Jefferson: Liberty and Literacy
BASIC EDUCATION
Crusade Against Ignorance
“If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, it expects what
never was and never will be.”
Thomas Jefferson
“the most important bill in our whole code is that
for the diffusion of knowledge among the
people.” (1786) Tozer, 32
For a deist like Jefferson, ignorance was sin.
Classical Liberals REACT AGAINST Feudalism
Things that the colonies didn’t like….
Wanted to avoid in the future….
A CLOSED SOCIETY Hierarchy
King, Nobility, Clergy, Knights,
Peasants Aristocracy at the top, and
no middle class.
Classical & Modern Liberals
believe in the idea of an OPEN
SOCIETY with social mobility
with some limits (women, slaves).

Feudalism
Classical Liberalism

State control economy
State religion
Divine Right of Kings
Merchant Capitalism
Separation of church/state
Republicanism (Citizens)


Enlightenment Period
CHANGING VIEW OF MAN
SEEDS OF CHANGE for Liberalism
For Example: Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Tozer, 29-34)
REASON Belief in man’s ability to reason, to explain
the world through scientific exploration.
 Galileo claimed the sun is the center of the solar
system (geocentric vs. heliocentric universe).
What was the reaction of the Church to this claim?

In 1632, he was tried by
the Inquisition, forced
to recant, and
spent the rest of his life
under house arrest.
GOVERNMENT OF LIBERAL STATE
British political philosopher JOHN LOCKE
--more open society, freedoms, & participation
Tozer, Chapter 2, 29-34 DEMOCRACY
John Locke (1632-1704) “Two Treatises on Government”
Outlines a liberal state (1690)




Representative Government
Not simply Jefferson’s ideas
But of a long list of
Classical Liberal Philosophers
Inalienable Rights “no one ought to harm another in his life, health,
liberty or possession”
“No man's knowledge can go beyond his experience.”
Reasonable people would follow the laws of civil society, not everyone
is as reasonable as needed, so the state is allowed some control over
citizens.
JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY
CLASSICAL LIBERALISM CONCERNS….
Balance between INDIVIDUAL FREEDOMS and the stability of a
STATE which protects freedoms.
COMMUNITY, STATE, FEDERAL Levels
In a Liberal Democratic State, Government….a delicate balance
 Could infringe upon civil liberties by government only for
important reasons.
 But government had to be controlled because of the fear of too
much governmental inference (laissez faire)
 Free from control by the church.
 Free of corruption from elected officials.
What was needed? The right education.
A system to educate citizens to control appetites and exercise
tempered reason to participate in self-governance.
HUMAN NATURE
HUMAN POTENTIAL
Locke’s most famous concept about human nature and
learning Mind is a BLANK SLATE (destiny in your own
hands, not pre-destiny determined by God) (Tozer, 31)
Man is not born ready
for self-governance,
but man has capacity
for reason and virtue.
Needs to be shaped in
childhood through
EXPERIENCES
and
EDUCATION.
JEFFERSON’S VISION OF DEMOCRACY
Liberal States need citizens educated to be:
Self-governing
Trustworthy
Hard working individuals
Obey laws and participate in making laws (voice)
Contribute to governing the larger community
JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY WAS BUILT UPON:
Six Elements of Classical Liberalism IDEOLOGY
Views of how society should work, justifies institutions, defines
human nature, and progress. What kind of schooling was needed?
Reason

Man had the ability to reason, to understand, and discover truth, but capacity differed

Certain groups were excluded from full freedoms and rights because they were viewed as having limited reason
and restricted public roles due to their function in society (for example—women, African Americans)
Virtue

Austerity, hard work, sacrifice for common good, duty to God, follow dictate of conscience

Women had special virtues modesty, piety, caring, follow authority in private sphere

Men had to bring their virtues to the public sphere
Progress

Control over physical and social relations through the right institutions and education

Improve the quality of life, through improvement of imperfect social conditions
Nationalism
Commitment to the nation state, American identity
Natural Law

World was governed by discoverable laws, discover what OUGHT to be, “the universe is a machine”
Four Freedoms:

intellectual (capacity to discover truth, break from Church control, faith in progress, faith in science)

political (break from Church control, voting for white, male land owners)

civic (daily life—Bill of Rights)

economic (to keep what you earned)
JEFFERSON’S
DEMOCRACY
LIBERTY AND LITERACY


Jefferson’s schooling goal for ordinary citizens was basic
literacy. A beginning…led to
Political skills by white males were learned over time by reading
the newspaper and experiences in local politics. After local
political experience, some would become leaders at the state and
federal levels.
Tozer, Chapter 2, 36-37 DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS
 Jefferson characterizes democracy as the best form of government,
not just so people can be free, but because PARTICIPATION in
democratic government allows them to develop their moral and
rational capacities.
SCHOOL Jefferson’s Education
Plan for Virginia See Tozer, 38-45
Jefferson’s Ideal to Educate
Citizens for a Liberal Republic
PROPOSAL The 4 interrelated tiers and their purposes:
1. Elementary for boys and girls (3 years, basic skills) 3 years of FREE
elementary school for both boys and girls who were white

Subject matter: reading, writing, arithmetic, history (Greek,
Roman, English, American-- to judge mistakes of the past)
2. Grammar for boys only (up to 6 years, advanced skills and languages).
Model already existed as tuition schools for a small group able to afford
it.

Languages were at center of curriculum (Greek, Latin,
English), advanced math, geometry, geography, and navigation
3. University for some boys (study of science)
4. Self-Education and life-long learning (Libraries, newspapers)
“The people are the ultimate guardians of their own liberty.”
Difference of opinion leads to inquiry, inquiry leads to truth.
AIMS What were Jefferson’s two main
goals for his proposed school plan in Virginia?
JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY NEEDED
CITIZENS & AN EDUCATED LEADERSHIP
GOALS WERE:
1. To equip the population to function effectively in the
political, economic, and private spheres of life (3 years
of basic education, boys and girls).
2. To identify future political leaders, a new “natural
aristocracy (grammar and university for some boys).
Education was a way to maximize happiness, provide
opportunity for individuals, and to benefit society.
How did Jefferson plan to break the hold
of family privilege (aristocracy) and the
power of wealth in politics, and replace it
with a natural aristocracy?
The old aristocracy
was born to hold power
Jefferson’s view of the
natural aristocracy–
elite should be based on
virtue and talent
(Tozer, 36-38)
Belief in merit supported a sorting model for advancing in
school. “the best geniuses would be raked from the rubbish”
and educated at public expense” “brains over wealth”
(Jefferson) AN EDUCATED ELITE
Work your way up
Jefferson proposed
3 levels of formal
education for boys
-basic education for
all, select certain
boys for the
grammar school,
and a few
for the university.
University
Grammar
Basic
What kind of a social system?
Select the correct answer.
1. A social system that provides an equal chance for all
to develop their abilities and to advance in the social
hierarchy is a ____________.
a. democracy
b. autocracy
c. meritocracy
d. hegemony
MERIT *Those who are the most talented and work hard
deserve rewards. How does it operate in schools?

Meritocracy is a system of a government or another
organization wherein appointments are made and
responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and
ability (merit), AND NOT BY rather than by wealth
(plutocracy), family connections (nepotism), class privilege
(oligarchy), friends (cronyism), seniority (gerontocracy),
popularity (as in democracy) or other historical
determinants of social position and political power.

In a meritocracy, society rewards (by wealth, position, and
social status) those who demonstrate talent and competence,
demonstrated through past actions or by competition.
JEFFERSON’S DEMOCRACY
carried the limits-Only middle class, white men with
property were viewed as full citizens.
Jefferson’s educational plan
reflected the limits of
liberalism’s ideas about
capacities and roles of women,
Native Americans, and African
Americans (see Tozer, 43-46).

Slaves sought schooling
secretly, for example, in
“sewing schools”, they
associated literacy and freedom
Why was education limited for women?
IDEOLOGY Traditional liberal views of women
and their roles shaped women’s position in society
and views about their education. (Tozer, Ch. 2)



BELIEF RELIGION Protestant view that Adam
formed first, and women were responsible for
original sin.
BELIEFS of SCIENCE --WOMEN’S NATURE
more emotion, less reason (physically smaller
brains, weaker)
BELIEF WOMEN’S ROLE IN PRIVATE
SPHERE--duties as wives, mothers, and some role
in home production-- HAD NO DUTY IN
PUBLIC SPHERE
Limits of Classical Liberalism for Women
Why educate women? Jefferson innovative in
wanting 3 years of basic education for girls-because women managed home and family.
Pre-Revolution
Idealized vision of wife in
1700s Virginia
At home, a wife needs
literacy for home
production and charity.
At home, a wife assists to
educate children.
Jefferson did not consider equality for
women even though women like Mary
Wollstonecraft in 1792 were
challenging liberals to give women
complete equality.
Primary Reading: Benjamin Banneker argues against the view of a
limited capacity of African Americans. Were limited by degradation
caused by conditions of slavery. Challenges classical liberal views on
equality. Jefferson comments on lack of “civilization” in Africa as
well. “No one wishes more than me” to see change...brief response.

Banneker’s Intent: To provide proof of the capacity for reason among
African Americans, his own accomplishments of the Almanac, in his own
handwriting.
Logic of his argument to “all men created equal”:

Brutality of slavery

God made all human beings the same

Duty of Christians to help everyone

Same-- tyranny of the King, is like the tyranny of slavery. Quotes
Jefferson’s own words about equality and freedom.
Be sure to remember that
Jefferson’s Elementary School Proposal
NEVER PASSED in Virginia

No State Law for funding schools

No 3-year basic education for boys
and girls

No scholarships for grammar or
university schooling for those who
are poor but show academic talent.

EXTRA NOTES
Political Economy AGRARIAN BASE
WHO was the model citizen according to
Jefferson? He was self-sufficient and selfgoverning. VIRGINIA– 1780 -1820s (Tozer, 24)



Yeoman farmer, self-sufficient,
hard working, modest (90% in
agriculture)
The family (based on
patriarchy) was the primary
unit of production
Connected to others through
small rural communities where
citizens made decisions about
local issues.
What should be the outcomes of basic schooling?
(Jefferson’s Rockfish Gap Proposal, 1818, it was
Jefferson’s 3rd unsuccessful school proposal)
See Tozer, Chapter 2, 40
Elementary Education (3 years for boys and girls)
 Information to transact business
 Writing, Reading, Calculation
Would 3 years of basic education
 Improved Morals
be adequate for Jefferson’s
 Understanding duties
time period?
 Knowledge of rights
 Ability to vote intelligently (males)


Ability to judge office holders
Ability to fulfill social relationships
Rockfish Gap 1818
How would you characterize Jefferson’s plan for
university education for a select few?
University Education POLITICAL LEADERSHIP





Political leaders
Knowledge leading to political freedom
Improve the economy
Understanding of science and math to promote general
health, security, comfort
Habits of reflection and correct actions, render them
models of virtue to others and bring happiness to
themselves
KEY TAKEWAYS Summary Classical Liberalism
LIBERTY AND LITERARY
What determined your role in society under classical
liberal thinking? Gender, property, race, …(schooling)
Classical liberal view---Your “right” to participate in society depended upon your
“capacity” to reason and your nature (laws of God and nature).

Slavery, justified by capacity of AA, civilization level, slavery was protected by
Constitution, BUT slavery meant that white owners were tyrannical (like a KING)
and oppressive in dealing with slaves
1. REASON (classical liberals believed that you could overcome original sin, and
reason as an autonomous person, the proof of human capacity for reason was
Enlightenment thought)
2. VIRTUE (moral sense is innate, in greater or lesser degree, may be strengthened,
humans could be good or evil, shaped by education)
Both were needed for a successful Republican (representative) government.
VIRTUES WERE Duty, piety, love of country, austere living, strict observance of the
moral code, work ethic, sacrifice for the public good

Women’s virtues were different from men: piety, submissiveness, purity,
domesticity
What was the psychology of learning of
Jefferson’s day? Faculty Psychology comes out
of colonial school model (Tozer, 42).
Mind as a muscle, needs
"exercise" and discipline.
 Idleness ruins the mind
Mind is empty, put information
into the mind (empty vessel).
“You’ve got to pump up your
puny brain muscles”
Hans and Frans
Would you say that we have a NATURAL
ARISTOCRACY of public service today?

WEALTH IN CONGRESS TODAY: Financial
disclosure forms released by the nation's 100 senators
show there are at least 40 millionaires among them -22 Republicans and 18 Democrats. By contrast, less than
1% of the U.S. population has a net worth of $1 million or
more.
Jefferson’s view of the natural
aristocracy– elite should be based on
virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38)
John ADAMS’ OBJECTIONS
Is Jefferson’s educational system the best way to
locate leaders?
At the time, John Adams argues NO
Agrees there are differences in men
 BUT CAUTIONS
 Many kinds of talents
 We should have no aristocracy at all
 Any concentration of power is bad.
Lemann, 45-45

Adams is saying (Lemann article)
Power corrupts, and if you privilege a certain
group, they will soon work to preserve their
power and could become corrupt.
Jefferson’s Natural Aristocracy
produced by merit system—
this idea is so modern.
WOULD JEFFERSON’S “Natural Aristocracy”
SERVE THE PUBLIC OR develop
SELF-INTERESTS and want to preserve their
power and influence? (see Lemann,45-46)

What is supposed to fight against corruption
in a representative government? **
 Disclosure/Transparency
 Voting the bums out
Modern Plan to identify a “Natural Aristocracy”
and uproot the “old aristocracy” at Harvard
put forth by James Bryant Conant
President of Harvard in the 1930s
TELL THE STORY –KEY IDEAS

Conant reads Jefferson’s 1813 letter to John Adams
about the natural aristocracy, the idea becomes the
centerpiece of Conant’s thinking. (Lemann, 42)
CONANT BELIEVES THAT:

Depression of the 1930s shows we need leadership

Harvard is known as a party school for the wealthy
(not research and scholarship like today)

Country needs an educated political elite.

He assumes opportunity for all—but does not consider
other problems in schools like segregation, limited
access for higher education for women.

The country needs a kind of classless society.

He orders the creation of the SAT, establishes ETS,
changes college admissions forever
Target Group for Conant
Most academically talented—Aptitude
rather than achievement-a natural intelligence.
STRICT SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS
What is CONANT’S UTOPIAN IDEAL?
1. Governing elite selected on merit.
2. Equal opportunity for everyone.
Role of Elite Colleges:
1. To serve the most talented-needed methods of
identification and scholarships.
2. Elites would come from all classes and
geographical areas– a kind of “classless”
society. What did Conant mean?
3. Scholarship students would do public service
SAT TODAY What are some of the main concerns about SAT scores?
One concern is “Differences in scores by group have persisted.”
WHAT CAUSES THESE DIFFERENCES?
WHAT CAN EDUCATORS AND POLICY MAKERS DO TO EVEN
THE PLAYING FIELD?

Gender

Males score higher than
females


*Class



2005 SAT Averages
But females have higher
grades in high school and
college
Verbal Math


*Family education
*Urban and rural students

Asians score higher than
whites in math
Since 1970s Minority
students score lower than
white students


* Race/Ethnicity





Males
Females
513
505
538
504
Influences scores +++ higher
Influences scores ----lower
Asian
White
AA
Hispanic
511
532
433
463
580
536
431
469
Here are average SAT scores in various categories
for the high school class of 2010.
By score and group:










1721: Students reporting family incomes
of more than $200,000 a year
1714: Students who had taken AP
or honors courses in natural sciences
1636: Asians
1580: Whites
1558: Students who took core curriculum
1546: Students who previously took PSAT/NMSQT (a pre-SAT)
1523: Boys
1510: Students reporting family incomes
of $60,000 to $80,000 a year
1509: National average
1496: Girls
Test takers averaged 1,509 points out of a possible 2,400 in three sections, the same as last year.
Nearly 1.6 million members of the class of 2010 took the test, a record. Of those, 41.5% were minorities, up from
40% last year.
College Board officials characterized the flat one-year change as encouraging because average scores typically drop
as more students, and a more diverse range of students, take the test. They also noted that, over the last 10 years, as
the minority participation rate grew 78.3%, math scores have climbed 2 points while critical reading scores have
declined 4 points.
WHO SCORES HIGHEST?

Here are average SAT scores in various categories for the high school class of 2010.
By score and group:

1721: Students reporting family incomes
of more than $200,000 a year

1714: Students who had taken AP
or honors courses in natural sciences

1636: Asians

1580: Whites

1558: Students who took core curriculum

1546: Students who previously took PSAT/NMSQT (a pre-SAT)

1523: Boys

1510: Students reporting family incomes
of $60,000 to $80,000 a year

1509: National average

1496: Girls

1444: American Indian
or Alaskan natives

1407: Students who did not take
core curriculum

1400: Students who did not take
PSAT/NMSQT

1369: Mexican and Mexican Americans

1363: Latinos (excluding Mexicans,
Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans)

1349: Puerto Ricans

1329: Students reporting family incomes
of less than $20,000 a year

1277: African Americans
Source: SAT 2010
What are the results
of the SAT nationally?
http://www.collegeboard.com/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/links.html
Archived SAT DATA
2005 Tables and Related Items
Location: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/table17-mean-SAT-scores.pdf
Parental Education: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/graph15-2005mean-SAT-scores.pdf
Race/Etnicity:
http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2005/graph10-mean-SAT-
scores.pdf
CHARTS CONNECTED TO RACE/ETHNICITY, GENDER, URBAN VS. RUAL
VS. SUBURBAN, PARENTAL EDUCATION
Target Group for Conant was the most academically
talented—Aptitude rather than achievement-a natural
intelligence. SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS

Conant “wielding the axe against the root of inherited
privilege”.

Scholarships for natural aristocracy to benefit all the people
because of the public service life expected.

End those seeking an education for status.

The most academic education is only needed by the natural
aristocracy, and some professions like law and medicine, not
by business leaders.
Result of Conant’s Plan
Not a utopia, wealth is still an advantage.

SAT not an unbiased test.

Opportunity not open to all.

Some high scoring students do gain entrance to elite universities.

Many seek advantages for entrance to elite universities.

Not a classless society.

Elite universities still serving a large portion of upper class and
upper middle class student population.
What does the SAT measure?
How well does the SAT work for social engineering of
the “natural aristocracy”?
What does the SAT actually do?
SAT is

A standardized test
A high stakes test
A test that shows consistent results over the years with certain
demographic groups
A test that favors those who have good testing skills and some
preparation in testing.
Outcomes reflect the quality of K-12 schooling experiences

Deserves some scrutiny about its uses for college admissions.




The Big Test:
The Secret History of the SAT
Obsession--crowds out other indicators

Nicholas Lemann: Can you prepare to take
the SAT and raise your score?
 “10 million Frenchmen can’t be wrong”
 No good studies on test preparation.

ETS argues that test preparation classes
only raise scores an average of about 25
points.

Kaplan claims preparation classes raise
scores an average of 125-150 points.
No impartial studies
CONCERN How well does the SAT work for
social engineering of the “natural aristocracy”?
What does the SAT actually do?
The SAT I is validated for just one purpose: predicting first-year
college grades.

The correlation between college grades and SAT scores is
approximately r = .42. This value indicates a moderate positive
relationship. In other words, students who have higher SAT
scores tend to do acceptable work in college.
What other factors also contribute significantly to your success in
college?
Who should we choose for UIUC?
A wide range of students are successful at
UIUC—band, music, athletes, scholarship
students, rural and urban students--
What measures college ability?
 Among these, what measures potential best?
ACT, SAT
CLASS RANK
GPA
TYPE OF COURSES TAKEN IN High School –honors, AP
EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
“Illinois is a diverse state,
and we are trying to reflect
SPECIAL TALENTS
UIUC 21,000 applicants for 7,000 slots
Berkeley 30,000 for 3,500
the demographics of the
state of Illinois as best
we can” (Marshall,
UI Associate Provost)
SAT scores of UIUC students 2007
Freshman
RANGE OF SCORES
SAT Score of UIUC Freshman
 1400-1600 20%
 1200-1399 52%
 1000-1199 25%
 999 or below 3%
ACT
30-36 33%
18-23 12%
24-29 54%,
<17 1%
Take out a piece of paper and work with your neighbors.
How many non-overlapping spaces can you cut the
SHADED space of the donut into with just 2 straight lines?
Give a number.
See Reading
Table for Next
Week’s Assignment
Tozer, Chapter 5
1900-Industrialization,
Immigration, Urbanization
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline///shows/sats/test/solve.html
Last question on Lecture Write #3
We will do together. Caution: We will not solve the diversity in
admissions debate in higher education in this class, but we can
judge the role played by standardized tests.

5. (Video) What did research by former Presidents of
Harvard and Princeton (Bok and Bowen, in their
book The Shape of the River) at elite private colleges
show about minority students who were admitted
under broader admissions criteria than just SAT
scores regarding the impact of minority students
after graduation? Why did elite colleges value a
diverse student body?
Early Scholarship Recipient
James Tobin, of Champaign IL
Nobel Prize in Economics 1981

I was born in Champaign in 1918. From the neighborhood elementary and
intermediate schools, I went to the University High School.

University High School prepared me exceptionally well for Harvard, even though
neither the school nor I ever thought that midwestern teen-agers might go to a
prestigious expensive eastern college a thousand miles away. I happily took for
granted that I would attend the very good local university and probably go on to its
law school. Harvard was my father's idea.

By chance, President James B. Conant of Harvard was just then inaugurating
national full-cost scholarships designed to diversify the geographical, scholastic,
and social sources of the student body, and he was starting with the midwestern
states.

All this my father learned because he habitually read the New York Times in the
public library. So, I wrote in June three days of entrance exams for which I had
neither received nor made any special preparation. I learned the amazing good
news in August, and in September 1935, on the train to Boston, I left the midwest
for the first time.
Who should we choose for UIUC?
A wide range of students are successful at
UIUC—band, music, athletes, scholarship
students, rural and urban students--
What measures college ability?
 Among these, what measures potential best?
ACT, SAT
CLASS RANK
GPA
TYPE OF COURSES TAKEN IN High School –honors, AP
EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
“Illinois is a diverse state,
and we are trying to reflect
SPECIAL TALENTS
UIUC 21,000 applicants for 7,000 slots
Berkeley 30,000 for 3,500
the demographics of the
state of Illinois as best
we can” (Marshall,
UI Associate Provost)
SAT scores of UIUC students 2007
Freshman
RANGE OF SCORES
SAT Score of UIUC Freshman
 1400-1600 20%
 1200-1399 52%
 1000-1199 25%
 999 or below 3%
ACT
30-36 33%
18-23 12%
24-29 54%,
<17 1%
Feel Deserving of a Scholarship?
50 COE $1,000 scholarships for next year
Must be already enrolled in Pre-teacher education or wait
until you have been admitted to the Certification Program
GPA just one part of award formula Due March 2011
2010-2011 Scholarships Applications
College of Education Undergraduate Scholarships
 Deadline
 3 short essays (250 word each) are required plus other
materials

Awards Based ON: Academic Record, Commitment to the
Profession, and Service (Professional Development and
Volunteer Work with Students), Elementary and Secondary
Levels are eligible.

http://education.illinois.edu/saao/undergradawards/
“Illinois is a diverse state, and we are trying to
reflect the demographics of the state of Illinois as
best we can” (Marshall, UI Associate Provost)
CLASS OF 2010
(22,365 applicants --14,000 accepted -- 7,172 attend)
 Men 50.8%
 90 counties, majority from Suburban Cook County
 58 % TOP 10 PERCENT OF HS CLASS
 12% TOP 1 PERCENT OF THEIR CLASS
 Racial/Ethnic Make-up
 64% CAUCASIAN
12% ASIAN/PACIFIC ISLANDER
 8% AFRICAN AMERICAN 9% HISPANIC

.2% NATIVE AMERICAN 5% INTERNATIONAL
 AVERAGE ACT score is 27
University Goal: 18% underrepresented minorities
How important is K-12 schooling in the
preparation of students to compete for college
slots? In success in college?
We have to make hard choices about college
admissions. We can’t all go to UI.
But we don’t have to make hard choices about
K-12 admissions. How can we even the playing
field for opportunity to compete for college?
Primary Reading: Virtue and Religion
Benjamin Rush wants to keep the religious
character of schooling. Did not say how this
would be done, rely on local community to decide.

Schools will promote homogeneity, peace and harmony.

Without religion, there is no virtue, and without virtue no
republic.

A Christian cannot fail to be a republican-humility, self-denial,
kindness.

Duty to creator, like the duty to country.

Schools masters are the authority, students learn habits of
obedience and subordination.
BELIEFS – in DEMOCRACY and role of CITIZEN
Jefferson argued for some of the elements of democratic
empowerment of each citizen that would be part of our
modern sensibilities.





Believing in the individual’s rights and responsibility to participate
publicly. [But Jefferson had limits views by social role, class, race, and
gender. For example: initially voting rights were given only to white males
with property, women could not vote, free Black males had restricted voting
rights]
Having a sense of political efficacy—that YOU can make a difference.
[male voters, especially at local level]
Coming to value the principles of democratic life—equality, community,
and liberty [limited by classical liberalism].
Knowing that alternative social arrangements to the status quo exist
and are worthwhile [limited by classical liberalism]
Gaining the requisite intellectual skills to participate in deliberation--public debate. [Education was critical]
Conclusions about post-revolutionary America
What was the state of schools between
1776 and 1830? Summary
Jefferson desired: “A government should be too weak to aid the wolves yet strong
enough to protect the sheep.”
Saw schools as playing an important role in sustaining the new democracy—
LIBERTY AND LITERACY.
At this time, there were:
Some Schools-- but no PUBLIC SYSTEM (no state funds) LOCAL ISSUE
Regional differences in availability of schools (Virginia vs. Massachusetts)
Schooling was more available to boys (public role in politics)
Religious influences from colonial schooling model still operating in schools
Curriculum: Rote learning of 3 R’s at a basic, elementary level
New Americanized textbooks produced by Noah Webster in 1880s
Strict discipline
COMPETITION FOR SLOTS in
BEST UNIVERSITIES
We rely heavily on standardized tests
SAT IS A TEST TO SORT STUDENTS,
CREATES A NUMBER THAT IS SIMPLE TO
USE, may crowd out other indicators of skills
and talents.

How does the quality of school (honors, AP,
gifted programs) effect the outcome on the SAT
(or ACT)?


K-12 Education plays an important role
What are the benefits for high SAT/ACT
scores?
What does the SAT measure?
Prior 201/202 lecture responses:
Aptitude (IQ)
Potential
Analytic Skills
Comprehension
Math Verbal
Test Preparation and Taking Skills
Cultural Knowledge
Skills learned in school
Quality of school experiences
Fairness argument: Same Test for all.
Concern: Same Preparation for all?
Test-makers acknowledge that high school gradepoint average (GPA) or class rank are the best
predictors of first-year grades, despite the huge
variation among high schools and courses.
Standardized testing never seems to end.
SAT IS A TEST TO SORT STUDENTS, CREATES A
NUMBER THAT IS SIMPLE TO USE, may crowd out
other indicators of skills and talents.

Good luck when you take your special skills tests for
your teaching certificate.

Good luck when you apply to graduate school.
Freshman in Engineering
Grades in math class? Some students with

HIGH SAT Math SCORES
LOW GRADES

LOW SAT Math SCORES
HIGH GRADES
In this study
GPA is a more reliable
predictor of college
level performance.
Descargar

Slide 1