IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response
Scenario, Injects and Data
Module L-054
Lecture
Objectives
• Know the overall process for the
development of an exercise scenario.
• Understand the difference between injects
and data
• Know what data is required to run an
exercise
• Understand the need for scenario security
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Process Overview
Review
procedures
Objectives
Basic scenario
Validate
Detailed scenario,
injects and data
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Objectives and Scenario
• The scenario is based on the
objectives!
• The scenario MUST allow all the selected
objectives to be met
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Exercise Objectives
• Choice of objectives:
•
•
•
•
Select compatible objectives
Don’t be too ambitious
Don’t try to do everything in one exercise
But do try to cover all objectives over a five-year
program
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Review Procedures
• To understand expected actions by
participants
• To understand what information and data
needs to be injected, and when
• Rule 1: Use existing procedures
• When is it allowed to break Rule 1?
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Review Procedures (Cont’d)
• When is it allowed to break Rule 1?
• When testing a new plan and new procedures...
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Develop the Basic Scenario
• It is like writing a story!
• Like a good story
• The plot must be believable
• The story must be captivating...
• From beginning to end!
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A Believable Story!
• Events must be physically possible
• As much as possible, they must be credible
• They may be highly improbable but even
improbable things happen!
• Random failures should be on somewhat
related systems (causal relationship)
• External events are a nice way to initiate an
emergency (fire, earthquake, storm)
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A Captivating Story!
• Don’t bunch events
• Don’t overwhelm staff
• Don’t try things that have a fair chance of
ruining the exercise
• Most beautiful exercise is one where
initiating event is simple and is allowed to
run its course naturally
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A Story That Unfolds by Itself
• The scenario should allow as much free-play as
possible
• How much controller intervention is required to drive the
scenario?
• Simulation is always required but should be
minimal
• Simulation interferes with the exercise
• The scenario should unfold naturally and
realistically
• How much human errors or stupidity is required to make
the scenario happen?
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Designing the Event Sequences
Bottom-up Approach
• Start with the final events
• (evacuation, life-threatening injury,...)
• Work backwards towards realistic
initiating events
• Respect timing and duration of
intermediate events
• Tie the whole series of events in a
"Story"
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Designing the Event Sequences
Top-down Approach
• Start with the initiating event
• (tornado, LOCA...)
• Play out the consequences according to
safety analysis, plans and procedures
• Add embellishments to the basic "Story"
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Event Sequences: Validation
•
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Training staff is very valuable
Explain the methodology (or recipe…)
Explain the objectives
Explain your needs
Respect their advice
Verify safety of scenario
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Exercise Scenario
Detailed Contents
•
•
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Start state
Narrative
Critical time line
Master event list
Local event lists
Supporting data
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What do You Need to Run the
Scenario?
Controller
gives
Injects
to
Players
Perform
Actions
Receive
Data
React
Response
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Injects (Reminder)
• Inject = information “injected” by a controller
to a player to simulate an event
• Example: Initiation of a fire alarm in a facility
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Inject (Example)
From: simulated police chief
To: regional emergency management group
Time: 0830 h
Message:
This is lieutenant Palmer. The evacuation of
sector A is proceeding. There is a traffic jam
at the corner of Main road and Sanity
boulevard. Estimate that it will clear in 2
hours.
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Inject (Example)
Inject #
Injected by
Injection method
1-10
On-site controller
Phone call
Inject time
0730
MESSAGE
Witness
From:
To:
E
emergency
response 24/7 call service or other designated player
Simulated time: 0730
A witness called the emergency response 24/7 service to inform the emergency
dispatchers of an emergency. He gave information about a train and truck crash,
possible leaking fuel, and gave no other information.
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Inject (Example)
• Medical injects
• Patient starts vomiting
• Moulage
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How to Deliver an Inject
• Verbally (by simulating the originator)
• Direct but interferes with the player
• By phone, fax or radio
• Direct and simulates reality
• In writing, by handing out the inject
• Indirect and interferes with players, but is the best
way in cases where there is a language barrier
• Visually
• Example, moulage
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Data (Reminder)
• Data = information provided by a controller
to a player when adequate actions are taken
to obtain it
• Example: ambient gamma measurement when a
survey is conducted
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What Data is Required?
• All information needed but not actually
available must be simulated
• To understand what data will be required,
ask yourselves:
• What must the players do?
• What information or data will they need?
• Will that data be available?
• Is it essential for their performance?
• In what form is it normally obtained?
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What Data is Required (Cont’d)?
• Generate the data in the form required:
• e.g. If ambient dose rate is measured, do not
provide committed effective dose or dose rate
• e.g. If contamination meters read in cpm, do not
provide contamination data in Bq/m2
• e.g. If the meters saturate at the expected
reading, don’t give a reading that exceeds the
scale of the instrument
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Data Required (Facility)
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System parameters
In-station radiological data
Stack monitor readings
Off-site radiological measurements
• Gamma shine
• Ground deposition
• Soil and food contamination
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Data Required (Facility)
•
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Chemistry laboratory analyses
Health physics laboratory analyses
Fixed monitoring station readings
Personnel accounting (to simulate missing
persons if required)
• Medical data
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Data Required (Facility)
• Source term?
• Not required because not normally available
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Data Required (Off-site)
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Radiation levels
Vehicle contamination
People contamination data
Road conditions
Other operational data
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Data Required (Off-site)
• Weather: real or simulated?
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Data Required (Medical)
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Patient basic information
Vital signs
Bioassay results
X-ray results
Lymphocyte counts
Status of injuries
Others
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How to Prepare the Data?
• From tables
• Technical data
• From graphs
• Time-dependent technical data
• From figures or pictures
• Geometric technical data, layouts, site condition,
control board status
• From maps
• Geographical information
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Tables
Time
Containment
pressure
Remark
0900
60 kPa
Increasing
0930
90 kPa
Stable
1000
85 kPa
decreasing
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Exercise Data
Graphs (Example)
Ambient radiation levels
microSv/h
150
100
50
0
9
10
11
12
13
tim e
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Exercise Data
Figures or Pictures (Example)
20 - 25 c ps
15 - 20 c ps
10 - 15 c ps
5 - 10 c ps
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Exercise Data
Maps (Example)
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Maps (Cont’d)
F ig u re 1 : D o se ra te s at th e sce n e b efo re so u rce re m o va l
2
D o se rate s in m S v/h . E a ch sq u a re re p re se nts 1 m . T h e sou rce lo ca tio n is sh o w n in
re d . N o te th a t th e d ista n ce a t w h ich th e am b ie n t g am m a d ose ra te d ro p s to 1 0 0  S v/h is
a t a b o ut 1 0 0 m .
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How to Provide the Data
•
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Verbally or in writing
Be non-intrusive
Avoid conversations
Do not show the entire graph when using a
graph
• Do not show the map if a single point data is
required
• If the player does not take the appropriate
action, do not volunteer the data
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Scenario Security
• Scenario security is important:
• It helps ensure that the participants react in a
realistic way
• It helps ensure that the evaluation is accurate
• It is more stimulating and adds value to the
exercise
• It leads to useful lessons
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Summary
• You need to select objectives before you design an
exercise
• The scenario is directly related to the objectives
• The scenario needs to be realistic and validated
• Injects and data are different
• Injects drive the scenario
• Data must be deserved by the player
• Provide injects and data in a realistic and practical
manner
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Preparing, Conduct and Evaluation of Exercises to Test