Click through slideshow
Understanding NVC
Mike Guttridge C.Psychol.
Business & Social
Psychologist
Warning!
We do not see things as they are,
We see them as we are.
The Talmud
Perception is projection
Huna belief
© M S Guttridge 2006
2
Communicating without words
• We continually send out signals
• These can be interpreted by socially
skilled people
• This can enhance the interaction and
improve understanding by 10%
• It can also provide insights into other
person’s state of mind
© M S Guttridge 2006
3
Communicating without words
• We use spoken language for
conveying data and giving instructions
• NVC can sustain it, replace it, or
regulate it to manage relationship
• We may deliberately restrict NVC eg
on the telephone
© M S Guttridge 2006
4
Communicating without words
• We usually try to hide our feelings out of
politeness, respect, or expediency.
• We usually give away clues through nonverbal leakage
• If the NVC is congruent with the spoken
word, probably not noticed
• If there is a conflict you probably sense it
• This can be picked up by socially skilled, or
trained people or if you are alerted to it
© M S Guttridge 2006
5
Universal to mammals
© M S Guttridge 2006
6
Origins of body language
• Product of genetic and environmental factors
eg blind children will smile & laugh
• Some NVC universal across cultures
• Some gestures vary between cultures eg
“Yes” or “No” gestures
• Darwin’s research on mammalian emotional
expressions (1872)
• Paul Ekman’s research from 1970s
• Desmond Morris’s Bodywatching 1987
• Reality TV!
© M S Guttridge 2006
7
Words…
Relative importance of NVC often quoted
as:
• Words 7%
• Voice/paralinguistics 38%
• Body gesture 55%
But only relevant in certain 1:1 interactions
– where there is inconsistent communication
– when feelings or attitudes not facts are communicated
Birdwhistle 1973
© M S Guttridge 2006
8
Main NVC signals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Appearance & Dress (object communication)
Facial expression & eye contact (oculesics)
Personal space (proxemics)
Body contact (haptics)
Expression, voice quality (para-linguistics)
Pitch, tone, accent (vocalics)
Gesture & body posture
© M S Guttridge 2006
9
Appearance & dress
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Degree of choice
Reflects personality
Social group image
Uniforms, ties
Tattoos, body art
Symbols eg rings
Spectacles
Physical handicaps
Halo/horns effect & first
impressions
• Hair & hair colour
© M S Guttridge 2006
10
Facial expression
• Area used by majority as a conscious
channel of NVC
• Socialised to control expressions eg stiff
upper lip
• Less control over eyes/eyebrows than
mouth – sunglasses, eyeshades?
• Pinocchio effect
© M S Guttridge 2006
11
Ekman’s universals
• Ekman’s (1972) research – 10,000 expressions
using 42 facial muscles & 3 main nerves (probably
100 really recognisable ones)
• Six key emotions recognised across all cultures
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Happiness
Sadness
Anger
Fear
Disgust
Surprise
Contempt may be 7th (1986)
© M S Guttridge 2006
12
Which emotion (1 & 2)
© M S Guttridge 2006
13
Which emotion (3 & 4)
© M S Guttridge 2006
14
Which emotion (5 & 6)
© M S Guttridge 2006
15
Which emotions?
• Two young East
Germans in West
German embassy in
Prague learn they
are to be expelled
to the West
© M S Guttridge 2006
16
Which emotions?
Fans at a David Cassidy concert in 1973
© M S Guttridge 2006
17
NB Recognising emotions is key part
of emotional intelligence
SelfAwareness
awareness of others
Selfregulation
© M S Guttridge 2006
Managing
relationships
18
Eye contact
• Rich source of info
• Controls flow of interaction
• Judge people who avoid it
negatively
• Fairly intimate attention
signal
• Binary therefore used with
other NVC eg nods
• Pupil dilation!!
© M S Guttridge 2006
19
Smiles can be misleading
© M S Guttridge 2006
20
Personal space
•
•
•
•
© M S Guttridge 2006
Personal space
Cultural differences
Status re space
Seating
arrangements
21
Territorial behaviour
• The urinal
experiment!
© M S Guttridge 2006
22
Body contact
• Many cultural
differences
• Shaking hands
• Touching
© M S Guttridge 2006
23
Voice & Paralingusitics
•
•
•
•
Tone and pitch
Speed
Loudness
Accents
© M S Guttridge 2006
24
Gesture & body posture
• Nodding appears
universal
• Stance & height
• Use of hands
• Positioning of feet
• Postural echo
• Mirroring &
matching
© M S Guttridge 2006
25
Mehrabian’s coat-rack experiment
Can you tell by
observing the NVC
whether or not:
1. Pat is a man or a
woman?
2. Pat is liked or
disliked?
3. Pat is higher or
lowers status?
© M S Guttridge 2006
Hello Pat, you
wanted to see
me?
26
Talking to plants!
Hello Pat, you
wanted to see
me?
Click on picture frame
at left to show video.
At end it will return to
this slide – then click
to continue as before
© M S Guttridge 2006
27
Improve communication by
•
•
•
•
•
•
S - smile
O – open posture
F – forward lean
T - touch
E – eye contact
N - nod
© M S Guttridge 2006
28
Summary
• Most people aren’t good at reading NVC
• Only 0.2% are “natural wizards” at reading
micro-expressions
• Stereotypes often wrong
• Look for clusters of NVC not single gestures
eg nose scratching
• Video + computer analysis better at
detecting micro-movements
© M S Guttridge 2006
29
Good liars are ..
•
•
•
•
•
•
Well-prepared
Original
Think quickly
Are eloquent
Have a good memory
Do not experience feelings of guilt, fear or
other emotions when lying
• Are good at acting
© M S Guttridge 2006
30
Good liars are ..
• Hard to detect by lay people and many professionals
• Better detected through speech patterns than NVC because of
restricted NVC
• Trained & experienced police officers can detect lies 70% of the
time
• If they pay attention to stereotypical clues such as averted gaze,
blinking, or fidgeting, they get worse
• Specialists such as secret service agents, FBI officers & clinical
psychologists do better than lay people
• However criminals are comparable to secret service agents in
detecting lies but find it harder to detect truths (deception
default)
© M S Guttridge 2006
31
Eye movement patterns
• Based on NLP
• Reportedly used by FBI profilers, CSI,
and intelligence agents
• Ekman has trained CIA, FBI and MI6 in
“face reading” techniques (2004)
• But not much hard evidence
© M S Guttridge 2006
32
Eye positions from NLP
© M S Guttridge 2006
33
Language accessing clues
© M S Guttridge 2006
34
Gender differences?
• Are women better than men at this?
• Some research to suggest this
• Is it socialisation/expectations – stereotype
of female caring v male stoicism?
• Woman smile more than men but people
discount it more
• Women may smile to hide anxiety
• Men only smile to be sociable
© M S Guttridge 2006
35
Gender differences? (D Tannen)
Questions
Men
Women
Answers
Separateness
Continuing
conversation
Bridges
Attack
Aggressiveness Form of
conversation
Problems
Need solutions
© M S Guttridge 2006
Share for reassurance
36
Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Interviews
Meetings
Presentations
Selling
Medical consultations
Insurance claims inspection
Negotiations (Botox)
Interrogations
© M S Guttridge 2006
37
Some of my books (in date order)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The definitive book of Body language, Alan & Barbara Pease (2004)
Orion Books
The Essential Difference, Simon Baron-Cohen (2003) Penguin
The Book of Tells, Peter Collett (2003) Bantam Books
Emotions Revealed, Paul Ekman (2003) Times Books
Detecting Lies & Deceit, Aldert Vrij (2000) Wiley
Talking from 9 to 5, Women & Men at work, language sex & power,
Deborah Tannen, (1995) Virago
He says, She says, Lillian Glass (1995) Piatkus
You just don’t understand, women & men in conversation, Deborah
Tannen (1992) Virago
Bodywatching, Desmond Morris (1987) Grafton Books
Interpersonal Behaviour, AG Athos & JJ Gabarro (1978) Prentice Hall
Bodily Communication, Michael Argyle(1975) UP/Methuen
© M S Guttridge 2006
38
What sex is your brain?
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sex/add_user.shtml
© M S Guttridge 2006
39
Spot the fake smile?
See how good you are at detecting real an false smiles
A series of video clips to test your face-reading ability
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/
mind/surveys/smiles/index.shtml
© M S Guttridge 2006
40
This PowerPoint show
Is downloadable from:
http://www.metamorph.co.uk/latestnews.htm
at the end of next week
© M S Guttridge 2006
41
[email protected]
0161 764 7742
Descargar

Understanding NVC - Welcome to our site