives, mothers, and some role in home production-- HAD NO DUTY IN PUBLIC SPHERE Limits of Classical Liberalism for Women Why educate women? Jefferson innovative in wanting 3 years of basic education for girls-because women managed home and family. Pre-Revolution Idealized vision of wife in 1700s Virginia At home, a wife needs literacy for home production and charity. At home, a wife assists to educate children. Jefferson did not consider equality for women even though women like Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792 were challenging liberals to give women complete equality. Primary Reading: Benjamin Banneker argues against the view of a limited capacity of African Americans. Were limited by degradation caused by conditions of slavery. Challenges classical liberal views on equality. Jefferson comments on lack of “civilization” in Africa as well. “No one wishes more than me” to see change...brief response. Banneker’s Intent: To provide proof of the capacity for reason among African Americans, his own accomplishments of the Almanac, in his own handwriting. Logic of his argument to “all men created equal”: Brutality of slavery God made all human beings the same Duty of Christians to help everyone Same-- tyranny of the King, is like the tyranny of slavery. Quotes Jefferson’s own words about equality and freedom. Be sure to remember that Jefferson’s Elementary School Proposal NEVER PASSED in Virginia No State Law for funding schools No 3-year basic education for boys and girls No scholarships for grammar or university schooling for those who are poor but show academic talent. EXTRA NOTES Political Economy AGRARIAN BASE WHO was the model citizen according to Jefferson? He was self-sufficient and selfgoverning. VIRGINIA– 1780 -1820s (Tozer, 24) Yeoman farmer, self-sufficient, hard working, modest (90% in agriculture) The family (based on patriarchy) was the primary unit of production Connected to others through small rural communities where citizens made decisions about local issues. What should be the outcomes of basic schooling? (Jefferson’s Rockfish Gap Proposal, 1818, it was Jefferson’s 3rd unsuccessful school proposal) See Tozer, Chapter 2, 40 Elementary Education (3 years for boys and girls) Information to transact business Writing, Reading, Calculation Would 3 years of basic education Improved Morals be adequate for Jefferson’s Understanding duties time period? Knowledge of rights Ability to vote intelligently (males) Ability to judge office holders Ability to fulfill social relationships Rockfish Gap 1818 How would you characterize Jefferson’s plan for university education for a select few? University Education POLITICAL LEADERSHIP Political leaders Knowledge leading to political freedom Improve the economy Understanding of science and math to promote general health, security, comfort Habits of reflection and correct actions, render them models of virtue to others and bring happiness to themselves KEY TAKEWAYS Summary Classical Liberalism LIBERTY AND LITERARY What determined your role in society under classical liberal thinking? Gender, property, race, …(schooling) Classical liberal view---Your “right” to participate in society depended upon your “capacity” to reason and your nature (laws of God and nature). Slavery, justified by capacity of AA, civilization level, slavery was protected by Constitution, BUT slavery meant that white owners were tyrannical (like a KING) and oppressive in dealing with slaves 1. REASON (classical liberals believed that you could overcome original sin, and reason as an autonomous person, the proof of human capacity for reason was Enlightenment thought) 2. VIRTUE (moral sense is innate, in greater or lesser degree, may be strengthened, humans could be good or evil, shaped by education) Both were needed for a successful Republican (representative) government. VIRTUES WERE Duty, piety, love of country, austere living, strict observance of the moral code, work ethic, sacrifice for the public good Women’s virtues were different from men: piety, submissiveness, purity, domesticity What was the psychology of learning of Jefferson’s day? Faculty Psychology comes out of colonial school model (Tozer, 42). Mind as a muscle, needs "exercise" and discipline. Idleness ruins the mind Mind is empty, put information into the mind (empty vessel). “You’ve got to pump up your puny brain muscles” Hans and Frans Would you say that we have a NATURAL ARISTOCRACY of public service today? WEALTH IN CONGRESS TODAY: Financial disclosure forms released by the nation's 100 senators show there are at least 40 millionaires among them -22 Republicans and 18 Democrats. By contrast, less than 1% of the U.S. population has a net worth of $1 million or more. Jefferson’s view of the natural aristocracy– elite should be based on virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38) John ADAMS’ OBJECTIONS Is Jefferson’s educational system the best way to locate leaders? At the time, John Adams argues NO Agrees there are differences in men BUT CAUTIONS Many kinds of talents We should have no aristocracy at all Any concentration of power is bad. Lemann, 45-45 Adams is saying (Lemann article) Power corrupts, and if you privilege a certain group, they will soon work to preserve their power and could become corrupt. Jefferson’s Natural Aristocracy produced by merit system— this idea is so modern. WOULD JEFFERSON’S “Natural Aristocracy” SERVE THE PUBLIC OR develop SELF-INTERESTS and want to preserve their power and influence? (see Lemann,45-46) What is supposed to fight against corruption in a representative government? ** Disclosure/Transparency Voting the bums out Modern Plan to identify a “Natural Aristocracy” and uproot the “old aristocracy” at Harvard put forth by James Bryant Conant President of Harvard in the 1930s TELL THE STORY –KEY IDEAS Conant reads Jefferson’s 1813 letter to John Adams about the natural aristocracy, the idea becomes the centerpiece of Conant’s thinking. (Lemann, 42) CONANT BELIEVES THAT: Depression of the 1930s shows we need leadership Harvard is known as a party school for the wealthy (not research and scholarship like today) Country needs an educated political elite. He assumes opportunity for all—but does not consider other problems in schools like segregation, limited access for higher education for women. The country needs a kind of classless society. He orders the creation of the SAT, establishes ETS, changes college admissions forever Target Group for Conant Most academically talented—Aptitude rather than achievement-a natural intelligence. STRICT SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS What is CONANT’S UTOPIAN IDEAL? 1. Governing elite selected on merit. 2. Equal opportunity for everyone. Role of Elite Colleges: 1. To serve the most talented-needed methods of identification and scholarships. 2. Elites would come from all classes and geographical areas– a kind of “classless” society. What did Conant mean? 3. Scholarship students would do public service SAT TODAY What are some of the main concerns about SAT scores? One concern is “Differences in scores by group have persisted.” WHAT CAUSES THESE DIFFERENCES? WHAT CAN EDUCATORS AND POLICY MAKERS DO TO EVEN THE PLAYING FIELD? Gender Males score higher than females *Class 2005 SAT Averages But females have higher grades in high school and college Verbal Math *Family education *Urban and rural students Asians score higher than whites in math Since 1970s Minority students score lower than white students * Race/Ethnicity Males Females 513 505 538 504 Influences scores +++ higher Influences scores ----lower Asian White AA Hispanic 511 532 433 463 580 536 431 469 Here are average SAT scores in various categories for the high school class of 2010. By score and group: 1721: Students reporting family incomes of more than $200,000 a year 1714: Students who had taken AP or honors courses in natural sciences 1636: Asians 1580: Whites 1558: Students who took core curriculum 1546: Students who previously took PSAT/NMSQT (a pre-SAT) 1523: Boys 1510: Students reporting family incomes of $60,000 to $80,000 a year 1509: National average 1496: Girls Test takers averaged 1,509 points out of a possible 2,400 in three sections, the same as last year. Nearly 1.6 million members of the class of 2010 took the test, a record. Of those, 41.5% were minorities, up from 40% last year. College Board officials characterized the flat one-year change as encouraging because average scores typically drop as more students, and a more diverse range of students, take the test. They also noted that, over the last 10 years, as the minority participation rate grew 78.3%, math scores have climbed 2 points while critical reading scores have declined 4 points. WHO SCORES HIGHEST? Here are average SAT scores in various categories for the high school class of 2010. By score and group: 1721: Students reporting family incomes of more than $200,000 a year 1714: Students who had taken AP or honors courses in natural sciences 1636: Asians 1580: Whites 1558: Students who took core curriculum 1546: Students who previously took PSAT/NMSQT (a pre-SAT) 1523: Boys 1510: Students reporting family incomes of $60,000 to $80,000 a year 1509: National average 1496: Girls 1444: American Indian or Alaskan natives 1407: Students who did not take core curriculum 1400: Students who did not take PSAT/NMSQT 1369: Mexican and Mexican Americans 1363: Latinos (excluding Mexicans, Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans) 1349: Puerto Ricans 1329: Students reporting family incomes of less than $20,000 a year 1277: African Americans Source: SAT 2010 What are the results of the SAT nationally? http://www.collegeboard.com/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/links.html Archived SAT DATA 2005 Tables and Related Items Location: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/table17-mean-SAT-scores.pdf Parental Education: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/graph15-2005mean-SAT-scores.pdf Race/Etnicity: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/graph10-mean-SAT- scores.pdf CHARTS CONNECTED TO RACE/ETHNICITY, GENDER, URBAN VS. RUAL VS. SUBURBAN, PARENTAL EDUCATION Target Group for Conant was the most academically talented—Aptitude rather than achievement-a natural intelligence. SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS Conant “wielding the axe against the root of inherited privilege”. Scholarships for natural aristocracy to benefit all the people because of the public service life expected. End those seeking an education for status. The most academic education is only needed by the natural aristocracy, and some professions like law and medicine, not by business leaders. Result of Conant’s Plan Not a utopia, wealth is still an advantage. SAT not an unbiased test. Opportunity not open to all. Some high scoring students do gain entrance to elite universities. Many seek advantages for entrance to elite universities. Not a classless society. Elite universities still serving a large portion of upper class and upper middle class student population. What does the SAT measure? How well does the SAT work for social engineering of the “natural aristocracy”? What does the SAT actually do? SAT is A standardized test A high stakes test A test that shows consistent results over the years with certain demographic groups A test that favors those who have good testing skills and some preparation in testing. Outcomes reflect the quality of K-12 schooling experiences Deserves some scrutiny about its uses for college admissions. The Big Test: The Secret History of the SAT Obsession--crowds out other indicators Nicholas Lemann: Can you prepare to take the SAT and raise your score? “10 million Frenchmen can’t be wrong” No good studies on test preparation. ETS argues that test preparation classes only raise scores an average of about 25 points. Kaplan claims preparation classes raise scores an average of 125-150 points. No impartial studies CONCERN How well does the SAT work for social engineering of the “natural aristocracy”? What does the SAT actually do? The SAT I is validated for just one purpose: predicting first-year college grades. The correlation between college grades and SAT scores is approximately r = .42. This value indicates a moderate positive relationship. In other words, students who have higher SAT scores tend to do acceptable work in college. What other factors also contribute significantly to your success in college? Who should we choose for UIUC? A wide range of students are successful at UIUC—band, music, athletes, scholarship students, rural and urban students-- What measures college ability? Among these, what measures potential best? ACT, SAT CLASS RANK GPA TYPE OF COURSES TAKEN IN High School –honors, AP EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES “Illinois is a diverse state, and we are trying to reflect SPECIAL TALENTS UIUC 21,000 applicants for 7,000 slots Berkeley 30,000 for 3,500 the demographics of the state of Illinois as best we can” (Marshall, UI Associate Provost) SAT scores of UIUC students 2007 Freshman RANGE OF SCORES SAT Score of UIUC Freshman 1400-1600 20% 1200-1399 52% 1000-1199 25% 999 or below 3% ACT 30-36 33% 18-23 12% 24-29 54%, <17 1% Take out a piece of paper and work with your neighbors. How many non-overlapping spaces can you cut the SHADED space of the donut into with just 2 straight lines? Give a number. See Reading Table for Next Week’s Assignment Tozer, Chapter 5 1900-Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline///shows/sats/test/solve.html Last question on Lecture Write #3 We will do together. Caution: We will not solve the diversity in admissions debate in higher education in this class, but we can judge the role played by standardized tests. 5. (Video) What did research by former Presidents of Harvard and Princeton (Bok and Bowen, in their book The Shape of the River) at elite private colleges show about minority students who were admitted under broader admissions criteria than just SAT scores regarding the impact of minority students after graduation? Why did elite colleges value a diverse student body? Early Scholarship Recipient James Tobin, of Champaign IL Nobel Prize in Economics 1981 I was born in Champaign in 1918. From the neighborhood elementary and intermediate schools, I went to the University High School. University High School prepared me exceptionally well for Harvard, even though neither the school nor I ever thought that midwestern teen-agers might go to a prestigious expensive eastern college a thousand miles away. I happily took for granted that I would attend the very good local university and probably go on to its law school. Harvard was my father's idea. By chance, President James B. Conant of Harvard was just then inaugurating national full-cost scholarships designed to diversify the geographical, scholastic, and social sources of the student body, and he was starting with the midwestern states. All this my father learned because he habitually read the New York Times in the public library. So, I wrote in June three days of entrance exams for which I had neither received nor made any special preparation. I learned the amazing good news in August, and in September 1935, on the train to Boston, I left the midwest for the first time. Who should we choose for UIUC? A wide range of students are successful at UIUC—band, music, athletes, scholarship students, rural and urban students-- What measures college ability? Among these, what measures potential best? ACT, SAT CLASS RANK GPA TYPE OF COURSES TAKEN IN High School –honors, AP EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES “Illinois is a diverse state, and we are trying to reflect SPECIAL TALENTS UIUC 21,000 applicants for 7,000 slots Berkeley 30,000 for 3,500 the demographics of the state of Illinois as best we can” (Marshall, UI Associate Provost) SAT scores of UIUC students 2007 Freshman RANGE OF SCORES SAT Score of UIUC Freshman 1400-1600 20% 1200-1399 52% 1000-1199 25% 999 or below 3% ACT 30-36 33% 18-23 12% 24-29 54%, <17 1% Feel Deserving of a Scholarship? 50 COE $1,000 scholarships for next year Must be already enrolled in Pre-teacher education or wait until you have been admitted to the Certification Program GPA just one part of award formula Due March 2011 2010-2011 Scholarships Applications College of Education Undergraduate Scholarships Deadline 3 short essays (250 word each) are required plus other materials Awards Based ON: Academic Record, Commitment to the Profession, and Service (Professional Development and Volunteer Work with Students), Elementary and Secondary Levels are eligible. http://education.illinois.edu/saao/undergradawards/ “Illinois is a diverse state, and we are trying to reflect the demographics of the state of Illinois as best we can” (Marshall, UI Associate Provost) CLASS OF 2010 (22,365 applicants --14,000 accepted -- 7,172 attend) Men 50.8% 90 counties, majority from Suburban Cook County 58 % TOP 10 PERCENT OF HS CLASS 12% TOP 1 PERCENT OF THEIR CLASS Racial/Ethnic Make-up 64% CAUCASIAN 12% ASIAN/PACIFIC ISLANDER 8% AFRICAN AMERICAN 9% HISPANIC .2% NATIVE AMERICAN 5% INTERNATIONAL AVERAGE ACT score is 27 University Goal: 18% underrepresented minorities How important is K-12 schooling in the preparation of students to compete for college slots? In success in college? We have to make hard choices about college admissions. We can’t all go to UI. But we don’t have to make hard choices about K-12 admissions. How can we even the playing field for opportunity to compete for college? Primary Reading: Virtue and Religion Benjamin Rush wants to keep the religious character of schooling. Did not say how this would be done, rely on local community to decide. Schools will promote homogeneity, peace and harmony. Without religion, there is no virtue, and without virtue no republic. A Christian cannot fail to be a republican-humility, self-denial, kindness. Duty to creator, like the duty to country. Schools masters are the authority, students learn habits of obedience and subordination. BELIEFS – in DEMOCRACY and role of CITIZEN Jefferson argued for some of the elements of democratic empowerment of each citizen that would be part of our modern sensibilities. Believing in the individual’s rights and responsibility to participate publicly. [But Jefferson had limits views by social role, class, race, and gender. For example: initially voting rights were given only to white males with property, women could not vote, free Black males had restricted voting rights] Having a sense of political efficacy—that YOU can make a difference. [male voters, especially at local level] Coming to value the principles of democratic life—equality, community, and liberty [limited by classical liberalism]. Knowing that alternative social arrangements to the status quo exist and are worthwhile [limited by classical liberalism] Gaining the requisite intellectual skills to participate in deliberation--public debate. [Education was critical] Conclusions about post-revolutionary America What was the state of schools between 1776 and 1830? Summary Jefferson desired: “A government should be too weak to aid the wolves yet strong enough to protect the sheep.” Saw schools as playing an important role in sustaining the new democracy— LIBERTY AND LITERACY. At this time, there were: Some Schools-- but no PUBLIC SYSTEM (no state funds) LOCAL ISSUE Regional differences in availability of schools (Virginia vs. Massachusetts) Schooling was more available to boys (public role in politics) Religious influences from colonial schooling model still operating in schools Curriculum: Rote learning of 3 R’s at a basic, elementary level New Americanized textbooks produced by Noah Webster in 1880s Strict discipline COMPETITION FOR SLOTS in BEST UNIVERSITIES We rely heavily on standardized tests SAT IS A TEST TO SORT STUDENTS, CREATES A NUMBER THAT IS SIMPLE TO USE, may crowd out other indicators of skills and talents. How does the quality of school (honors, AP, gifted programs) effect the outcome on the SAT (or ACT)? K-12 Education plays an important role What are the benefits for high SAT/ACT scores? What does the SAT measure? Prior 201/202 lecture responses: Aptitude (IQ) Potential Analytic Skills Comprehension Math Verbal Test Preparation and Taking Skills Cultural Knowledge Skills learned in school Quality of school experiences Fairness argument: Same Test for all. Concern: Same Preparation for all? Test-makers acknowledge that high school gradepoint average (GPA) or class rank are the best predictors of first-year grades, despite the huge variation among high schools and courses. Standardized testing never seems to end. SAT IS A TEST TO SORT STUDENTS, CREATES A NUMBER THAT IS SIMPLE TO USE, may crowd out other indicators of skills and talents. Good luck when you take your special skills tests for your teaching certificate. Good luck when you apply to graduate school. Freshman in Engineering Grades in math class? Some students with HIGH SAT Math SCORES LOW GRADES LOW SAT Math SCORES HIGH GRADES In this study GPA is a more reliable predictor of college level performance.