Let’s Talk About
♀
SEX
♂
1. What is Human Sexuality?
2. Male & Female Anatomy
3. Physiology & Sexual Response
4. Love & Attraction
5. Relationships,
Communication & Intimacy
6. Sexual Orientation & Atypical
Behavior
7. STIs
8. Conception, Pregnancy &
What is
Human
Sexuality?
Make-up Of An Individual’s
Unique Sexual Being:
o
o
o
o
o
physical
psychological
social
cultural
spiritual
Five Features of Sexuality:
o
o
o
o
o
Sensuality
Intimacy
Sexual Identity
Reproduction
Sexualization
SENSUALITY
awareness and acceptance of our own body
o
o
o
o
o
o
knowledge of anatomy & physiology
understanding sexual response
body image
satisfaction of skin hunger
attraction template
fantasy
INTIMACY
experiencing emotional closeness to another
o
o
o
o
o
caring
sharing
risk taking
vulnerability
self disclosure
SEXUAL IDENTITY
process of discovering who we are in terms of sexuality
o
o
o
o
o
o
gender roles
orientation
self esteem & confidence level
relationships with family & friends
roles as child & adult
perception of self as male/female
REPRODUCTION
values, attitudes & behaviors relating to reproduction
o
o
o
o
o
contraception & fertility issues
lifestyles
STIs (including AIDS)
anatomy & physiology
morality issues
SEXUALIZATION
use of sexuality to influence, control or manipulate
o
o
o
o
o
o
style of dress
appearance & body language
advertising
movies, talk shows & media
harassment & sexual assault
paraphilias (voyeurism, exhibitionism…)
Values…
VALUES: the qualities in life which are
deemed important or unimportant, right
or wrong, desirable or undesirable
MORAL VALUES: relate to our conduct
with and treatment of other people,
more than just right or wrong, looks at
the whole picture
Values…
SEXUAL MORAL VALUES: relate to the
rightness and wrongness of sexual conduct
and when and how sexuality should be
expressed
SOURCES OF SEXUAL VALUES: we acquire
our sexual values from our social
environment
Research
Founders…
SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)
Austrian physician
Personality theory based on sex drive as
our principle motivating force
Research
Founders…
ALFRED KINSEY (1894-1956):
American zoologist
First comprehensive survey ~ interviewed
12,000 subjects
Research
Founders…
WILLIAM MASTERS & VIRGINIA
JOHNSON (1960s):
Lab observations of 700 subjects to study
human sexual response stages
Female
Anatomy
MONS VENERIS:
 fatty tissue that covers the joint of the
pubic bones in front of the body, below
the abdomen
 cushions a woman’s body during sexual
intercourse, protecting her and her partner
from the pressure against the pubic bone
LABIA MAJORA:
 large folds of skin that run downward
from the mons along the sides of the
vulva
 amply supplied with nerve endings
that respond to stimulation
 shield the inner portions of the female
genitals
LABIA MINORA:
 hairless, light colored membranes
located between the labia majora
 they surround the urethral and vaginal
opening
 at the top, they join at the hood of the
clitoris
 highly sensitive to sexual stimulation
 darken and swell when stimulated
CLITORIS:
 female sex organ located above the
urethral opening
 serves no known function other than
sexual pleasure
PREPUCE:
 “hood” that covers the clitoris
URETHRAL OPENING:
 opening through which urine passes
from the female’s body
VAGINAL OPENING:
 lies below and is larger than the
urethral opening, covered by a hymen
HYMEN:
 fold of tissue across the vaginal
opening that is usually present at birth
and remains at least partially intact
until a woman engages in coitus
PUBO COCCYGEUS MUSCLE:
 muscles that encircle the entrance to the
vagina (Kegel exercises)
VAGINA:
 usually 3 to 5 inches long
 extends back and upward from the
vaginal opening
 menstrual flow and babies pass from
the uterus through the vagina
 during coitus, the penis is contained
within the vagina
CERVIX:
 is the lower end of the uterus
 it’s walls, like the vagina, produce
secretions that contribute to the chemical
balance of the vagina
 the opening in the middle of the cervix,
called the os, is normally the width of a
straw
 os expands to permit passage of a baby
during childbirth
UTERUS (aka WOMB):
 the organ in which a fertilized
egg implants and develops until birth
ENDOMETRIUM:
 innermost layer of tissue which is
discharged during menstruation
 tissue may grow in the abdominal cavity
or elsewhere ~ Endometriosis
OVARIES (2):
 almond shaped organs, each about 1.5
inches long
 produce egg cells (ova) and female sex
hormones estrogen and progesterone
Male
Anatomy
PENIS:
 male organ of sexual intercourse
 contains the opening through which
semen and urine pass
CORPUS CAVERNOSUM (2):
 cylinders of spongy tissue in the penis
that become congested with blood and
stiffen during sexual arousal
SCROTUM:
 pouch of loose skin that
becomes covered lightly with hair at puberty
 consists of two compartments which
hold the testes
TESTES (2):
 produce germ cells (sperm) and male sex
hormone testosterone
TESTOSTERONE:
 stimulates prenatal differentiation
of male sex organs, sperm production and
development of secondary sex characteristics
(ex. beard, deep voice)
VAS DEFERENS (2):
 thin cylindrical tube about 16 inches long
that serves as a conduit for sperm
SEMINAL VESICLES (2):
 small glans each about 2 inches long
 lie behind the bladder and open into
the ejaculatory ducts, where the fluids they
secrete combine with sperm
 the fluid they produce nourishes sperm and
helps them become active
PROSTATE GLAND:
 lies beneath the bladder
 contains muscle fibers and glandular tissue
that secrete prostatic fluid which
is
milky and alkaline
 provides the characteristic texture and
odor of the seminal fluid
 the alkalinity neutralizes some of the
acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the
life span of sperm as it passes through the
female reproductive system
COWPER’S GLANDS (2):
 lie below the prostate
 empty their secretion into the urethra
 during sexual arousal they secrete a
drop or so of clear, slippery fluid that
appears at the urethral opening
SEMEN:
 made up of fluids from the
seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper’s
glands
 about 70% of the ejaculate is secreted by the
seminal vesicle
 the other 30% consists of sperm and fluids
from the prostate gland and Cowper’s gland
 sperm only accounts for 1% of semen
 ejaculate = 200 - 400 million sperm
Physiology
& Sexual
Response
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
MENSTRUATION:
 the cyclical bleeding that stems from
the shedding of the uterine lining
 humans ~ averages 28 days
 regulated by estrogen & progesterone
 ovulation may not occur each time
 follows ovulation by 14 days (±2)
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
MENARCHE:
 the onset of menstruation, the first
period
 the first few years of menstruation
may be anovulatory (no ovulation)
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
MENOPAUSE:
the cessation of menstruation
commonly occurs between the
ages of 45 & 50 and lasts 2 years
 estrogen levels drop producing
many unpleasant side effects (ex.
night sweats, hot flashes)


MENSTRUAL CYCLE
MAN-OPAUSE (?):
 men cannot undergo menopause
because they have never menstruated
 they can experience a gradual
decline in testosterone levels but it is
unlike the sharp decline of estrogen
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
DYSMENORRHEA:
 mild to severe pain or discomfort
during menstruation
 pelvic cramps, nausea, headaches,
backaches, bloating
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS):
 symptoms that regularly afflict many
women during the four to six days
prior to menstruation each month
 combination physical & psychological
 ex. anxiety, depression, irritability,
weight gain, abdominal pain
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
SEX DURING MENSTRUATION:
 no evidence that sex during
menstruation is physically harmful
 many couples continue to engage in
sex while others abstain
 may be helpful in relieving cramps by
dispelling blood congestion
SEXUAL FUNCTIONS
ERECTION:
 the enlargement and stiffening of the
penis as a consequence of filling with
blood (a spinal reflex)
 can double in length and become firm
in a matter of 10-15 seconds
 bladder closes off during arousal
SEXUAL FUNCTIONS
EJACULATION:
 expulsion of semen from tip of penis
 a spinal reflex triggered when sexual
stimulation reaches the threshold
 often, but not always, occurs together
with orgasm (subjective sensations)
 occurs in two stages
SEXUAL FUNCTIONS
STAGE 1 ~ EMISSION:
 involves contractions of the prostate
gland, seminal vesicles & vas deferens
 forces seminal fluid into a small tube
called the urethral bulb which closes at
both ends, trapping the fluid
SEXUAL FUNCTIONS
STAGE 2 ~ EXPULSION:
 propulsion of seminal fluid through
the urethra and out of the urethral
opening at the tip of the penis
 the muscles at the base of the penis
contract rhythmically, expelling semen
 usually accompanied by orgasm
SEXUAL FUNCTIONS
RETROGRADE EJACULATION:
 ejaculate empties into the bladder
rather than being expelled
 result is a dry orgasm
 usually harmless as the semen is later
expelled during urination but may have
an underlying health risk cause
SEXUAL RESPONSE
APHRODISIAC:
 a substance that arouses or increases
one’s capacity for sexual pleasure
 no foods have been shown to be
sexually stimulating
 Spanish Fly is a toxic irritant
 basic fuel of desire = testosterone
SEXUAL RESPONSE
PHEROMONES:
 chemical substances secreted externally
which are odorless
 detected through a “sixth sense”
triggering sexual behavior in many
organisms
 contained in vaginal secretions & urine
SEXUAL RESPONSE
ORGASM:
 the climax of sexual excitement
 similar physiological response to sexual
stimulation for men and women
 described by Kaplan as a three-stage
model of sexual response
KAPLAN’S MODEL
STAGE 1 ~ DESIRE:
 the drive & interest level for sexual
activity which arises in the brain
 testosterone is the key hormone for
desire level in both men & women
 strengthened by fantasy & stimulation
KAPLAN’S MODEL
STAGE 2 ~ EXCITEMENT:
 increased muscle tension, heart rate &
blood pressure
 women – engorged clitoris, labia &
vagina, vaginal lubrication
 men – penile erection, enlargement &
elevation of testes, Cowper’s secretion
KAPLAN’S MODEL
STAGE 3 ~ ORGASM:
 involuntary muscle spasms throughout
body, mostly in vagina & penis
 blood pressure, heart rate & respiration
peak
 slightly longer duration for females
MASTURBATION
 sexual self-stimulation either manual or
with the aid of an artificial device such
as a vibrator
 physically & psychologically harmless
 negative attitudes may be associated
 reasons: relieve sexual tension, for
physical pleasure, to relax, partner
unavailable, to get to sleep…
LOVE
&
ATTRACTION
ATTRACTION
minimal standards for attractiveness?
beauty in the “eye of the beholder”?
do men prefer big breasts?
opposites attract?
should I “put on a happy face”?
what do you look for “long-term”?
the “matching hypothesis”
ATTRACTION
MINIMAL STANDARDS FOR
ATTRACTIVENESS
o sensitivity, warmth and intelligence
ARE NOT more important to us
o research shows that attractiveness is
the key factor when choosing a partner
ATTRACTION
“EYE OF THE BEHOLDER”
o broad agreement among cultures that
we all want physically attractive partners
o many men prefer women to be less
slender than many women think
o many men prefer a bust size smaller
than what women think
ATTRACTION
DO OPPOSITES ATTRACT?
o we are drawn to those with similar
attitudes, background & tastes
o match made in the neighborhood, not
in heaven
o women place more value on similar
attitude, men on physical attraction
ATTRACTION
COME ON, SMILE 
o a smile DOES make you more attractive
o both genders rated a smiling photo
more attractive than a non-smiling pose
o more true for photos of women than
photos of men
ATTRACTION
LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIPS
o physical attraction was rated lower for men
& women when discussing long-term
relationship appeal
o warmth, honesty, sensitivity & faithfulness
ranked higher
o single most important quality - HONESTY
ATTRACTION
MATCHING HYPOTHESIS
o who is “right” for you?
o people tend to develop romantic
relationships with people who are similar to
themselves
o motive for seeking matches seems to be
fear of rejection by more appealing people
ATTRACTION TEMPLATE
WHAT SOCIETY SAYS
NICE IF
SHOULD
MUST
LOVE
STYLES OF LOVE
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
romantic love
game-playing love
friendship
logical love
possessive / excited love
selfless love
LOVE
ROMANTIC LOVE:
♥
♥
♥
♥
lust
similar to our concept of passion
“my lover fits my ideal”
“my lover & I were attracted to one
another immediately”
LOVE
GAME-PLAYING LOVE:
♥ the chase is most important
♥ “I get over affairs pretty easily”
♥ “I keep my lover up in the air about my
commitment”
LOVE
FRIENDSHIP:
♥ respect, intimacy
♥ loving attachment with nonsexual affection
♥ “the best love grows out of an enduring
friendship”
LOVE
LOGICAL LOVE:
♥ practical
♥ “I consider my lover’s potential in life
before committing myself”
♥ “I consider whether my lover will be a
good parent”
LOVE
POSSESSIVE / EXCITED LOVE:
♥ passion
♥ “I get so excited about my love that I
cannot sleep”
♥ “when my lover ignores me I get sick all
over”
LOVE
SELFLESS LOVE:
♥ similar to generosity & charity
♥ “I would do anything I can to help my
lover”
♥ “my lover’s needs & wishes are more
important than my own”
♥ unhealthy if only one partner
TRIANGULAR
THEORY OF
LOVE
THREE COMPONENTS OF LOVE
INTIMACY:
♥ the experience of warmth toward another
person that arises from feelings of closeness,
bondedness & connectedness to the other
PASSION:
♥ an intense romantic or sexual desire for
another person, which is accompanied by
physical arousal
COMMITMENT / DECISION:
♥ a component of love that involves both short
and long-term issues
(CONSUMMATE)
PASSION
NON LOVE
♥ all three components of love are
absent
♥ Most of our personal relationships are of
this type
♥ Casual acquaintances that do not involve
any elements of love
LIKING=
INTIMACY ONLY
♥ A loving experience with another
person or friendship in which
intimacy is present but passion &
commitment are not
INFATUATION=
PASSION ONLY
♥ Passionate, obsessive “love at first
sight” without intimacy or commitment
EMPTY LOVE=
COMMITMENT ONLY
♥ Decision to love each other without
intimacy or passion
♥ Includes stagnant relationships that no
longer involve emotional intimacy or
physical attraction
ROMANTIC LOVE=
INTIMACY & PASSION
♥ Lovers physically & emotionally
attracted to each other but without
commitment
♥ Includes a summer romance
COMPANIONATE LOVE=
INTIMACY &
COMMITMENT
♥ Long-term committed friendship such
as a marriage in which the passion has
faded
FATUOUS LOVE=
PASSION & COMMITMENT
♥ Commitment based on passion but
without the time for intimacy to
develop
♥ Includes a “whirlwind courtship”
CONSUMMATE
LOVE
♥ The full or complete measure of love
♥ Involving the combination of passion,
intimacy & commitment / decision
♥ Many of us strive to achieve this love
♥ Maintaining this love is even more
difficult than achieving it
INTIMACY
RELATIONSHIPS
&
COMMUNICATION
A COUPLE’S
JOURNEY
♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥
HOW A
RELATIONSHIP
DEVELOPS
♫ the road is long…♪
FIVE STAGES
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
ROMANCE
POWER STRUGGLE
STABILITY
COMMITMENT
CO-CREATION
COUPLE’S JOURNEY
ROMANCE
♥ we sense our possibilities &
create a shared vision
COUPLE’S JOURNEY
POWER STRUGGLE
♥ we learn to recognize and validate
differing needs and perceptions
♥ we learn to say who we are &
what we want
♥ should be symmetrical, parallel,
complimentary
COUPLE’S JOURNEY
STABILITY
♥ learn to take responsibility & expand our
senses of identity through dialogue with
each other
♥ our differences are OK
♥ we each have our strengths
COUPLE’S JOURNEY
COMMITMENT
♥ experience ourselves as interdependent ~
“we”
♥ learn to live with impossibility &
unsolvable problems
MYTHS OF LONG-TERM
RELATIONSHIPS
Relationships will make you feel complete
Your partner should change for you if s/he really loves you
If you truly love each other, romance should continue
Your partner should understand you
Any differences should always be settled
In a good relationship, you have identical dreams & goals
A relationship must be stable in order to be healthy
The more open you are with your partner, the more
satisfying the relationship will be
♥ If you are not fulfilled, your relationship must be at fault
♥ Sexual disinterest is inevitable in a long-term relationship
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
HOW MARRIED PEOPLE MET
THEIR PARTNER
(MICHAEL ET AL., 1994)
13
Self Introductions
5
35
15
32
Mutual Friends
Family Members
Co-workers,
Classmates or
Neighbors
Other
 JEALOUSY 
♥ “the green-ey’d monster” – Shakespeare
♥ evidence of jealousy in all cultures
♥ can impair a relationship by producing
feelings of mistrust or possessiveness
♥ fear of losing the loved one, anger
♥ may lead to depression, spousal abuse,
suicide or even murder
♥ in mild forms, can reveal how much you care
 JEALOUSY 
♥ may derive from low self-esteem
♥ these people are often overly
dependent on their partner
♥ fear that they will not find another partner
♥ for women, feelings of inadequacy lead to
feelings of jealousy
♥ for men, jealousy leads to inadequacy
♥ can lead to perceiving anyone as a rival
 JEALOUSY 
♥ unfortunately, many lovers play games
♥ they let their partner know they are
attracted to other people
♥ they flirt openly with others
♥ they may make up stories to get more
attention from their partner, to inflict pain, or
to take revenge
LONELINESS
♥ many people experience loneliness,
sometimes even in a relationship
♥ loneliness can cause depression, anxiety
& withdrawal from social activities
♥ lonely people tend to have several of the
following characteristics:
LONELY PEOPLE
lack of social skills
lack of interest in other people
lack of empathy
fear of rejection
failure to disclose personal information
to potential friends
♥ cynical about human nature
♥ demanding too much too soon
♥ general pessimism
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
REDUCE LONELINESS
CHALLENGE FEELINGS OF
PESSIMISM
♥ adopt the attitude that things happen
for you when you make them happen
♥ make a plan for your future & start
with small steps, one day at a time
♥ remind yourself of all the things you
can be grateful for in your life
REDUCE LONELINESS
CHALLENGE YOUR CYNICISM
HUMAN NATURE
ABOUT
♥ yes, lots of people are selfish & not worth
knowing
♥ but, if you assume all people are like that you
are doomed to loneliness
♥ find people who have the qualities that you
value ~ they are out there!
REDUCE LONELINESS
FAILURE OF RELATIONSHIPS
NO REASON FOR GIVING UP
IS
♥ yes, a break-up can be awful & social rejection
can be painful
♥ face it, we are not going to appeal to everyone
& must learn to live with rejection
♥ keep looking for those people that have
qualities which you value
REDUCE LONELINESS
IMPROVE YOUR
DATE-SEEKING SKILLS
♥ sit with people in the cafeteria instead of
by yourself in a corner
♥ SMILE  and say “hi” to people that
interest you
♥ practice opening lines in front of a mirror
REDUCE LONELINESS
MAKE SOCIAL CONTACTS
join committees
attend recreational activities
go to church
join social action groups such as
community betterment or environmental
♥ help out at your local animal shelter
♥ go to drop-in centres
♥
♥
♥
♥
REDUCE LONELINESS
BECOME A GOOD LISTENER
♥ ask people how they’re doing
♥ ask for their opinion about events & activities
♥ actually listen to what they say before you
plan your response
♥ tolerate different opinions – no two people
will have identical perspectives
REDUCE LONELINESS
REMEMBER THAT YOU
ARE WORTHY OF FRIENDS
♥ yup, warts & all, you can be a good friend
♥ none of us is perfect (or even close to it)
♥ we are all unique & you may connect with
more people than you imagine
♥ give people a chance!
INTIMACY
♥ involves feelings of emotional closeness
& connectedness with another person
♥ desire to share each other’s innermost
thoughts & feelings
♥ mutual trust, caring & acceptance
♥ does not have to be sexual (ex. friends,
family that you are very close to)
INTIMACY
REQUIRES:
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
♥
knowing & liking yourself
trusting & caring
being honest
making a commitment
maintaining individuality
communicating
INTIMACY
KNOWING & LIKING YOURSELF:
♥ coming to know & value yourself is
important to build intimacy with others
♥ know your innermost needs & feelings
♥ develop the security to share those
feelings
INTIMACY
TRUSTING & CARING:
♥ with trust comes feelings of security to
disclose information & feelings
♥ trust builds gradually as partners learn
whether or not it is safe to share
♥ caring is an emotional bond
♥ involves meeting each other’s needs
INTIMACY
BEING HONEST:
♥ involves sharing freely & openly
♥ does not mean partners must tell each
other everything, but there is a healthy
balance of revealing information
♥ total honesty can be devastating to a
relationship, especially when it comes to
past relationships or criticism
INTIMACY
MAKING A COMMITMENT:
♥ requires commitment to maintain the
relationship through good times & bad
♥ does not mean that the relationship must
be lifelong
♥ the couple commits to work together to
overcome problems instead of running at
the first sign of trouble
INTIMACY
MAINTAINING INDIVIDUALITY:
♥ when the I becomes we
♥ neither partner should take on the
personality of the other person
♥ each partner should maintain their
interests, goals, needs, likes & dislikes
INTIMACY
COMMUNICATING:
♥ good communication means sending &
receiving messages with your partner
♥ requires good listening & clear speaking
♥ is not always verbal
COMMUNICATION
PROBLEMS:
♥ speaker may use words differently
than the listener, leading to misunderstanding
♥ speaker’s words may not match his or her
tone of voice, facial expression, or body
gestures
♥ speaker may not be able to put into words
what he or she truly means or feels
COMMUNICATION
NONVERBAL:
♥ feelings are also expressed through tone
of voice, gestures, body posture & facial
expressions
♥ touching the arm, gazing into the eyes,
hugging, holding, speaking softly or
speaking forcefully
COMMUNICATION
ACTIVE LISTENING:
♥ first, adopt the attitude that you might
actually learn something!
♥ when the other person is speaking, show
that you understand their ideas & feelings
ask questions to help clarify
♥ try to grasp the meaning the speaker’s
words instead of planning your next line
COMMUNICATION
PROVIDING INFORMATION:
♥ your partner cannot read your mind!
♥ take the opportunity to tell your partner
that s/he has done something right
♥ when giving criticism, focus on the
problem without causing guilt or fear
♥ do not give ultimatums unless you’ll
follow through with it
SEXUAL
ORIENTATION
&
ATYPICAL
BEHAVIOR
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
 the direction of one’s sexual interests
 can be toward members of the same
gender, opposite gender or both genders
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
HETEROSEXUAL
 attraction & preference for romantic
relationships with other gender
HOMOSEXUAL
 attraction & preference for romantic
relationships with same gender
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
BISEXUAL
 attraction & interest for romantic
relationships with both genders
DID YOU KNOW…
 sexual feelings involving people of one’s
own gender are common in adolescence &
do not mean that one will be gay in
adulthood?
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
KINSEY SCALE
 a 7-point heterosexual-homosexual
scale
that classifies people according to their
homosexual behavior & the magnitude of
their attraction to members of their own
gender
 category 0 = exclusively heterosexual
 category 6 = exclusively homosexual
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
HOMOSEXUAL
HETROSEXUAL
KINSEY SCALE
0= exclusively heterosexual
1= heterosexual, 1-2 homosexual experiences
2= mostly heterosexual, some homosexual
3= bisexual (equal)
4= mostly homosexual, some heterosexual
5= homosexual, 1-2 heterosexual experiences
6= exclusively homosexual
Looks only at BEHAVIOR, not at FEELINGS, DESIRE or FANTASY
ATTITUDES
one U.S. survey found that of males aged
15
– 19, 90% of them felt that sex between
gay
men was “disgusting”
 60% would not even consider being friends with a
gay man
 in 2000, 9 out of 10 Canadians believed there
should be equal job opportunities for homosexuals
 yet, only 4 out of 10 support gay marriages

GENETICS





there is evidence that gay sexual orientation
runs in families
biological & psychological factors also influence
if one identical twin is gay, there is a 50 - 65%
chance that the other twin is also gay
compared to 22% of fraternal situations
autopsies found that a segment of the brain’s
hypothalamus was less than half the size of a
heterosexual
ATYPICAL BEHAVIOR

sexual behaviors which are unusual or
abnormal

sexual arousal involving a preference for nongenital
sexual outlets

patterns of sexual behavior or arousal that appear
problematic in the eyes of the individual or society are
called paraphilias
PARAPHILIAS

involve sexual arousal in response to unusual stimuli,
such as children, nonconsenting
persons,
nonhuman objects, or pain &
humiliation

are diagnosed when sexual fantasies, urges or
behaviors cause significant distress or interfere with a
person’s ability to function in everyday tasks
PARAPHILIAS
include:
 Fetishism
 Partialism
 Transvestism
 Exhibitionism
 Voyeurism
 Frotteurism
 Sadism
 Masochism
 Zoophilia
 Necrophilia
 Nymphomania
 Satyriasis
FETISHISM
• when sexual arousal is caused by
an inanimate object






rubber
leather
silk
high-heeled shoes
panties
???
PARTIALISM
• related to fetishism; exaggerated sexual
arousal to a particular body part




feet
buttocks
breasts
???
TRANSVESTISM
• when a person repeatedly cross-dresses
for sexual arousal or is bothered by
recurring urges to cross-dress




most keep it a secret
ranges from one garment to many
almost always male
most are married
EXHIBITIONISM
• persistent, powerful urges &
sexual fantasies involving exposing one’s
genitals to unsuspecting strangers for
sexual
arousal of oneself




“flashing”
almost always male
usually begins between ages 13-16
most are not a physical threat
VOYEURISM
• strong, repetitive urges to watch
unsuspecting strangers who are naked,
undressing or having sex





almost always male
may masturbate during or after
usually begins before age 15
not usually violent
many lack social & sexual skills
FROTTEURISM
• recurring, powerful urges to rub
against or touch a nonconsenting
person




“mashing”
almost always male
buses, subways, elevators, concerts…
many women do not realize it has occurred
OTHERS…
SADISM
• the desire or need to inflict pain or
humiliation on others for sexual arousal
MASOCHISM
• the desire or need for pain or humiliation to
be inflicted on oneself for sexual arousal
TOGETHER, IT IS TERMED S&M
OTHERS…
ZOOPHILIA
• repeated sexual urges & fantasies
sexual contact with animals
• men → farm animals
• women → household pets
involving
NECROPHILIA
• the desire for sexual activity with corpses
OTHERS…
NYMPHOMANIA
• an excessive sex drive or sexual
in women that is insatiable
appetite
SATYRIASIS
• an excessive sex drive or sexual appetite in
men that is insatiable
CONCEPTION
PREGNANCY
&
CHILDBIRTH
CONCEPTION
 the union of a sperm & an egg which
normally occurs in a fallopian tube
 only 1 in 1000 sperm will reach the egg
• gravity
• vaginal acidity
• swimming against the current
• wrong tube
• cilia barrier
CONCEPTION
 about 2000 sperm get to the right tube
 sperm secretes an enzyme which thins
the outer layer of the egg, allowing sperm
to penetrate easier
 once a sperm enters the egg, this outer
layer thickens, stopping other sperm from
entering the egg
PREGNANCY
 missed period is not always the first
sign
 human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) as
early as 8th day of pregnancy with blood test, 3rd
week with urine test
 about one month after a missed period a
pelvic exam may show Hegar’s sign (softness in
the uterus)
PREGNANCY
 about ½ of women experience “morning
sickness”, which occurs throughout the
day
 miscarriage can have many causes & about
¾ occur within the first 16 weeks
 normal gestation period is 280 days ~ find
the date of the first day of the last menstrual
period & add nine months
PREGNANCY
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
 Germinal Stage - about the first 2 weeks
 Embryonic Stage - about the first 2 months
 Fetal Stage - until birth
PREGNANCY
Germinal Stage





within 36 hours of conception, the cell divides
divides repeatedly on way to uterus (3-4 days)
wanders about the uterus (another 3-4 days)
implants in the uterine wall (about 7 days)
cells begin to group off & will eventually
become different structures
PREGNANCY
Embryonic Stage
 from implantation to about 8th week
 major organ systems begin to develop
 development occurs from the head downward
& from the centre (spinal cord, organs) outward
 3rd week, head & blood vessels begin to form
 4th week, primitive heart begins to pump &
arm & leg buds appear
PREGNANCY
Embryonic Stage
 AMNITOTIC SAC – surrounded by a
clear membrane which contains amniotic fluid to
cushion the embryo from movement & maintains
a steady temperature
 PLACENTA – allows exchange of nutrients &
waste between the mother & fetus then leaves the
mother’s body after delivery (“afterbirth”)
PREGNANCY
Fetal Stage
 begins by the 9th week & continues to birth
 by end of 1st trimester, sex can be determined
visually, major organ systems, fingers, toes &
genitalia have all been formed
 mid-4th month, first fetal movements
 age of viability = near end of 2nd trimester
 7th month, fetus turns upside down
PREGNANCY
Environmental Influences
 DIET – malnourished pregnant women during
the 3rd trimester is linked to low birth weight
 TERATOGENS – agents that can damage an
embryo or fetus (ex: narcotics, nicotine, alcohol,
aspirin, lead, mercury, radiation, bacteria, viruses,
measles, syphilis, chicken pox, …)
CHILDBIRTH
 a day or so before labor begins,
may be a discharge of bloody mucus
there
 1 in 10 women will have their “water break” as
the amniotic sac bursts
 other signs of labor: indigestion, diarrhea,
abdominal cramps, backache
 labor begins with onset of regular contractions
THREE STAGES
First Stage:
- cervix thins & widens, causing most of the pain
- may last a couple of hours or over a day
- contractions become more frequent & strong
- baby’s head begins to move into the vagina
THREE STAGES
Second Stage:
- begins when cervix is fully dilated & baby begins
to move into the vagina
- woman is taken to delivery room
- lasts a few minutes to a few hours
- “crowning” = when the head is visible
- ends with the birth of the baby
THREE STAGES
Third Stage:
- lasts from a few minutes to over an hour
- begins with the placenta being expelled
- placenta detaches from wall of uterus
- physician sew up tears or episiotomy (small
incision to prevent tearing during childbirth)
METHODS
NATURAL
• women use no anesthesia
GENERAL ANESTHESIA
• drugs to put people to sleep & eliminate pain
LOCAL ANESTHESIA
• eliminates pain in a certain area of the body
METHODS
LAMAZE
• women learn to relax & to breathe in
patterns that save energy & lesson pain
CESAREAN SECTION
• fetus is delivered through a cut in the abdomen
• used when normal delivery difficult or
threatens the health of mom or baby
• 15% is “medically appropriate” (W.H.O)
POSTPARTUM
• “following birth”
• during the days & weeks that follow
childbirth, 50-80% of mothers will feel sad,
irritable, depressed &/or tearful
• “Postpartum Depression” = persistent &
severe mood changes (15% of new mothers)
• includes psychological factors such as previous
depression, stress, troubled marriage…
FEEDING
Breast versus Bottle?
• 70% of women breast-feed for at least
the first three months
• mothers who are older, married, more
educated & living in Western Canada or
Ontario are more likely to breast-feed
• breast-feeding reduces risk of infections to baby
& reduces allergies in babies
• no other significant differences – you decide
BIRTH
CONTROL
BIRTH CONTROL
• 1882 – illegal to sell or advertise birth
control in Canada
• 1930’s – economic depression led to desire to
have small families & birth control became
available to married women only
• 1950’s – condoms available in drug stores but
only as “prevention of contagious disease”
• 1960’s – sexual revolution & contraceptive
pill becomes available in Canada
METHODS
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
• “the pill” consisting of sex hormones
• combination pill contains man-made estrogen
& progesterone
• minipill contains man-made progesterone,
but no estrogen
• effectiveness = 99.5% with perfect use, 97%
with typical use
METHODS
COMBINATION PILL
• taken for 21 days, then no pill or placebo
• fools brain into thinking the body is already
pregnant so no eggs mature or are released
MINIPILL
• taken every day
• mucus in cervix thickens, therefore sperm is
less mobile & inner lining of uterus is less
receptive to a fertilized egg
METHODS
“MORNING AFTER” PILL
• have high doses of estrogen & progesterone
• most effective when taken within 72 hours
• long-term health effects are not known
INTRAUTERINE DEVICES (IUDs)
• small objects of various shapes inserted into
the uterus by a doctor or nurse
• usually left for 1-7 years, depending on brand
• irritates uterine lining, toxic to sperm / egg
METHODS
DIAPHRAGM
• rubber cap or dome fitted to vagina and
coated with spermicide
• inserted prior to sex as a barrier to sperm
SPERMICIDES
• chemicals that kill sperm
• in form of jelly, foam, cream, gel, suppository
• typical use = 21% failure in first year
METHODS
CONDOMS
• made of animal membrane or latex
• barrier to sperm entering vagina
• can help prevent the spread of AIDS virus &
other STDs
• only contraceptive device worn by men
• only latex are effective against AIDS virus
• not all STDs are protected against
• and remember, pre-cum contains sperm!
SEXUALLY
TRANSMITTED
INFECTIONS
INFO
• EDMONTON STD CENTRE – 413-5156
11111 JASPER AVENUE
(GENERAL HOSPITAL)
• CALGARY STD CLINIC – 297-6562
• TOLL FREE – 1-800-772-2437
PREVENTION
• only sure way is to avoid sex
• have only one partner (who is STD
free & has no other partners)
• use condoms & other protection during sex
• enjoy risk-free activities (hugging, massage…)
• do not have casual partners
• do not share IV drug equipment
CAUSES
• caused by germs or organisms such as
bacteria, viruses, fungi & parasites
• germs need a warm, dark, moist area to
live & grow such as in the genital area
• spread from person to person during sexual
intimacy (usually vaginal, anal or oral sex)
• most STI can be cured, many cannot
SYMPTOMS
• many people DO NOT develop any
symptoms when they get a STI
• they can still be affected & infect others
• some general symptoms include:
- unusual discharge
- burning pain when urinating
- itching & burning in genital area
- appearance of sores around genitals
TYPES
 bacterial
 vaginal
 viral
 parasitic
BACTERIAL
one-celled microorganisms that cause
many diseases such as pneumonia, TB,
meningitis and:
 CHLAMYDIA
 GONORRHEA
 SYPHILIS
CHLAMYDIA
 the most common bacterial STI in Canada
 more than 40,000 new cases a year
 especially high among Canadians aged
1524
 transmitted through vaginal or anal sex
 oral sex can infect the throat
 infants can be infected at birth from an
infected mother (even by C-section)
CHLAMYDIA
SYMPTOMS:
 men
 clear mucous discharge from penis at 1-3
weeks after contact
 discomfort or burning sensation in urethra
 50% of males might not develop any
symptoms at all
CHLAMYDIA
SYMPTOMS:
 women
 unusual vaginal discharge
 irregular menstrual bleeding
 discomfort during intercourse
 80% of females might not develop any
symptoms at all
CHLAMYDIA
COMPLICATIONS:
 left untreated, can infect ovaries & fallopian
tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease
 can develop infections in prostate gland &
testicles
 babies born to infected women can develop
eye infections or lung problems
CHLAMYDIA
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 uses the “Abbott Testpack”
 women – cervical smear (similar to Pap smear)
 men – extract fluid using a swab inserted into
the opening of the penis
 treated with antibiotics (other than penicillin)
 partners without symptoms must also be
treated to prevent further infection
GONORRHEA
 the second most commonly reported
bacterial STI in Canada
 more than 4500 new cases a year
 especially high among Canadian women
aged 15-24
 bacterial die outside the body in one minute
 transmitted through vaginal, oral or anal sex,
or from mother to newborn
 oral sex can infect the throat
GONORRHEA
SYMPTOMS:
 men
 discharge of pus from penis within a week
 mild to severe burning while urinating
 20% of males might not develop any
symptoms at all
GONORRHEA
SYMPTOMS:
 women
 unusual vaginal discharge
 pain during urination
 80% of females might not develop any
symptoms at all
GONORRHEA
COMPLICATIONS:
 left untreated, can infect ovaries & fallopian
tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease
 internal scarring & blockage of fallopian tube
can cause sterility, tubal pregnancy or pain
 can develop infection & pain in testicles
 babies born to infected women can develop
eye infections & even blindness
GONORRHEA
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 clinical inspection & culture of discharge
 often occurs together with chlamydia & is
often treated together with antibiotics
 partners without symptoms should also
receive antibiotic treatment
SYPHILIS
 was declining until recently in Canada
 may increase transmission of HIV
 transmitted through direct contact with a
rash or sore during sex
 if not treated, can have very serious
consequences
 can be passed on to an unborn child
SYPHILIS
SYMPTOMS:
 same for men & women
 occurs in three stages
 First Stage:
 in 9-90 days, a painless chancre occurs at
site of infection (up to the size of a quarter)
 chancre will heal within 2-4 weeks but the
disease is still active & infectious
SYPHILIS
SYMPTOMS:
 Second Stage:
 lasts 2-6 weeks, after chancre appearance
 occurs 2-6 months after initial contact
 rash (resembling measles, or heat rash) breaks
out anywhere on body, even hands & feet
 loss of appetite, fever, tiredness, hair loss
 even when symptoms disappear, remains very
contagious at this stage
SYPHILIS
SYMPTOMS:
 Third Stage:
 lasts from 2-40 years
 even without obvious signs, the germs
continue to damage vital organs
 can cause blindness, deafness, paralysis,
brain & heart disease
SYPHILIS
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:




a blood test detects presence of antibodies
treated with penicillin or other antibiotics
can be cured at any stage
earlier treatment reduces risk of serious
complications
TYPES
 bacterial
 vaginal
 viral
 parasitic
VAGINAL
any kind of vaginal infection or inflammation
mostly caused by vaginal organisms or sexually
transmitted infections:
 BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS
 CANDIDIASIS
 TRICHOMONIASIS
BACTERIAL
VAGINOSIS (BV)
very common
caused by bacteria transmitted sexually
is an imbalance or overgrowth of bacteria
can be found in the male urethra but no
symptoms usually found
 no evidence of benefit for treatment of the
male




BACTERIAL
VAGINOSIS (BV)
SYMPTOMS IN FEMALE:
 thin, watery discharge, gray in color
 “fishy” smell
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 examination & tests using microscope
 oral medication or vaginal cream
CANDIDIASIS




“yeast infection”, “thrush”
caused by a fungus called Candida
overgrowth of yeast (often in healthy women)
can be caused by:
- birth control pills
- tight clothing
- colored toilet paper (chemicals used to color)
- diabetes
- scented feminine hygiene products
CANDIDIASIS
SYMPTOMS:
 curdy, white vaginal discharge
 itching, redness in genital area
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 examination, swab test & use of microscope
 treated with vaginal creams, vaginal
suppositories or oral medication
TRICHOMONIASIS
 “trick”, caused by a one-celled animal
 #1 STI in the world, but not in Canada
 acquired during sexual intercourse with an
infected partner
 parasite may survive several hours outside the
body (discharge on bedding, towels…)
 can be picked up from a toilet seat if direct
contact is made
TRICHOMONIASIS
SYMPTOMS:
 usually occur 1-3 weeks after contact
 females – foul smelling, greenish or yellowish
discharge & itching
 males – usually no symptoms, but sometimes a
slight urethral discharge or burning
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 examination, swab test & microscope
 treated with oral medication or vaginal cream
TYPES
 bacterial
 vaginal
 viral
 parasitic
VIRAL
tiny particles of DNA that invade a cell
body & cause it to spread the virus:
 AIDS
 HERPES
 VIRAL HEPATITIS
 GENITAL WARTS
AIDS
 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,
caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV)
 HIV attacks & disables the immune system
 person is susceptible to infection, cancer, …
 termed AIDS when system is beyond repair
 worldwide – 40 million people infected
(2.5 million are children under 15)(2003)
 Canada – 56, 000 people infected (2002)
AIDS
SYMPTOMS:
 may be no symptoms
 2-4 weeks after infection – flu-like symptoms
 within 6 months of infection, blood test +ve
 eventually:
weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, dry cough,
diarrhea, swollen lymph glands, memory
loss, confusion, depression, certain cancers
AIDS
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 blood test for HIV antibodies
 95% of test will be +ve after 3 months
 full window period is 6 months
 test is free & confidential at STD clinic
 no vaccine to prevent HIV & no cure
 variety of meds can improve health &
increase life expectancy
HERPES
 once you get it, it’s yours for life!
 two types of viruses:
- herpes simplex type 1 – oral herpes
- herpes simplex type 2 – genital herpes
 oral = cold sores & blisters on lips & mouth
 genital = sores & blisters on genitals
 type 1 can occur on genitals & type 2 can
occur on the mouth
 both can be passed with direct skin contact
 can be passed even if there’s no signs or sores
HERPES
SYMPTOMS:
 usually occur within 1-3 weeks of
infection; can be months or never
 may begin with a tingling or burning sensation
 fluid-filled blisters appear & soon break
 open sores remain on the skin 2-4 weeks
 female - vulva, anal opening, vaginal walls
 male - penis, scrotum, anal opening
 initial outbreak may be accompanied by:
headache, fever, swollen glands, flu feeling
HERPES
DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT & INFO:
 examination & swab test to detect
 after sores heal, virus becomes dormant
but is still contagious
 protection is important at all times
 can be triggered by stress, menstruation,
sexual activity, sunlight & fever
 can be passed to newborn during delivery
 NO CURE, but medication can quicken healing
HEPATITIS
 inflammation of the liver
 Hep A – contact with infected fecal
matter (contaminated food from not
washing hands, oral-anal sexual activity)
 Hep B, C, D - contact with infected saliva,
blood (including menstrual), mucus or
semen through anal, vaginal & oral sex,
sharing needles, razors, toothbrushes…
HEPATITIS
Hep C in Canada – 2000 cases per year
Hep A & B – 1000 cases each per year
Hep D – only occurs in presence of Hep B
very low risk of contracting Hepatitis through
blood transfusion because of tight testing
 cannot be spread by casual contact (hugging,
shaking hands)




HEPATITIS
SYMPTOMS:
 may be no symptoms
 usually develop slowly, 6-20 weeks
after exposure to the virus
 Hep B symptoms tend to be more severe &
longer lasting
 includes: jaundice, weakness, nausea, loss of
appetite, abdominal pain, whitish bowel
movements, vomiting, brownish urine
HEPATITIS
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 detected by blood test
 no cure for viral hepatitis
 90% of people with Hep B will develop
immunity without treatment
 10 % will develop cirrhosis or cancer of liver
 plenty of rest & fluids are important
 vaccination available for Hep B & Hep D
 NO vaccine for Hep A or Hep C
GENITAL WARTS
 caused by the human papilloma virus
(HPV)
 HPV itself is harmless but can lead to
cancers in genital organs, particularly
cervical or penile cancer
 20-33% of sexually active Canadian women
are infected
 women are more susceptible because of rapid
cell division in cervix
GENITAL WARTS
SYMPTOMS:
 may never be any symptoms
 may appear within weeks or months
 itchy bumps that vary in shape & size
 flesh colored growths appearing
on or near the genital & anal area
 on dry skin – hard & yellow-gray color
 moist areas – soft, pink, cauliflower shape
GENITAL WARTS
SYMPTOMS:
 males – usually on head & shaft of
penis, anal area or scrotum
 females – usually on external genitals,
anal area or inside vagina & cervix
 some people do not know they have it
 often appear for the first time during pregnancy
GENITAL WARTS
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 visual examination using magnifier
 Pap test for females (also screens for cancer)
 must be treated by a doctor
 various treatments include:
- cryotherapy (freezing it with liquid nitrogen)
- chemicals or creams applied to surface of wart
- electric current or laser therapy to destroy it
- surgical removal
TYPES
 bacterial
 vaginal
 viral
 parasitic
PARASITIC
tiny parasites that live in or out of the
body
ectoparasites live on the outer surface:
 pubic lice (“crabs”)
 scabies
PUBIC LICE








tiny insects living on or near pubic hair
size of a pinhead
range in color from gray to reddish brown
may also be in hair of thigh, chest or underarm
adult crabs lay eggs (nits) on hair
usually cannot be pulled or washed off
can live away from body for up to 2 days
can spread through body contact, bedding,
towels, clothing…
PUBIC LICE
SYMPTOMS:
 can be seen with naked eye
 area becomes itchy from bites on skin
 specks of blood may appear from bites
 may have crabs 2-3 weeks before noticing
 will not result in serious complications
PUBIC LICE
TREATMENT:
 specific lotions or shampoos are
required
& available without prescription
 follow instructions for use carefully
 all recently used bedding, towels, clothing must
be washed in HOT SOAPY water
 mattresses should be vacuumed & disinfected
 will frequently recur if not carefully treated
SCABIES
 very contagious skin condition caused
by an almost invisible insect
 burrows under the skin to lay eggs
 transmitted through sexual contact or from
infected bedding, clothing, towels…
 often found on hands, wrists, feet, genital
areas, buttocks & armpits
SCABIES
SYMPTOMS:
 itching (more at night)
 red bumps, streaks or lines on skin surface
 may appear as a rash, sores, welts or blisters
SCABIES
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT:
 must be diagnosed by a doctor
(rashes
can occur for a variety of reasons)
 small scraping of skin must be examined under
microscope to identify mites (too tiny to see with
the naked eye)
 treat with medicated lotions (follow directions)
 wash all clothing, bedding & towels with HOT
SOAPY water
SEXUAL
ASSAULT &
COERCION
What is Sexual Assault?
• Any form of sexual contact without voluntary
consent
• Can range from unwanted sexual touching to
sexual violence resulting in serious physical
injury
• Often referred to as rape
• Are assigned levels depending on the seriousness
of the assault
Levels of Sexual Assault
• Level 1 Sexual Assault
• Involves no physical injury or minor physical injury
• Maximum sentence of 10 years
• Level 2 Sexual Assault with a weapon, threats to
a third party or causing bodily harm.
• Maximum sentence of 14 years
• Level 3 Aggravated sexual assault
• Involves wounding, maiming, disfigurement, or
endangering the victim’s life
• Maximum sentence of life
Incidence Rates
• 25 493 sexual assaults reported to the police
(1998)
• About 1 every 15 minutes
• 97% of the reported cases were level 1
• A national random telephone sample reported
twice as many sexual assaults, many are simply
unreported
Statistics Canada 1998
• 85% of the victims of sexual assault were
female
• 60% of the victims were under the age of 18
• Male victims were even younger, averaging age
11.
Types of Sexual Assault
• Stranger sexual assault
• Acquaintance sexual assault
• Multiple perpetrators (gang rapes)
• Sexual assault of men
• Spousal sexual assault
• Sexual assault by women
Stranger Sexual Assault
• Committed by someone previously unknown
• Often select victims who are vulnerable
• Live alone, older or retarded, walking down deserted streets,
asleep or intoxicated.
• Often try to find a safe place and time to commit the
assault
• 3% of women over the age of 18 have been assaulted
by a stranger
• Women between the ages of 18 – 44 years were the
most likely to be attacked
• Most assaults took place in public places
• Street, bars or clubs, or in public buildings
Acquaintance Sexual Assault
• Victims are more likely to be assaulted by
someone they know
• Classmates, co-workers, family friends, etc.
• Often do not perceive what happened as sexual
assault
• Can happen in a dating situation
• This most often involves intercourse
• More likely to occur when the couple have had
too much to drink
Multiple Perpetrators
• Men who participate in group sexual assaults are
trying to conform to the stereotype
of
the tough, competent, “masculine” he-man
• Exercise of power is a major motive although
some may also be expressing anger against
women
• Often each gang member may become more
aggressive as he takes his turn.
Sexual Assault of Men
• Prevalence is unknown
• Estimates of 1 in 10 victims
• More likely to be committed by strangers,
usually heterosexual men
• Motives include domination and control,
revenge and retaliation, and gang status and
affiliation
Spousal Sexual Assault
• 8% of women reported being sexually assaulted
by their partner
• Most often goes unreported
• Motives vary, but include sex to dominate their
partner, degrade their partner, within the
context of marital violence, or the solution to
all marital disputes
• Survivors are often fearful of serious injury or
death.
Sexual Assault by Women
• Rare
• Often involves aiding or abetting men
who are attacking another woman
• May occur in gang attacks
• Often aid in luring a woman into a safe place
for sexual assault or may hold the woman down
while the assault occurs
• Women can also sexually assault men
• May help in the sexual assault of men as well
Social Attitudes and Myths
• “women say no when they mean yes”
• “all women like a man who is pushy and
forceful”
• “the way women dress, they are just asking to
be raped”
• “rapists are crazed by sexual desire”
• “women want to be forced to have sex”
Social Attitudes and Myths
• Create a social climate that legitimizes sexual
assault
• Both men and women are suseptible
• Are related to other social attitudes
• gender-role stereotyping,
• the perception of sex as adversarial
• the acceptance of violence in interpersonal
relationships
Psychological
Characteristics of Sex
Offenders
• No single type of sex offender
• Majority of sex offenders are in control of their
behaviour, and know that it is illegal.
• Median age of sex offenders was 32 (1999)
• Generally have less than a grade 12 education
• Often report feeling socially inadequate
Sex Offenders
• Are more likely than other men to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Condone sexual assault and violence against women
Hold traditional gender-role attitudes
Be sexually experienced
Be hostile toward women
Engage in sexual activity in order to express social dominance
Be sexually aroused by depictions of sexual assault
Be irresponsible and lack a social conscience
Have peer groups, such as fraternities, that pressure them into
sexual activity
Motives for Sexual Assault
• Three Basic Motives:
1. Anger
2. Power
3. Sadistic
Anger Motive
• Vicious, unplanned attack
• Triggered by anger and resentment toward
women
• Usually employ more force than is needed to obtain
compliance
• Victim is often forced into performing degrading and
humiliating acts
• Fellatio or anal intercourse
• Perpetrator reports suffering humiliations at the hands
of women and used assault as revenge.
Power Motive
• Desire to control and dominate women is
primary motive
• Sexual gratification is secondary motive
• Is an attempt to “resolve disturbing doubts
about his masculine identity and worth, or to
combat deep-seated feelings of insecurity and
vulnerability”
• Only enough force to subdue the woman is
used
Sadistic Motive
• Ritualized and savage attack
• Carefully plan their assaults and use a
pretext to approach their targets, such as asking
directions or offering/requesting assistance
• Some bind, torture, or murder their victims.
• Mutilation of victims is common.
• Often preoccupied with violent pornography
• Motivated by anger, power, or sadistic urges.
If you are Sexually
Assaulted…
• Don’t change anything about your body
• Don’t wash or even comb your hair
• Strongly consider reporting the incident to police
• You may prevent another woman from being assaulted
• Ask a relative or friend to take you to a hospital if you can’t get
an ambulance or police car
• Seek help in an assertive way
• Injuries you are unaware of my be detected. Insist on a written or
photographic record be made documenting the condition
• Question health professionals
• Ask about your biological risks
• Ask what treatments are available
• Ask for whatever help will make you comfortable
Reducing the Risk of Sexual
Assault
• Establish a set of signals with other women in the
building or neighbourhood
• List yourself in the phone directory and mailbox by first
initials only
• Use dead-bolt locks
• Lock windows and install iron grids on first-floor
windows
• Keep doorways and entries well lit
• Keep your keys handy when approaching the car or the
front door
Reducing the Risk of
Sexual Assault
• Do not walk by yourself after dark
• Avoid deserted areas
• Do not allow strange men into your house or
apartment without first checking their credentials
• Keep your car doors locked and windows up
• Check out the back seat of your car before entering
• Don’t live in a risky building
• Don’t give rides to hitchhikers
• Don’t converse with strange men on the street
• Shout “FIRE!” not “RAPE!”
Adjustment for Survivors
of Sexual Assault
• Many survivors are extremely distraught for
days
• Often report eating disorders, headaches,
irritability, mood changes, anxiety, depression,
menstrual irregularity.
• May become withdrawn, sullen, and mistrustful
• Some may experience guilt or shame if they feel
partially to blame for the assault.
Posttraumatic Stress
Disorder
• An anxiety disorder brought on by exposure to
a traumatic event
• Often includes flashbacks, disturbing dreams,
emotional numbing, nervousness
• May persist for years
Rape Trauma Syndrome
• For several weeks after the attack, people
behave in a disorganized manner
• May cry uncontrollably, experience feelings of
anger, shame, fear, and nervousness
• Most people benefit from counseling
• Long-term adjustment involves coming to terms
with feelings and being able to remember the
event without re-experiencing it.
Sexual Abuse of Children
• May range from exhibitionism, kissing, fondling,
sexual touching, oral sex and anal or
vaginal intercourse
• Any sexual contact between an adult and child
is considered abusive because the child is below
age of consent
• Voluntary sexual activity between children of
similar ages is not sexual abuse
Patterns of Abuse
• 4 out of 5 children are abuse by relatives or
family friends or acquaintances
• Average age of abuse is between 6-12 years old
for girls, 7-10 years old for boys
• Genital fondling is the most common type of
abuse
• Abused children rarely report the abuse
• Estimated that 90% of cases are not reported.
Effects of Child Sexual
Abuse
• Short and long-term effects include anger,
depression, anxiety, eating disorders,
inappropriate sexual behaviour, self-destructive
behaviour, sexual promiscuity, drug abuse,
suicide attempts, PTSD, low self-esteem, sexual
dysfunction, mistrust of others, feelings of
detachment
Effects of Child Sexual
Abuse
• Abused children commonly act out
• Late adolescence and early adulthood
seem to pose especially difficult periods
for survivors
• Effects are often long-lasting
Preventing Child Sexual
Abuse
• Prevention programs
• Teach children to understand what sexual abuse is
and how they can avoid it
• Teach children to recognize “good” and “bad” touching
• Encourage the child to talk about it
• Teach children messages like “It’s not your fault”, etc.
• Remind the child they and their families will be safe
• Threats are often used to get the child not to tell anyone
about the abuse.
• ADULTS ARE LEGALLY OBLIGATED TO REPORT
SUSPECTED ABUSE TO AUTHORITIES
Sexual Harassment
• Any sexually oriented conduct – physical,
verbal, or by innuendo – that is a
condition of employment, interferes with job
performance, or creates a hostile or offensive
work environment.
• Can be committed by men or women
Sexual Harassment
• May have more to do with the abuse of power
than with sexual desire
• The harasser is often in a dominant position
and abuses that position by exploiting the
victim’s vulnerability.
Resisting Sexual
Harassment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Familiarize yourself with your employer’s policy on
sexual harassment
Convey a professional attitude
Discourage harassing behaviour, and encourage
appropriate behaviour
Avoid being alone with the harasser
Maintain a record
Talk with the harasser
Write a letter to the harasser
Seek support
File a complaint
Seek legal remedies
Where can you get help?
Planned Parenthood Edmonton
#50 9912-106 St …………..(780) 423-3737
• Pregnancy tests and pregnancy options (pro-choice)
• Referrals to health care services
• Doctors, counseling, contraception, fertility, parenting
programs, pregnancy resources for men and women
• Phone line to answer any questions about sex you
have!
Where can you get help?
Sexual Assault Centre of Edmonton
#205 14964-121A Ave
24 hour crisis line: (780) 423-4121
Business line: (780) 423-4102
• Free public education
• 24 hour crisis line
• Crisis intervention
• Short-term counseling
• Numerous support groups for adults, youth, and
children
Where can you get help?
Child Abuse Hot Line ……1-800-387-5437
• To report suspected cases of child abuse
Can also call the police or child welfare to report
suspected cases of child abuse (physical, emotional
or sexual)
Where can you get help?
If you don’t know or can’t remember where to
go…
• Call Capital Health Link (780) 408-LINK(5465)
• For sexual assaults or suspected child abuse call
the police: (780) 423-2567
• In here? Talk to your caseworker, psychology, or
a guard. Information is always available, just
ask!
The
End
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