1
This is a 5th grade reading unit that is divided into
five parts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Read to Students
Read with Students (Shared)
Guided Reading
Independent Reading (Done by Students)
Strategies - for the areas of:
• Word identification
• Comprehension (for emergent readers)
• Comprehension (for advanced readers)
• Vocabulary
The purpose of this unit is to use the vast amount of
information on the solar system and utilize it as a
reading unit so the students can learn about the
vocabulary, understand the universe through
reading, and, at the same time, develop their
reading skills.
Ann Weis
© May 2003
2
Learning about the
Universe we live in
Grade 5
Ann Weis
© May 2003
3
I chose the Solar System for the theme because
I’ve always been fascinated by these wonderful
creations and I wanted to share with my students
that fascination. The unit has five parts. They are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read to Students
Read with Students (Shared)
Guided Reading
Independent Reading
(Done by Students)
5. Strategies
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 1
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• Kingdom of the Sun
by Jacqueline Mitton
This book takes the reader on a fascinating
tour of the planets and compares them to the gods
of old who are their namesakes. And the sparkling
magical paintings on the page enthralls the readers.
This story brings the planets to life. The storytelling
would be very involved in the use of expressions and
actions described in the book. This is an excellent book
to use to implement David Schleper’s 15 Storytelling
Techniques.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 1
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
1.
Deaf readers translate stories using American Sign Language.
I want to be able to sign the concept rather than trying to get it
word-for-word. It is important for the students to understand the
concept of the story since singing word-for-word will get them
lost and they won’t be able to grasp the concept. For example,
the sentence “At dawn I peep above Earth’s horizon.” Instead of
signing each word, I would show the action of myself peeping
up at “the horizon” of my arm.
2.
Deaf readers keep both languages visible (ASL and English).
I won’t be signing word-for-word but it is still important that the
students see the key words in print since that would help them
make the connection between the sign and the printed word.
Before reading the story, I will go through and choose the key
words and have it written so that my storytelling wouldn’t be
interrupted to write the words on the board.
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
3.
Deaf readers are not constrained by the text.
I will elaborate on the text to help the students build background
knowledge necessary to understand the story better. For
example, the story explains that the planets orbit the sun so I
would elaborate on the word orbit to help them understand what
it means and what it “looks” like.
4.
Deaf readers re-read stories on a storytelling to story reading
continuum.
During the first reading, it is important to elaborate on the text
extensively to build their background knowledge. It is just as
important to re-read the story and to read it with less and less
elaboration. For each successive reading, I would elaborate less
on the word orbit. Eventually, I will have the students fill in for me
what the word means.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
5.
Deaf readers follow the child's lead.
It is important to make sure that the students are following along.
The best way to do that is if I let them “lead” such as having
them select the book or let them turn the pages. I would also
need to adjust my reading style to fit the student’s
developmental level. Since Fifth graders have build up quite a bit
of background knowledge, I can use more extensive reading and
read longer since their attention span is longer.
6.
Deaf readers make what is implied explicit.
This is another way to build the students’ background knowledge
since often times they would miss what is clearly implied so I
need to point that out to be sure that the students understand
the story better. For example, the planet Mercury said, “Catch
me if you can as I dash around the Sun!” I would work with the
students on why Mercury orbits the Sun very fast -being that it is
so close to the Sun and it doesn’t take very long for it to go
around it.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
7.
Deaf readers adjust sign placement to fit the story.
This helps bring the pages alive. For example, on the page with
picture of the Sun, I would sign the word fire right on the page to
“animate” the fire of the Sun.
8.
Deaf readers adjust signing style to fit the story.
There are different elements for each of the planets like the fiery
Sun bursting in flames and Pluto making a long oval course
around the Sun at a chilling distant. The expression of the
maddening flames of the Sun and the shivering orbit of Pluto
would be used.
9.
Deaf readers connect concepts in the story to the real world.
My job is to help the students make connections. If there isn’t a
connection, the information is lost and meaningless. I would take
the Sun we see in the sky and show them that the place we live
in is the planet Earth. I would show how the moving Sun in the
sky indicates the Earth rotating.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 1
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
10. Deaf readers use attention maintenance strategies.
It is hard for the deaf students to maintain attention with their
eyes since it gets to be tiring. I would use various techniques to
grasp their attention such as eye contact, a tap on their
shoulders, or just wait for them to look up again. Facial
expressions is another way to help them maintain their attention.
This is another reason for the importance of re-reading the story
since they will have plenty of opportunities to get any information
they missed during earlier readings.
11. Deaf readers use eye gaze to elicit participation.
Because deaf people rely on vision to get the information, they
feel that when others aren’t looking, they aren’t paying attention.
So when I’m reading to the whole group, I need to look at all of
them where as if I’m working with them individually, I’m looking
at the student. It shows that I’m interested in them and they will
be able to maintain attention to what I’m telling them.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 1
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
12. Deaf readers engage in role play to extend concepts.
This also helps the students make connections. For example,
when I am explaining the planets orbiting the Sun, I could have
the students acts as planets rotating around the Sun.
13. Deaf readers use ASL variations to sign repetitive English
phrases.
Often there will be repeated phrases throughout the story. For
this, signing them differently each time would show the students
the various ways of signing the concepts. In this book, it
repeatedly talked about the Sun moving so I could show the Sun
with one hand peeping behind my arms for one planet and, for
another planet, I could signify with both hands the Sun moving
across the sky above me.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• 15 Storytelling Techniques
14. Deaf readers provide a positive and reinforcing environment.
Reading is suppose to be fun. My job is to model the students
how to make reading fun. And to encourage the students to
make creative interpretations of the story. Like for example, a
student may want to know what that “thing” is on Mercury’s arm.
I would explain that it is the symbol for the planet Mercury. On
the next couple of pages I would point out the symbols for each
of the planets. The students will then catch on and I will
eventually ask them where the symbol is for the each of the
planets.
15. Deaf readers expect the child to become literate.
Reading “aloud” with the students shows them the importance of
reading and that we expect them to be literate. With the above
techniques, we can foster a good, enthusiastic reader.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• Response to Literature
–
–
For the non-written response, the students will pair up and
choose a planet that they can read to their partner.
For the written response, the students will write a page of what
they remember about one of the planets from the book.
• Evaluation
–
–
–
How the students responded to the questions asked during the
storytelling.
How well the students participated in the readings to their partner.
How well they remembered the story of one of the planets in their
written response.
• Technology
–
The students can use the computer to type up their written
response. Some of them can include graphics in their writing if it
helps them explain what they’re writing about. Like for the planet
Jupiter, they can show the picture and point out the Red Spot on
it when explaining about it.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 2
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• The Magic School Bus
Lost in the Solar System
by Joanna Cole
I chose this book because the format is
very interactive. Each page has three different kinds
narratives and this would be a good one for having
more than one person read. Involving the students
read with me gets them interested in the story and
helps them understand it better. There is more
interaction between the students and myself, and I can
be able to monitor where they are at with their
understanding of the subject we’re studying .
Ann Weis • May 2003
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One person can read the first
narrative which would be the
narration of the story.
The last narrative has
factual information
about the solar system
which would be read by
another person.
The second kind of narrative is
the conversation between the
characters in the story and this
one can be done by more than
one reader.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• Response to Literature
–
–
For the non-written response, they can do a Reader’s Theater
with this book.
For the written response, the students would write a paragraph
about each of the planet or make a chart of the important features
of each of the planets.
• Evaluation
–
–
How well they summarized the book.
How well the students participated in the Reader’s Theater.
• Technology
–
For the Reader’s Theater, transparencies of the pages can be
made and used on the overhead projector for the students to read
from as they are doing it.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 3
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• The Solar System
by Gregory L. Vogt
I found this book an excellent
one to use for the Guided Reading
because it is purely informational
and easy to read. It is short yet there is a lot of
interesting information that the students can learn about
the solar system. It also has lots of photos. There are
charts and a list of key vocabulary words in the back of
the book.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Goals
•
•
•
•
•
To teach comprehension skills and strategies.
To develop background knowledge, meaning vocabulary,
and oral language.
To teach children how to read all types of literature.
To provide as much instructional-level reading as
possible.
To maintain the motivation and self-confidence of
struggling readers.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Essential Components
•
•
•
•
•
Work in small groups.
The group members are similar in reading level.
Teachers introduce the stories and assist students in
developing independent reading strategies.
Each of the students read the whole text.
Children are grouped and regrouped continuously, and
are involved in an ongoing observation and assessment.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Before reading
•
•
•
•
The students are divided into similar groups.
The teacher introduces the selected text that is supportive
but with some challenges.
Opens the discussion for any questions the students have.
The students are engaged in conversation about the story.
During reading
•
•
•
•
The teacher observes the students’ reading and notes any
evidence of strategies the students are using.
The teacher confirms the students’ problem-solving attempts
and successes, along with interacting with them during any
difficult problem-solving discussions.
The students read the whole text “aloud” or silently.
The students will ask for help if they need it.
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After reading
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The teacher talks about the story with the students and
invites personal responses from the students.
The teacher will refer back to the text for one or two
teaching opportunities such as finding evidence or
discussing problem-solving.
The teacher will use this time as an opportunity to assess
the students their understanding of the text.
The students can be engaged in activities that extends the
story through drama, writing, art, or more reading.
The students will have the opportunity to talk about the
story.
They can refer back to the text during the problem-solving
discussions.
They may want to reread the text individually or with a
partner.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• Response to Literature
–
–
For the non-written response, the students can discuss their
predictions or reactions to the story.
For the written response, they write in their journals a summary of
what they read. It can be the whole book or portions of the book
such as a planet.
• Evaluation
–
–
–
How well the students participated in the group discussions of the
story.
How well the students are able to problem-solve difficult portions
of the text they read.
How well they summarized what they read.
• Technology
–
For the activities that involve in extending and responding to the
text, they can use the Internet to find more resources to do that
and use the computer to type up their responses.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 4a
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Independent Reading
• The Everything
Kids’ Space Book
by Kathiann M. Kowalski
This is a fun hodge podge book of
outer space facts and the students
would enjoy looking over the pages.
It covers just about anything you want to know
about space and has activities that students
can do. It has sections such as “Fun Fact”,
“Space Cadet” (‘mini-biographies’ of wellknown persons), “Words to Know”,
“Astronomical Number”, and so on throughout
the book.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 4a
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• Purpose
The students will look through this book and pick
one article that they find interesting. They will
make a short presentation of what they learned
from it. Some students can chose an activity from
the book and demonstrate it in front of the class.
They will prepare a written format that would be
used to refer to during their presentation.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 4a
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• Response to Literature
–
–
For the written response, they will write a paper that they will use
for their presentation on what they learned from the book. It can
be in any format, such as an outline, that they feel comfortable in
using for reference during their presentation.
For the non-written response, they will do a presentation of what
they learned from the selection they read in this book. They will
have to use some kind of visual in their presentation. If they
chose an activity from the book, they can demonstrate it to the
class.
• Evaluation
–
–
–
Their paper is clear and their points are well presented.
How well they use the resources and materials for their
presentation.
Their presentation is well organized and they made their points
clear.
• Technology
–
For their presentation, they can use the overhead transparencies,
a display that they created using the computer such as a poster,
or use PowerPoint.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 4b
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• The Children’s
Space Atlas
by Robin Kerrod
This book very extensive and is an
excellent source for researching.
It covers not only the solar system
but also the stars and the technology
scientists or astronomers use to make
astronomical observations.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 4b
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• Purpose
This book will be used as a starting point for the
students to write a research paper on. For
example, a student reads the section about the
telescopes in this book and wants to do some
research on some of the facilities that house some
of these telescopes. The student will be required
to use different types of resources such as books,
magazines, and websites to find the information
that they are looking for related to their selected
topic.
Ann Weis • May 2003
Part 4b
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• Response to Literature
–
–
For the written response, the students will write a 2-3 page
research paper on a topic they picked from the book. They will
follow the format of developing the topic sentence, body copy,
and the summarization. They will also have their citations at the
end of the paper. They will do a couple of drafts before turning in
their final draft.
For the non-written response, they will incorporate one or two
photos/illustrations they found while researching the topic for the
paper.
• Evaluation
–
They used the format of the research paper by including the topic
sentence, body copy, and summarization, and how well the
content of the body and summarization is related to the topic
sentence. Their sources of information has to be from a t least
one book, one periodical, and one website.
• Technology
–
On of the requirements is that one of the sources has to be from
a website. Their final draft must be typed.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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• The following contain strategies to be
used for the four reading lessons
explained. The strategies are in the
areas of:
–
–
–
–
Word identification
Comprehension (for emergent readers)
Comprehension (for advanced readers)
Vocabulary
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Word Identification
1. Letter actions
The students would use words that start with the same letter of
each planet to describe the features. Example: Jumbo Jupiter.
2. Digraph tongue twisters
The student would pick a planet and make a diagraph tongue
twister (in writing). For example: Neptune is nowhere nearby.
3. Word building with onset & rime tiles
The students would identify the onsets and rimes of the
vocabulary they are using for the unit. Example: Sun, fun, bun.
4. Word walls
The students would be asked to add words to the word wall and
describe to the classroom what the word is and what it means.
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Word Identification
5. Have-a-go
The students who have trouble with spelling would have a
“Have-a-go” sheet to record words that are challenging for them
to spell. This would help them learn how to self-correct their
spelling. They would keep this in their journal. The sheet would
look like this:
Word
Attempt 1
Attempt 2
Correct Spelling
Jupetr
Jupetor
Jupitor
Jupiter
Niptoon
Neptoon
Neptun
Neptune
Yuranos
Uraneus
Ureanus
Uranus
6. Modified cloze passages: selective word deletion or with choices
given.
This would be a worksheet for the students to do where there
will be a paragraph describing a planet and either there will be
words left out for them to fill in or they would pick from the
choices given for each word left out.
Example: Jupiter is the __________ planet.
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Word Identification
7. Exploring the “feelings” of the planet
The students would use words to describe the “feelings” of the
planet, maybe even write a poem.
8. Learning a partner’s words
The students would learn the words from their partner. When
done, they can add the words to the word wall and describe the
word to the class.
9. Exploring identity of planet
The students would use the letters of the planet to use
descriptive words of that planet.
10. Guessing game: “I Spy”
This would be an exercise done with the whole classroom. I
would give the students an “I Spy” description of the planet and
they would have to guess which planet I’m talking about.
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Comprehension
Emergent readers
1. Picture Walking
The teacher would ask the students questions about what they see in the
pictures of the book and what they know about the items. For example:
For the book Stars! Stars! Stars!, it talks about the stars and the solar
system. The teacher would introduce the book and show the cover. The
teacher would ask the students what they know about the stars and what
are some things that may be covered in the book just by looking at the
cover. As the teacher reads this book, the students would be asked
questions about what they see in the picture and what they know about
the items in the picture.
2. KWL
The teacher would ask the students three main questions:
• What do you know?
• What do you want to know?
• What did you learn about this?
The first two would be before the book is read. The last one would be
after the reading. The teacher would continue to use these questions
throughout the reading of the book.
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Comprehension
Emergent readers
3. Picture Sequencing
The teacher would have copies of some of the pictures from the pages of
the picture book and mix them up. The students would put them in order
according to what they can remember.
4. Think-Alouds
The teacher would model the thought process during the reading of a
book. The teacher would show the book and show what he or she is
thinking while looking at the pictures or reading the words.
5. Active Comprehension
The teacher would ask questions that would elicit questions in return. For
example the teacher would ask the students what they would like to know
about the picture in the book. In return, the students may generate
questions that focus on the details, main ideas, or inferences from the
illustration.
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Comprehension
Emergent readers
6. Circular story maps
This is good for those whose strengths include visual representation. The
students would draw pictures to depict the sequence of events leading to
the problem in the story. Using clip art, the illustrations would look like
this:
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Comprehension
Emergent readers
7. Story Elements
The teacher would ask the students the following questions :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What happened in the beginning?
What do you think the character was feeling about this event?
What does the character do about this event?
What happened when the character did this?
How did the character feel about this?
During this time, the teacher would have a transparency of, or write on the
board, the chart that looks like this:
Where and When:
Chain of events
Who:
Chain of events
What happened in the beginning:
What did the person do about this event:
What did the person do about this:
What happened when the person did this:
How did the person feel about this:
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Comprehension
Emergent readers
8.
Building Schema
The teacher would make a concept map on the board using key words
of the story. The teacher would ask the students what they know about
a word and write down the students’ responses. It may look like this:
Red Spot
Largest
planet
Huge
storm
Jupiter
Has
many
moons
9.
Has a
ring
Reader’s Theater
The students would read aloud the story in a drama format. They
aren’t required to memorize the lines. This helps the readers put the
story into action.
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Comprehension
Emergent readers
9. Story frames
The students would talk about the plot, setting, characters, character
comparison, and the story’s problem. After reading the story, the teacher
would ask the students what the story was about, where was story taken
place, who were in the story, how did these characters relate to each
other, and what was the problem in the story. The below example would
be for the story problem:
In this story the problem starts when
____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
After that,
____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Next,
____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
The problem is finally solved when
____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Ann Weis • May 2003
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
1. QARs (Question-Answer Relationships)
–
The teacher would show the students an overhead transparency containing a
description of the basic question-answer relationships such as thinking and
searching the answer in the text (Think and Search), thinking what you know
and what the author says (Author and You), finding answers in the text (Right
There), or on their own in their head (On My Own).
–
The teacher would assign students three short passages (no more than 2-5
sentences) and have them follow each reading with one question from each of
the QAR categories on transparency.
–
The teacher would discuss with the students the differences between a ‘Right
There’ question and answer, a ‘Think and Search’ question and answer, an
‘Author and You’ question and answer, and ‘On My Own’ question and answer.
Be sure the students’ explanations are clear and complete.
–
To reinforce the discussion, the teacher would assign the students several
more short passages and include a question for each of them.
–
The next day the students would continue practicing with the short passages
and expanding the exercise with being able to identify the QARs.
–
On the third day, the students would review the QARs and then do the same
exercise with longer passages.
–
On the fourth day, the students would apply the QARs to their actual readings
and write out their answers like, “The reason for the large red spot on Jupiter is
that, according to the author, it is actually a storm.”
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
2. Reciprocal Questions (ReQuest)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
The teacher introduces ReQuest to students to demonstrate how to think about
the text.
The students and teacher read silently a common segment of the reading
selection.
The teacher would then have the students ask questions about the segment.
They would then exchange roles so that the teacher would be asking the
students the questions.
When they are done, they repeat by reading the next segment of the selection
and take turns asking questions.
After the students have process enough information to make predictions about
the rest of the assignment, the teacher would ask them broader questions like
“What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?”
The students would then read silently rest of the reading selection and the
teacher would facilitate a follow-up discussion of the material.
3. Think-Alouds
–
–
–
The teacher would select a passage that elicits ambiguity, has difficult
vocabulary or contradictions, and would read it aloud to the students and, at
the same time, say what he or she is thinking. The students would follow along
silently and listen as the teacher describes what he or she is thinking.
The students then are encouraged to describe their thoughts. They can pair up
with another student to share their thinking.
The teacher would talk about things like what they already know, what it looks
like, what it reminds him or her of, and so on - anything that comes to their
head while they are reading the text.
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
4. Reciprocal Teaching
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
The teacher would model the following four comprehension activities while
leading a discussion of the text:
•
Raise questions about the text
•
Predict what the segment is about
•
Summarize the important points
•
Clarify difficult vocabulary and concepts
After observing the teacher, the students would share or add to what the teacher
said and then to teach the remaining sections of the text selection. For example,
the student would assume the role of the teacher and proceed to model one or
more of the comprehension activities on the next segment of the text.
The teacher would ask the students questions like:
•
What is the title of the book?
•
By looking at the title, what would the book be about?
The students would take turns reading a small portion of the text aloud,
paragraph by paragraph.
The teacher would ask the students questions about the content of what has just
been read and encourage them to ask questions they thought of while the text
was being read.
The teacher would summarize what had been read by identifying the gist of the
segment and explain how it had been arrived at this summary. The students are
encouraged to comment on the summary.
The class would discuss any words that the students were unclear or confused
about.
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
5. QtA
–
–
–
–
The teacher reads a text closely, and notes the author’s intent, the major ideas
and themes, and any areas or potential obstacles in the material that could
affect the students’ comprehension. The teacher mainly reflects on his or her
own comprehension of the reading.
The teacher determines where to stop the reading and do a discussion with the
students.
The teacher plans questions that help the students respond to what the author
is saying and the meaning behind it.
The discussion moves that could be used for guiding the discussion are:
•
Marking – where the attention would be drawn to an idea by
paraphrasing the student or by acknowledging its importance by praising
the student.
•
Turning back – the students would learn how to figure out ideas and turn
back to the text for clarification.
•
Revoicing – the students would assisted in expressing their ideas by
learning how to filter the most important information and helping
students who are struggling with the expression of their ideas by
rephrasing their statements.
•
Modeling – thinking aloud a particularly difficult issue that the students
have a hard time understanding or are unable to do without assistance.
•
Annotating – The teacher would provide information not stated in the
text to make it more meaningful for the students.
•
Recapping – The teacher would summarize the main ideas as a way of
signaling the students to move on in the lesson.
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
6.
Story Elements
–
–
The teacher would discuss the story elements to the students (as explained in
blue below:
The teacher would give them each a sheet with a chart of the story map:
Time and place:
Chain of events
Character:
Chain of events
The beginning event that initiates the action
Internal response and goal/problem
Attempt(s) and outcome(s)
Resolution
Reaction
–
–
The students would read a common selection of a story and look for each of
the elements in the story.
After they read the story, they would compare their mapping of the story
elements with the others and note how everyone interprets the story
differently.
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
7. Building Schema
–
–
–
–
Read, tell and perform stories in class
•
Doing this on a regular basis helps the students build experiences with
stories or extends their knowledge of how the stories are put together.
Work from the students’ previous knowledge and build on it, using lots of
examples.
Use the flowcharts to show relationships among the story parts since it gives
the student a visual image of how that stories are organized. The discussion of
the flowchart should be done before, during and after the activity and should
revolve around the relationships of one event to another. It would look like this:
Encourage students to speculate and take risks and allow the opportunity to
revise or alter their efforts based on the discussion.
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
8. DR-TA (Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
–
–
–
The strategy builds critical awareness of the reader’s role and responsibility in
interacting with the text. The teacher poses open-ended questions to agitate the
students’ thinking about the text material.
Before doing this the teacher needs to analyze the structure of the story, map
the story, and decide logical stopping points within the story
The steps for this activity would look like this:
What do you think this is
going to be about?
Title
Why do you think so?
Stop
What do you think is
going to happen next?
Why do you think so?
Setting, introduction of characters and beginning event
Stop
Character’s response and goal or problem
Stop
What do you think is
going to happen next?
Attempts made to alleviate problem and achieve goal
Why do you think so?
Stop
What do you think is
going to happen next?
Why do you think so?
Outcomes or attempts and resolution of problem
Stop
Character’s reaction to events
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
9.
KWL
–
This is designed as a guide and a motivation for students to help them think
about they know or believe they know about the topic. The students would
use a chart that looks like this:
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Comprehension
Advanced readers
10. Inferential Strategy
This is designed for elementary students and doesn’t have stopping points like the
DR-TA but instead relies on several questions before reading and discussion
afterwards. It would go as follows:
•
Before assigning the reading to the students, the teacher analyzes the
material and select three important or difficult ideas.
•
The teacher would develop two questions for each idea selected. One
question is posed to tap background knowledge relative to the idea and the
other is intended to elicit prediction.
•
Background question: What do you know about the Stonehenge in Southern
England?
•
Prediction: What was the purpose of it and how would it be related to the solar
system?
•
The teacher and the students would discuss the responses to the two kinds of
questions for each of the ideas before reading.
•
The students would then read the text and, after reading, relate the prediction
to what actually happened in their reading. The post-reading discussion would
also involve evaluating the three or four ideas that motivated the background
and prediction questions.
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Vocabulary
1.
Concept Hierarchy
The students would build a hierarchy of a concept or
category. It would look like this:
Planets
Inner
Mercury
Earth
Outer
Venus
Mars
Jupiter
Pluto
Saturn
Neptune
Uranus
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Vocabulary
2.
Synonyms
The teacher would have the students make connections of the words
they know to the words they are learning.
orbit
asteroid
lunar
3.
path
rock
moon
Antonyms
The students would take a feature of the planet and change a word that
would mean the opposite. For example:
Pluto is far.
The students would change the underline word to close.
4.
Analogies
The students would make a comparison of two similar relationships.
For example, the teacher would have this:
Jupiter is to big as Pluto is to ____________
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Vocabulary
5. ASL-ABC story
The students would tell a story using the chereme or hand shape of the
ASL alphabet. It might start out with something like this:
A -Astronaut put on space suit
B - Checking his suit over
C - Astronaut placing head gear over his head
D - Using his fingers to flip locks onto space suit
E - Tugging on it to be sure it is on right
F - Looking around
G - Turning knobs on space suit
H - Signal others he is ready
and so on…
6. Self-selection Strategy
The students would bring one word that they would like the class to learn.
The teacher would list the words on the board and the students would
give a definition of the word that they had found.
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Vocabulary
6. Concept Circle
The teacher would have a circle divided into four sections. Each section
would have a word that is related to the other words. The students would
have to determine what the relationship is between these words. For
example:
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Earth
______________________________
(Inner planets)
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Vocabulary
8. Semantic Mapping/Webbing
The students would connect related vocabulary in a visual display that
would look like this:
biggest
Mars
fastest
Earth
rings
Saturn
Jupiter
Neptune
Uranus
Mercury
Venus
Planets
Pluto
9. Categorization
The students would be given a few lists of words that are to determine the
categorization of these lists. For example:
shuttle
rocket
probe
telescope
Jupiter
Earth
Moon
Mars
astronaut
astrologer
astronomer
scientist
The students would cross out the word that doesn’t belong in the list.
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Vocabulary
10. Dale’s Cone of Experience
I thought this is worth including
since vocabulary is every where
and we have to make every
moment a teachable moment when
we’re teaching vocabulary. Dale’s
Cone of Experience gives us a
good guide for planning and
selecting vocabulary strategies that
are experienced based.
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References
•
•
•
•
Vacca, Jo Anne L., et. al (2003). Reading and Learning to
Read (5th ed.); Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
McAnally, P. L., Rose, S., & Quigley, S.P. (1999). Reading
Practices with Deaf Learners; Austin: Pro-Ed, Inc.
Schleper, D. R. (1996). Principles for Reading to Deaf
Children. http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/Literacy/
srp/15princ.html (15 Storytelling Techniques).
Dale’s Cone of Experience:
– http://www.compstrategies.com/staffdevelopment/cue/adutllea
rn/sld002.htm
– http://www.ori.org/~kenl/courses/uo/mmw/docs/show.html
Ann Weis • May 2003
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