How GIS can be used in Census Mapping
in the context of integrating Statistical
Data into the National Information
Infrastructure for Development
Andre Nonguierma
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
ICT and Sciences & Technology for Development Division
Geoinformation Systems Section (GiSS)
Workshop on Census Mapping & Management
Lusaka, 8 – 10 October 2007
Outlines
Spatially-enabled Statistics
Issues in Africa
Geospatial Technologies insight
Data we can get and Where
Tools we can we use
Capacity Building
Coordination : SDI
Challenges
Way Forward
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
2
Why spatially-enabled statistics?
Arguing that 80% of all human decisions
involve a “where?” question :
 Location affects nearly everything we do in
life: we choose where to build homes, where
to eat, where the nearest hospital is in case
of emergency, etc…
 Whatever we do, whatever
happens somewhere ….
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
happens,
[email protected]
3
Why Spatially-enabled statistics?
Because we …
 Need to visualize complex social, economic and
environmental indicators in their spatial
relationships
 Need to provide various “what if” planning
scenarios results in quantitative measures that
allow developers, planners, and community
groups to feel greater comfort with the
ultimate design decision.
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
4
Why Spatially-enabled statistics?
Because if Information are the sum of our
interpretation of data …
 We cannot provide relevant information for
decision-making without :
• Fundamental datasets
• (as well as the) Interrelationships between these
datasets,
• (the) Management of them,
• (and the means of) Accessing and Distributing
those data
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
5
Typical “Where” Questions in Africa…
In Africa, the major source for
statistical data is the National
Statistics Offices, which conduct
regular censuses, economic and
household surveys.
Others data are collected and
maintained by specialized technical
agencies, such as geological services,
environmental protection authorities,
national mapping agencies, etc.
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
6
Typical “Where” Questions in Africa..
Nexus issues in sustainable development
and achieving millennium development
goals require that all data sets be
integrated.
The nature of the issues further requires
that they be presented in their spatial
context
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
7
Typical SpatialData Requirement
Where are...
Lands : Agriculture and food security
Land cover, soil types, topography,
hydrography, rainfall, demographics,
infrastructure, Suitability maps, yield
statistics, etc
d1
Health
Hospitals locations, settlements and
demographics, disease vectors,
environmental factors distribution,
infrastructure, etc.
Education
Schools locations, demographics,
infrastructure & utilities, etc.
Housing
Demographics, infrastructure & utilities,
topography, building materials, etc.
Water Supply
Hydrography, aquifers & ground water,
topography, etc.
Mining & Minerals
Land cover, soil chemistry, topography,
rock formations and physical properties,
etc.
Infrastructure Development

Demographics and settlements, socioeconomic establishments, topography,
hydrography, soil types, etc
www.uneca.org
Large volume of
data
-12.106 pixels *18
dekads
-12.106 set.
d2
d3
d4
How to Synthesize ?
How to Analyse ?
d5
d6
d7
../..
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
d13
2000
d14
d15
d16
d17
d18
[email protected]
8
Typical technical requirement:
Produce Once, Use Many Times
 Geoinformation content requires special field and lab
operations to define the location against which data are
collected
 Operations: Surveying and mapping, photogrammetry,
remote sensing, geodesy, etc
 Location entities: reference frames, point coordinates, land
parcels and administrative units
 Different applications need to cross reference data with
one another
 They refer to the same database entities
 No single agency can satisfy its geographic data needs on
its own
 Data collected for one purpose or project can be used for
other purposes and projects
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
9
Typical skill requirement

Where can we get experienced people…
Academic
Regional Bodies
Awarded Degrees
Professionals
National Bodies
University Cape Town
RECTAS
RCMRD
CRTS
SAC
Short training
RECTAS
RCMRD
AGRHYMET
CRTS
SAC
Hands-On training
ECA
AGRHYMET
RCMRD
CRTS
CSE
NMA
www.uneca.org
CRASTE
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
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Typical answers to “Where” questions…
What we have...
 High
Duplication
Potential
 Low resources
sharing
 Lack
of
coordination
www.uneca.org
80% common content in spatial
data used by three ministries in
this avian flu scenario
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
11
Challenges
 Imagine if various specialists could
concentrate on …





Socio-economic planning
Ground water management
Health and sanitation issues
Land management
Whatever else you do
Without worrying about “Where” they are
 Imagine further that all the data you have are
used to their maximum potential
 Contribute to overall economic development
 Increase your visibility and prestige
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
12
Justifying Geo-Spatial Data Infrastructures
It is possible …
 If potential sources of information are known to
everybody – clearinghouse and metadata
management
 And easily accessible
 And even more so if integrated into the structure
of society
Like an infrastructure
Therefore, you have to participate in
building the infrastructure
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
13
What? Spatial Data Infrastructure
The basis for spatial data discovery, evaluation, and
application for users and providers within all levels of
government, the commercial sector, the non-profit
sector, academia and by citizens in general.
Put in place policies, resources and structures to make
available Geospatial information technologies easily
accessible to decision makers and the community …
 When they need it
 Where they need it
 In a form they can use it (almost) immediately
 Help them make sense of it
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
14
Building Fundamental Datasets
Data we can get
Résolution spatiale
Raw Data
Satellite Images
Locations
coordinates
Processed
Data
Land Cover /
Land Use Maps
Production
Analysed
Data
Dynamics and
Seasonality
Trends
Disponibilité de l'info
Résolution temporel
Zone couverte
STRATEGIQUE
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
TACTIQUE
LOGISTIQUE
[email protected]
15
Building Fundamental Datasets
Where can we find Data?
Free
Commercial
Global Data
(Country Level)
NOAA (www.noaa.gov)
MSG (www.eumetsat.int)
Modis (http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov)
Meris (www.esa.int)
Regional Data
(County Level)
Landsat
SALB (www.salb.org)
SPOT-XS (www.spotimage.fr)
ASAR (www.esa.int)
Radarsat (www.csa.ca)
Local Data (City
Level)
Locations (www.puco.de)
SOPT-5 (www.spotimage.fr)
Ikonos (www.speceimaging.com)
QuickBird (www.digitalglobe.com)
Orbview (www.orbimage.com)
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
16
Building Fundamental Datasets
Tools to process Data
Commercial
FOSS (www.gnu.org)
RS
Erdas Imagine (www.leica-geosystems.com)
Kilimanjaro (www.idrisi.edu)
e-Cognition (www.definiens-imaging.com)
ER Mapper (www.ermapper.com)
ILWIS (www.itc.nl)
BEST (http://envisat.esa.int/best)
GIS
ESRI Suite (www.esri.com)
MapInfo
Awhere (www.mudsprings.com)
Arc Explorer
Grass
WindowMap
GPS
Leica Suite (www.leica-geosystems.com)
Trimble (www.trimble.com)
Cartalinx (www.idrisi.edu)
G7TOWin (www.g7towin.com)
WayPoint+ (www.tapr.com)
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
17
Building Just in Time (JIT) Maps
 In the digital environment, maps are
produced as and when needed
just in time for the decision to be made
 With most current data from
databases that are continuously
updated
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
18
Building Capacity
 Human Resources …
Wide range of skill covered
But… Extreme mobility of Geospatial
technology professionals
104
2%
21
100%
934
Database
Total
www.uneca.org
10
0
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
Se
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ig
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Remote Sensing
20
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199
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ia
21%
am
GIS
30
al
i
388
N
42%
40
M
Cadastral
Photogrammetry
Geodesy
Cadastral
GIS
Remote Sensing
Database
Li
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10%
Le
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Geodesy
50
on
go
130
C
14%
Bo
ts
w
an
Bu
a
rk
in
a
Fa
so
Photogrammetry
Staff Number


[email protected]
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Building Capacity
Training and Workshops …



Critical mass of awareness of GIS.
More people understand not only the power, but also the
value of integrating GIS data into the workflows of their
organizations.
20
Short Training
Workshops
Short Training
55%
51
Workshops
38%
37
7%
14
Degree
10
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
Za
m
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nz
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[email protected]
20
Building Coordination
Subsidiarity …
Mutually accepted
standards …
Common base
themes of data
Interoperability and
Standards
Using e-technology
to help find and
share data
Data Access Policy
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
21
Getting there without getting lost
Your Role in developing SDI
What can you do?
Data access and Sharing

To use data produced by another person/agency, potential
users need to know:







That the data resource exists
How the data was produced
When it was produced or last updated
Why it was produced
How to access the data
Any constraints, restrictions or special conditions for access and/or use
Only possible if every data producers describes every data
product in a standard, field-based format


This standard description is called metadata  data about data
Potential users consult metadata to determine suitability of
data for intended use, and access procedure
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
23
Metadata tools
CatMDEdit
IME
Geo
Network
ArcCatalog
GPT
MetaD
M3Cat
Enraemed
Profile Creation


?

?
?

?
Schema Validation


?

?
?


Language Support
(EN, FR, AB, PR, ES)
4
4
3
1
1
?
Extensible
2
DC,
ISO19115
ISO19115
ISO19115
CSDGM,
ISO19115
?
?
ISO19115,
CSDGM, DC
CSDGM,
ISO19115
Entity/element
extensibility


?

?
?

?
Cross-platform




?
?


File-based or
database-driven
F
F
D
F
?
?
D
?
Standalone v.
bundled




?



FOSS v. $




Registration
key
?


Thesauri, code lists,
and defaults


?

?
?


Criterion
Supported
Standards
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
IIS required
Ionic
RedSpider
[email protected]
24
Interoperability and Standard
“ Standardization was a process for recognizing and codifying the status quo of
technology. Standardization is now beginning to define the requirements and
implementation of new technology.” (Olaf Østensen, Chairman of ISO/TC 211)
2. Development
1. Adoption /
Adaptation
Spatial Data Standards
Define
Spatial
Describe
Data
Process
Information
Technology
Standards
3. Implementation
4. Deployment
Software Interfaces
All levels of Government
Industry
Professional organizations
UN agencies
Industry : E.g. OGC
Spatial Data Standard
Data producers
& users : E.g. ISO
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
25
GIS Standards Infrastructure
Standards
Organization
Standards
Scope
User / Industry Organizations
Federal Geographic Data
Committee (FGDC)
Government
US Government agencies
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
National
US Federal, state, county,
city agencies, public, and industry
European Committee for
Standardization (CEN)
Regional
Digital Geographic Information Working Group
(DGIWG)
Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe
(INSPIRE)
Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia
and the Pacific (PCGIAP)
International Organization
for Standardization (ISO)
Open GIS Consortium (OGC)
www.uneca.org
International
International Cartographic Assoc. (ICA)
International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) , etc.
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
26
Paradigm Shift
 We need to move….
 From… Statistic as
standalone data collection
 To… Knowledge generation,
sharing and utilisation
 Organize data so that
information (spatially- enabled)
can be produced as and when
needed
 Just in time data on
demand
 Empower users to do as much
as possible by themselves
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
27
Typical Way Forward : GeoVisualisations
 Web-based
mapping
tools….
Relief
Physical
Geo-demographics
 MDG Mapper
 http://geoinfo.un
eca.org/mdg/
Topographic
Images
Political
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
28
Typical Way Forward : Positioning technologies
 AFREF Project ….
 Common geodetic framework for Africa
 A unified geodetic reference frame for Africa to be the
fundamental basis for the national and regional threedimensional reference networks fully consistent and
homogeneous with International Reference Frame
 A network of Continuous Operation GNSS Reference
Stations (CORS) spread all over Africa
 You have to build your data based on this
National geodetic networks…
 http://geoinfo.uneca.org/afref/
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
29
Typical Vision …
 Your vision must be Knowledge
generation, sharing and
dissemination

Ensure that statistic spatiallyenabled data permeates every
aspect of society and that they
are available to people who need
them, when they need them, and
in a form that they can use to
make decisions with minimal preprocessing

Ensure that generated information
is put to the maximum possible
uses by publicising their existence
and making them easily available
to the widest possible audience
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
30
Contacting Us

ICT, Science & Technology for Development Division



Aida Opoku-Mensah, Officer in charge
[email protected]
Geoinformation Systems Section (GiSS)






Dozie Ezigbalike, Chief of section
[email protected]
Andre Nonguierma, GIS Officer
[email protected]
Paul Belanger, GIS Officer
[email protected]

http://geoinfo.uneca.org/sdiafrica/
www.uneca.org
http://geoinfo.uneca.org
[email protected]
31
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