Introduction to the Networked Communications Environment Lisa Horner, Global Partners Challenges and opportunities for freedom of expression • Physical layer – Access to hardware and networks. • Connectivity layer – Interoperability, innovation and literacy. • Applications layer – ‘Public interest’ navigation and cataloguing. • Content layer – Diverse, open and ‘public interest’ content. Physical Layer: Digital Opportunity • But the region also has significant digital divides • Asian countries lead the world in digital opportunity Physical Layer: Digital Divides Internet users (2002) Mobile subscribers (2002) Physical Layer: Trends in Access and Use Television is the most popular source of news Internet and mobile phone access and use are increasing rapidly Internet users per 100 people 20 17.39 18 users per 100 people 16 14 11.43 12 Asia 10 World 8 6.52 6 4 3.19 2 0 2000 2006 year Connectivity Layer: Language online More than 90% of content on the Internet exists in only 12 languages ICANN is trialling 11 new languages in top level domain names. Percentage of population who are literate Applications Layer: Search engines • Over half of all searches worldwide use Google Internet searches, August 2007 Microsoft 3% Other 17% Baidu 5% Yahoo 14% Google 61% The Content Layer: Regulation • Relatively high levels of state ownership, intervention and control. Ow nership of the top five television stations - Asia Pacific Ow nership of the top five new spapers - Asia Pacific A verage A verage Thailand Thailand Taiwan Taiwan Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Singapo re Singapo re P hilippines P hilippines P akistan P akistan M yanmar State M yanmar State M alaysia Private M alaysia Private Other Lao Lao So uth Ko rea So uth Ko rea No rth Ko rea No rth Ko rea Japan Japan Indo nesia Indo nesia Other India India China China A ustralia A ustralia 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Internet Filtering in Asia Social Political Tools Conflict Drivers of change: Economics Percentage of daily income spent on one hour of internet access, 2000-2006 (Data source: World Internet Access Project) 90 Delhi 80 Karachi 70 Dhaka 60 50 Beijing 40 London 30 Jakarta Manila 20 Tokyo Broadband is approximately 432 times more affordable in But prices are decreasing… high income countries Seoul 10 New York 2000 0 2006 Conclusions • The regional digital divide is a major feature of the Asian communications environment. • States have relatively high levels of control over content and infrastructure. • The environment is continuing to evolve…what will be the effect of political, economic and regulatory dynamics?