California Constitution
Federalism In Action
As you listen:
• Consider the
important differences
and/or similarities
between the US and
California
constitutions.
• Make a t-chart:
– State v. Federal
Differences Similarities
1849-1st Constitution
• Monterey Convention48 delegates
– 3 branches w/checks
&balances
– boundaries
– outlawed slavery
– women & property
– bi-lingual
– capitol: San Jose
2nd Constitution 1879
• Establishes
permanent capitol in
Sacramento
• Board of Equalization
• 8 hour day
• anti-Chinese
• 23 pages long
• amended 519 times
2 major revisions
• California Constitution Revision Commission
1964-1971
– shorten the 123 page document, other
• California Constitutional Revision
Commission (1994 to 1996)
– term limits
– legislative session
– budget
Stop and Reflect
• How is the history of the California
Constitution the same or different than that
of the US Constitution?
Tell your partner
Preamble
We, the People of the State of California, grateful to Almighty
God for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its
blessings, do establish this Constitution.
Article I
• Declaration of Rights
– 31 Sections !!!
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property rights
ban on gay marriage (pending appeal)
victim’s rights
public fishing
death penalty
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ARTICLE II
VOTING, INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM, AND RECALL ....... 1-20
ARTICLE III
STATE OF CALIFORNIA ................................. 1-9
ARTICLE IV
LEGISLATIVE ......................................... 1-28
ARTICLE V
EXECUTIVE ........................................... 1-14
ARTICLE VI
JUDICIAL ............................................ 1-22
ARTICLE VII
PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES ....................... 1-11
ARTICLE IX
EDUCATION ........................................... 1-16
ARTICLE X
WATER ............................................... 1-7
ARTICLE X A
WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ......................... 1-8
ARTICLE X B
MARINE RESOURCES PROTECTION ACT OF 1990 ............. 1-16
ARTICLE XI
LOCAL GOVERNMENT .................................... 1-15
ARTICLE XII
PUBLIC UTILITIES .................................... 1-9
ARTICLE XIII TAXATION ............................................ 1-35
ARTICLE XIII A [TAX LIMITATION] .................................... 1-7
ARTICLE XIII B GOVERNMENT SPENDING LIMITATION ...................... 1-13
ARTICLE XIII C [VOTER APPROVAL FOR LOCAL TAX LEVIES] ............... 1-3
ARTICLE XIII D [ASSESSMENT AND PROPERTY-RELATED FEE REFORM] ........ 1-6
ARTICLE XIV
LABOR RELATIONS ..................................... 1-5
ARTICLE XV
USURY ............................................... 1
ARTICLE XVI
PUBLIC FINANCE ...................................... 1-20
ARTICLE XVIII AMENDING AND REVISING THE CONSTITUTION .............. 1-4
ARTICLE XIX
MOTOR VEHICLE REVENUES .............................. 1-10
ARTICLE XIX A LOANS FROM THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ACCOUNT OR
LOCAL TRANSPORTATION FUNDS .......................... 1-2
ARTICLE XIX B MOTOR VEHICLE FUEL SALES TAX REVENUES AND
TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT FUNDING .................. 1-2
ARTICLE XIX C [ENFORCEMENT OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS] ................. 1-4
ARTICLE XX
MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS .............................. 1-23
ARTICLE XXI
REDISTRICTING OF SENATE, ASSEMBLY, CONGRESSIONAL
AND BOARD OF EQUALIZATION DISTRICTS ................. 1-3
ARTICLE XXII [ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING SERVICES] ............ 1-2
ARTICLE XXXIV PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECT LAW .......................... 1-4
ARTICLE XXXV MEDICAL RESEARCH .................................... 1-7
Stop and Reflect…
• Structure/Contents
• Same? Different?
Tell your partner
Legislative Branch
bi-cameral
(18 yrs, eligible to vote, citizen 3 years)
• Senate
– limit 2 terms (4-yr.)
– 40 members
• Assembly
– limit 3 terms (2 yrs.)
– 80 members
Legislative Power
• makes laws
– police power
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appointment approval
impeachment
initiative process
amendment process
Same? Different?
Executive
• Governor (4-yr. term)
• Other elected executives
– Lieutenant Governor
• Gavin Newsom
– Secretary of State
• Debra Bowen
– State Controller
• John Chiang
– State Treasurer
• Bill Lockyer
– Attorney General
• Kamala Harris
– Board of Equalization
Commissioners
Executive Powers
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Appointment and Removal
Supervisory Power
Budget-making power
Military Power
Legislative Actions
– “message”
– calling special sessions
– line-item veto, no pocket veto
Judicial Actions
– Executive Clemency
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pardon
commutation
reprieve
parole
• same? different?
California Judiciary
Supreme Court
Courts of Appeal
Superior Courts
Judicial
• 7 member Supreme Court
Pictured en banc in the Supreme Court Courtroom in San Francisco are the court's seven justices
from left to right:
Associate Justice Carlos R. Moreno,
Associate Justice Joyce L. Kennard,
Associate Justice Kathryn Mickle Werdegar,
Chief Justice Tani Cantil-Sakauye,
Associate Justice Ming W. Chin,
Associate Justice Marvin R. Baxter,
Associate Justice Carol A. Corrigan.
(Photo: William A. Porter, San Francisco, CA)
6 Court of Appeals Districts
• 3-judge panel
– Was the law appropriately applied?
Terms
• appointed by executive,
– approved by Commission on Judicial Appointments
• 12 year terms
• Must be approved by voters
– retention election
58 Superior Courts
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1 per county
approx. 7 million criminal cases
approx. 1.5 million civil cases
special departments
– Family Court
– Juvenile Court
– Probate Court
– Small Claims Court
– Traffic Court
Terms
• Popular Elections
• 6 years
Differences/Similarities?
Stop and Reflect….
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What are the advantages and
disadvantages of federalism?
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Why did the Framers include the 10th
Amendment?
How is government more or less efficient in a
federal system?
Has “balance of power” been achieved?
– Has this proven to be good/bad?
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California Constitution - Vista Unified School District