A Technologically Appropriate
12 Volt Lighting
and Water Purification Scheme
for Developing Countries
Brian Thomas and Rene Massengale (biology)
Today’s Talk
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Overview
Goals and Objectives
Background
Project Significance
Methods Design and Implementation
How you can help!
Project Overview
• Provide engineering support for
rural and impoverished regions of
Papua New Guinea
– significantly improve general living and
health conditions
• hydro-powered battery charger for
supplying electrical power
• portable hypochlorite generators for
providing a means of water
purification
Project Goals and Objectives
• Student Vocation
– Discipline-specific mission training and
enrichment opportunities
• Develop battery charging experience
– Field test hydro-charger
– Leverage experience for future projects
• Field test sodium-hypochlorite
generators
• Provide technical and health training
• Future assessment
Background
• Papua New
Guinea
Background
• Papua New Guinea
– Population 5,420,000 (42% under 18)
– Infant mortality 3rd in Western Pacific
Nations
• Lao People’s Democratic Republic
• Cambodia
– Rural Country
– Mountainous, Rainforests, Coastal
regions, Islands
– Size of California but has only 2.5% of
paved roads
Lack of Electrical Power
• Use of Fire or Kerosene Lamps:
Disadvantages in
– Education
– Economics
– Health
• Diesel Generator Alternatives? (no)
• Micro-hydro generators
– Abundant rainfall
– Mountainous terrain
• “Firefly” hydro-battery charger
Lack of Water Purification
• 1,700,000 children die each year
globally due to poor sanitation and
unsafe water (10x tsunami deaths)
• U.S. Centers for Disease Control
– CDC Safe Water System
– Bleach generated from salt and water
– Uses 12 VDC batteries (15-20 Amps)
– Local production costs << imported
• Uganda, Haiti, Nepal
– 40-85% decrease in diarrheal disease
Project Significance: Long Term Goals
• Production of service-minded
engineers
• Leverage knowledge for other 12 V
systems (such as Kenyan)
• Combine water purification and
battery charging into one package
• Engineers with a Mission – national
• Sources for graduate and/or senior
design projects
Project Significance: Baylor 2012
• Imperative IV - Attract and support a
top-tier student body.
– Recruitment mechanism for service
and/or missions minded students
• Imperative VI - Life as a stewardship
and work as a vocation.
– Help the poor, needy, the “least of
these”
– Firsthand experience answering big
questions of life
Project Significance: Baylor 2012
• Imperative XI – Emphasize global
education
– Over 860 languages (not dialects)
– 1/3 of the worlds spoken languages
– Cornucopia of cultural diversity
– Friendly to Americans and Christians
Implementation Methods: Firefly
Implementation Methods: Firefly
• Car alternator
• Car batteries
• High Efficiency
Lighting
Implementation Methods: Firefly
• Car batteries or deep cycle batteries
are charged and hand carried back
to homes
• Primarily used for lighting
– High efficiency bulbs
– White LEDs very promising
– Nepal solution
Implementation Methods: Firefly
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1200-2100 rpm
100 - 500 W output
Water Pressure: 5-15 m head
Flow Rate: 7-12 L/s
PNG Group would like
– 20 A●hr batteries
– 1-5 W lights, 3 per home
– 2 weeks between charges
Implementation Methods: Firefly
Implementation Methods: Firefly
Implementation Methods: Firefly
• Strengths of System
– Cheap ($150/charger Philippines, $75 / home)
– Introduction Simple
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Few users required to justify installation
Safer than 220V AC systems
Smaller canals to dig
Demonstration by pump or motor
– Local Production Possible
– Adaptable to other systems; wind, solar, other?
• Weaknesses
– Battery failure from over cycling
– Hand transportation of batteries
12 V lighting precedent…
• Circle of Light in Africa
– John Coors, president
• Liquid Natural Gas as Fuel
– Energy stores in communities
– Refill LNG tanks for cooking
– Use LNG powered generator to
recharge 12 V batteries for lighting
Implementation Methods: CDC Safe H20
• 12VDC, 15-20 A
required
• Current commercial
Cost are $2500 each
• Can we build a
technologically
appropriate version?
• Could help many
• Complementary with
battery charger
Implementation Methods: CDC Safe H20
How can you help?
• Technical Contributions
– Come to our PIT crew meetings every
other Wednesday at 5 p.m.
– Adopt a portion of the project such as
the charger or the switchboard
• Financial Contributions
– Transportation costs
– Equipment costs
– Personal costs
Summary
• Student Vocation
• Develop battery charging experience
– Field test hydro-charger
– Leverage experience for future projects
• Field test sodium-hypochlorite
generators
• Provide technical and health training
• Future assessment
• Need dough!
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A Technologically Appropriate 12 Volt Lighting and Water