Knowledge
Issues
The Good, the Bad and The Ugly
Good
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Couched in terms of relations between
concepts from AoK, WoK and belief,
certainty, culture, evidence, experience,
explanation, interpretation, intuition,
justification, truth, values.
To what extent can
human sciences use
mathematical
techniques to make
accurate predictions?
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
How can we use
models to predict
crime waves?
Poor
KI
A closed question, implicitly about
Knowledge
Will police crime
predictions turn out
to be correct?
Not a
KI
A statement or a closed question, about a
subject specific issue rather than about
Knowledge per se
OK
KI
How can we
prevent crime?
Good
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Couched in terms of relations between
concepts from AoK, WoK and belief,
certainty, culture, evidence, experience,
explanation, interpretation, intuition,
justification, truth, values.
OK
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Should we believe
paranormal claims?
Poor
KI
A closed question, implicitly about
Knowledge
Does the
paranormal exist?
Not a
KI
A statement or a closed question, about a
subject specific issue rather than about
Knowledge per se
The Sixth Sense
?
Good
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Couched in terms of relations between
concepts from AoK, WoK and belief,
certainty, culture, evidence, experience,
explanation, interpretation, intuition,
justification, truth, values.
?
OK
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
?
Poor
KI
A closed question, implicitly about
Knowledge
Why is
Utilitarianism
appealing?
Not a
KI
A statement or a closed question, about a
subject specific issue rather than about
Knowledge per se
Utilitarianism
Good
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Couched in terms of relations between
concepts from AoK, WoK and belief,
certainty, culture, evidence, experience,
explanation, interpretation, intuition,
justification, truth, values.
?
OK
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
?
Poor
KI
A closed question, implicitly about
Knowledge
Is swine flu likely
to kill millions?
Not a
KI
A statement or a closed question, about a
subject specific issue rather than about
Knowledge per se
What do we mean
by an‘epidemic’?
Good
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Couched in terms of relations between
concepts from AoK, WoK and belief,
certainty, culture, evidence, experience,
explanation, interpretation, intuition,
justification, truth, values..
?
OK
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
?
Poor
KI
A closed question, implicitly about
Knowledge
?
Not a
KI
A statement or a closed question, about a
subject specific issue rather than about
Knowledge per se
The credit crisis
Good
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Couched in terms of relations between
concepts from AoK, WoK and belief,
certainty, culture, evidence, experience,
explanation, interpretation, intuition,
justification, truth, values.
OK
KI
An open question, explicitly about
Knowledge.
Poor
KI
A closed question, implicitly about
Knowledge
Not a
KI
A statement or a closed question, about a
subject specific issue rather than about
Knowledge per se
Your
own
ideas?
Good Knowledge Issues are:
• Open questions explicitly about Knowledge per
se and not about subject-specific claims
• Couched in terms of relations between concepts
from AoK, WoK and belief, certainty, culture,
evidence, experience, explanation, interpretation,
intuition, justification, truth, values.
Theory of Knowledge: Presentation Structure
Real-Life Situation
extraction
Knowledge Issue
(recognized)
Theory of Knowledge: Presentation Structure
Real-Life Situation
extraction
Knowledge Issue
(recognized)
progression
Knowledge Issue(s)
(developed)
Theory of Knowledge: Presentation Structure
Real-Life Situation
extraction
Knowledge Issue
(recognized)
progression
Knowledge Issue(s)
(developed)
Theory of Knowledge: Presentation Structure
Other Real-Life
Situation
Real-Life Situation
Other Real-Life
Situation
extraction
Knowledge Issue
(recognized)
progression
Knowledge Issue(s)
(developed)
Example 1
Conspiracy Theories
What are the strengths and
weaknesses of this structure?
Conspiracy
Da Vinci
Code
Why do conspiracy
theories exist?
Conspiracy
Da Vinci
Code
Why do conspiracy
theories exist?
People believe
what’s
most appealing
Different
Interpretations of
the same facts
Biases affecting
conclusions
drawn
Conspiracy
Da Vinci
Code
Why do conspiracy
theories exist?
Death of
JFK
Death of
Benazir Bhutto
People believe
what’s
most appealing
Different
Interpretations of
the same facts
Biases affecting
conclusions
drawn
Example 2
Limits of Science
What are the strengths and
weaknesses of this structure?
Limits of Science
Documentary on
the Large
Hadron Collider
How far is science
limited in finding
out the truth about
reality?
Limits of Science
Documentary on
the Large
Hadron Collider
Nature of
scientific
method
How far is science
limited in finding
out the truth about
reality?
Definitions of
science
Definition of
reality
Limits of Science
Documentary on
the Large
Hadron Collider
Colour
illusions
Nature of
scientific
method
Limits of human
sensory perception
How far is science
limited in finding
out the truth about
reality?
Definition of
reality
Situations not
amenable to experimentation
Problems of
inductive reasoning
Incompatibility
between scientific
and moral claims
Definitions of
science
Astronomy
Differences
between ‘how’ and ‘why’
questions
Role of
technology in
science
Limits of Science
Documentary on
the Large
Hadron Collider
Colour
illusions
Nature of
scientific
method
Limits of human
sensory perception
Situations not
amenable to experimentation
Problems of
inductive reasoning
Incompatibility
between scientific
and moral claims
Definition of
reality
Astronomy
Mathematics
Axioms must be
taken for granted
How far is science
limited in finding
out the truth about
reality?
Definitions of
science
Gödel’s
theorem
Differences
between ‘how’ and ‘why’
questions
Role of
technology in
science
History
the past is
beyond our grasp
Human sciences
Human behaviour
is unpredictable
Limits of Science
Documentary on
the Large
Hadron Collider
Medicine
HIV treatment
Colour
illusions
Nature of
scientific
method
Limits of human
sensory perception
Situations not
amenable to experimentation
Problems of
inductive reasoning
Incompatibility
between scientific
and moral claims
Definition of
reality
Astronomy
Mathematics
Axioms must be
taken for granted
How far is science
limited in finding
out the truth about
reality?
Definitions of
science
Gödel’s
theorem
Differences
between ‘how’ and ‘why’
questions
Role of
technology in
science
History
the past is
beyond our grasp
Human sciences
Human behaviour
is unpredictable
Successes
of science?
Limits of Science
Documentary on
the Large
Hadron Collider
Medicine
HIV treatment
Colour
illusions
Nature of
scientific
method
Limits of human
sensory perception
Situations not
amenable to experimentation
Problems of
inductive reasoning
Incompatibility
between scientific
and moral claims
Definition of
reality
Astronomy
Mathematics
Axioms must be
taken for granted
How far is science
limited in finding
out the truth about
reality?
Definitions of
science
Gödel’s
theorem
Differences
between ‘how’ and ‘why’
questions
Role of
technology in
science
History
the past is
beyond our grasp
Human sciences
Human behaviour
is unpredictable
Successes
of science?
Example 3
Claims in History
What are the strengths and
weaknesses of this structure?
Claims in History
President
Ahmedinejad’s
denial of the
Jewish Holocaust
Description
of Holocaust
Auschwitz
Claims in History
President
Ahmedinejad’s
denial of the
Jewish Holocaust
Under what
circumstances can a
historical claim be
considered valid?
Description
of Holocaust
Auschwitz
Claims in History
President
Ahmedinejad’s
denial of the
Jewish Holocaust
Description
of Holocaust
Auschwitz
Importance of history
Understanding the present
Predicting the future
Knowing identity
Under what
circumstances can a
historical claim be
considered certain?
Explanation of
the concept of
validity in relation
to historical evidence
Other problems:
gaps, language issues,
past interpreted in terms
of present, etc.
Why should we care
about historical truth?
Role of bias and
Interpretation in history:
emotion, culture, etc.
Is there a
True history?
Claims in History
President
Ahmedinejad’s
denial of the
Jewish Holocaust
Description
of Holocaust
Auschwitz
Wall Street crash
Phlogiston
“Witchhunt” of
communists in USA
Importance of history
Understanding the present
Predicting the future
Knowing identity
Under what
circumstances can a
historical claim be
considered valid?
Explanation of
the concept of
validity in relation
to historical evidence
Other problems:
gaps, language issues,
past interpreted in terms
of present, etc.
Why should we care
about historical truth?
Role of bias and
Interpretation in history:
emotion, culture, etc.
Is there a
True history?
Claims in History
President
Ahmedinejad’s
denial of the
Jewish Holocaust
Description
of Holocaust
Auschwitz
Wall Street crash
Phlogiston
“Witchhunt” of
communists in USA
Importance of history
Understanding the present
Predicting the future
Knowing identity
Under what
circumstances can a
historical claim be
considered valid?
Other problems:
gaps, language issues,
past interpreted in terms
of present, etc.
Why should we care
about historical truth?
Validity of claims in
Mathematics and
Science…
Validity of claims
in Art…
Is there a
True history?
Validity of claims
in Ethics…
Explanation of
the concept of
validity in relation
to historical evidence
Role of bias and
Interpretation in history:
emotion, culture, etc.
Claims in History
President
Ahmedinejad’s
denial of the
Jewish Holocaust
Description
of Holocaust
???
Auschwitz
Wall Street crash
Phlogiston
“Witchhunt” of
communists in USA
Importance of history
Understanding the present
Predicting the future
Knowing identity
Under what
circumstances can a
historical claim be
considered valid?
Other problems:
gaps, language issues,
past interpreted in terms
of present, etc.
Why should we care
about historical truth?
Validity of claims in
Mathematics and
Science…
Validity of claims
in Art…
Is there a
True history?
Validity of claims
in Ethics…
Explanation of
the concept of
validity in relation
to historical evidence
Role of bias and
Interpretation in history:
emotion, culture, etc.
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