Introduction to the Networked
Communications Environment
Lisa Horner, Global Partners
Challenges and opportunities for
freedom of expression
• Physical layer
– Access to hardware and networks.
• Connectivity layer
– Interoperability, innovation and literacy.
• Applications layer
– ‘Public interest’ navigation and cataloguing.
• Content layer
– Diverse, open and ‘public interest’ content.
Physical Layer: Digital Opportunity
• But the region also has significant digital divides
• Asian countries lead the world in digital opportunity
Physical Layer: Digital Divides
Internet users
(2002)
Mobile
subscribers
(2002)
Physical Layer:
Trends in Access and Use
Television is the most popular source of news
Internet and mobile phone access and use are increasing rapidly
Internet users per 100 people
20
17.39
18
users per 100 people
16
14
11.43
12
Asia
10
World
8
6.52
6
4
3.19
2
0
2000
2006
year
Connectivity
Layer:
Language online
More than 90% of content
on the Internet exists in
only 12 languages
ICANN is trialling 11 new
languages in top level
domain names.
Percentage of population who are literate
Applications Layer:
Search engines
• Over half of all searches worldwide use Google
Internet searches, August 2007
Microsoft
3%
Other
17%
Baidu
5%
Yahoo
14%
Google
61%
The Content Layer:
Regulation
• Relatively high levels of state
ownership, intervention and control.
Ow nership of the top five television stations
- Asia Pacific
Ow nership of the top five new spapers
- Asia Pacific
A verage
A verage
Thailand
Thailand
Taiwan
Taiwan
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Singapo re
Singapo re
P hilippines
P hilippines
P akistan
P akistan
M yanmar
State
M yanmar
State
M alaysia
Private
M alaysia
Private
Other
Lao
Lao
So uth Ko rea
So uth Ko rea
No rth Ko rea
No rth Ko rea
Japan
Japan
Indo nesia
Indo nesia
Other
India
India
China
China
A ustralia
A ustralia
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Internet Filtering in Asia
Social
Political
Tools
Conflict
Drivers of change: Economics
Percentage of daily income spent on one hour of internet access, 2000-2006
(Data source: World Internet Access Project)
90
Delhi
80
Karachi
70
Dhaka
60
50
Beijing
40
London
30
Jakarta
Manila
20
Tokyo
Broadband is approximately 432 times more affordable in
But prices are decreasing…
high income countries
Seoul
10
New York
2000
0
2006
Conclusions
• The regional digital divide is a major
feature of the Asian communications
environment.
• States have relatively high levels of control
over content and infrastructure.
• The environment is continuing to
evolve…what will be the effect of political,
economic and regulatory dynamics?
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Shaping the Networked World