Literary Terms The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls Why is Jeannette’s glass castle more like a sand castle? (metaphor) The glass castle represents the hopes of a positive future for the family. Those hopes can be represented in a sand castle because it can be built but it will soon be washed away, just like the children’s hopes are often washed away. Figurative Language/Literary Terms Review Also known as descriptive language, or poetic language, figurative language helps the writer paint a picture in the reader’s mind. Allusion A casual reference in literature to a person, place, event, or another passage of literature. Example: "Fluffy" -- the three headed dog in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. In Greek Mythology, Cerberus guards the gate to the underworld. He is "a three-headed, dragontailed dog, who permits all spirits to enter, but none to return." -- from Edith Hamilton's Mythology Colloquialism A word or phrase used in everyday plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Example: The opening line from Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn "You don’t know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, but that ain’t no matter." Colloquialism cont’d Another example: The first sentence of J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye "If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you'll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don't feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth." Hyperbole Exaggeration or overstatement for an effect. “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.” “This test is going to take forever to finish.” Now you write one: Begin with “My dog is so ugly…” and finish the sentence using hyperbole. (example: My dog is so ugly we had to pay the fleas to live on him!) Idiom An expression in one language that cannot be matched or directly translated wordfor-word in another language. “tough nut to crack” “piece of cake” Now you write one. Verbal Irony An implied discrepancy between what is said and what is meant Example: From Antony’s speech in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar "Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honorable man.“ In the context of the play, he is really saying that Brutus is NOT honorable.” Symbol Using an object or action that means something more than its literal meaning Example: From William Golding’s Lord of the Flies The conch is a concrete object, but it represents the abstract concepts of law and order and of course a civilized society. Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things, but does NOT use the words "like" or "as". “She was an ice cube before the heat kicked on.” “They are two peas in a pod.” Simile A comparison of two unlike things using the words "like" or "as". “She is as cold as ice.” “The stars shine like diamonds.” Theme the general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to express Example: From Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird,: “Even if one person stands up for what is right, when all others are against him or her, it can make a positive difference.” The Appeals Appeal to character: Ethos To make an argument that is a persuasive appeal to someone’s moral and ethical nature. Example: William Golding’s Lord of the Flies Right after Simon is killed, Ralph says, “`That was murder…’ Ralph’s voice, low and stricken, stopped Piggy’s gestures…`Don’t you understand, Piggy? The things we did…’” Ralph is trying to do the right thing, ethically. The Appeals cont’d Appeal to reason: Logos To use rational thinking to persuade by means of an argument “suitable to the case in question.” Example: Dr. Martin Luther King's speech Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. Another example of Logos From William Golding’s Lord of the Flies Right after the ship goes by because Jack pulled Samneric from the fire, Jack tries to explain that he HAD to hunt. “The job was too much. We needed everyone.…We needed meat.” The Appeals cont’d Appeal to Pity: Pathos To make an argument with emotional appeal that targets the audience’s altruism and mercy. Example: From Jeannette Walls’ The Glass Castle “Quixote landed with a screeching meow and a thud, Dad accelerated up the road, and I burst into tears” (18). Finish your Literary Terms sheet Use your book to find the quotes you need to complete the handout. Decide which two you would like to “perfect” and type up. Typed quotes with pink sheet stapled to the back is due on Thursday, Dec. 15th. When you finish the pink handout, read, work on discussion questions or study for your prefix test. All of this is independent work.