Sufism is said to have been originated near a place called Basra located in Iraq. The Muslims located in this region started off this as a path to reach the divine. The divine form who is worshipped in Sufism is Prophet Mohammed and all schools of Sufism consider the Prophet as the manifestation of God. Hence Sufi order is considered to have branched from Islam. However, ancient Islamic scriptures have no mention of Sufism in them. Some scholars hold the view that Sufism is the evolution of Islam in a more spiritual and mystic direction. Sufism in its earlier stages was recited and meditated from the Quran. There are different versions about the derivation of the term Sufi. Derived from the word Arabic Safa (Purity), for the Sufi is one who is purified of all worldly passions. From Saff (rank) since the Sufi is in first rank in virtue of his communion with the supreme Being (Allah). From the word Suf-a garment of coarse, undyed wool which was the dress of the Sufi saints. The claim of Sufi’s that they inherited their doctrine from the prophet cannot be dismissed. Sufi doctrine were a result of Islamic monotheistic ideas, Christian asceticism and mysticism, Greek and Indian philosophy also. The Sufi’s claim that Mohammad had two types of revelation. Embodied in the Quran meant for everybody and binding on all known as Ilm-I-Safina ,(book of knowledge) custodian of which were the Ulema. Other was Ilm-I-Sina, knowledge in his heart, reserved for the closest to him which he transmitted personally to Sufi’s. They thus claimed to be companions of Prophet-Shahaban. Earliest time to 9th century – It was merely a tendency and had no system. The Sufi’s were ascetics, recluses with headquarters at Basra and Kufa. They were seekers of piety and other worldliness than of divine knowledge. The earliest form of Sufism had two features, Renunciation of worldly pleasures & intense fear of judgment of Allah. . The second pd. began after 9th century & developed into pantheistic mysticism (a doctrine that identifies God with Universe). In this period. several groups came to existence which differed from each other with details of organization & philosophical nations. Sufism is basically a religion based on the truth of life. It is a mystic tradition that consists of a varied range of ideas and practices that emphasize on the attainment of divine love and compassion of the heart. In the 14th century, a Sufi saint wrote a book known as the "Principles of Sufism" that defines the essence of Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God". Universal Sufism has been defined by great Sufi masters as a way to travel to the presence of the Divine force and fill oneself with inner beauty and compassion. The Sufi doctrines spoke of the mystical union of man’s soul with God. The world was a mere reflection of the supreme being & one required the aid of a spiritual guide to reach God. They emphasized on faith rather than action for the salvation of man. To the Sufi’s there are seven stages(mogamat) in the journey of the soul to the supreme being. Pir is a guide who has already taken this journey and is familiar with the process and the end result. Fazl or grace of God is also required in this for the complete destruction or annihilation of self meaning Fana. Ubudiyat:- It is the first stage when man starts realizing he is a pure man and prepare for the journey. Ishaq:- Divine influence leads him to Ishq of God and everything is forgotten except this poverty is essential in this stage and no room for earthly desire. Zuhd:- Renunciation of worldly pleasures once you are in Ishq. Maarifat:- Knowledge also called gnosis, in which the traveler contemplates the attributes and works of God. Slowly the logical reasoning based on intellect is abandoned and the traveler seeks relief only in the mercy of God. Wajd:- Ecstasy in which mental excitement is produced only through contemplation of one. reality God. He repeats the name of God often. Haqiqat:- Reality when you reach this stage your heart is illumined by the true nature of God and you see his power, strength, reliability & surrender to him. Wasl:- Union. When the traveler finds himself face to face with God leading to fana- merger. Dhikr Dhikr is basically about remembering God for all Sufis. According to Islam, one who engages in Dhikr has awareness of God. It basically includes chanting of God's name and reciting sections of the Quran. It has similarities with the Jewish Merkavah practice of meditation used to attain a higher level of consciousness. This can be done through singing, dance, meditative music, swirling, etc. that finally leads to a trance. Hadhra The Hadhra basically consists of various forms of Dhikr, songs and dances that are used to appeal God and Angels. The word Hadhra is Arabic and it means "Presence". Qawwali In Sufism, Qawwali is the devotional form of music, which is common in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran, etc. The Qawwali is known for its worldly appeal and transcends all bounds and limitations of countries and different regions. Some of the modern day masters of Qawwali are Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Sabri Brothers. Sama is an Arabic word which means listening. In Sufis, the holy ritual of whirling dance is known as Sama. It is basically an act of devotion that takes a person to a higher level of consciousness. The right kind of music invokes the right kind of emotion which is elated when one does the whirl dance. This helps in the process of contemplating the divine force. Khalwa Khalwa basically refers to a kind of retreat that a person can experience under the guidance of a Sufi teacher. There is a belief in Sufism that all prophets must have retreated into seclusion at some point of time in order to derive inspiration and divine power. Thus, the Sufis practice retreat in order to concentrate on the divinity of the Almighty. It is very difficult to disassociate Sufism in India with Sufism outside India. The same saints often got associated with many branches. One of beliefs of Sufis is that saints never die and one can communicate with his living spirit and discuss their ideology. A man who is able to establish contacts with a large number of saints dead or alive is most informed. So when a saint initiated into one order he made it a point to go and establish contacts with spirits of others going to their Dargah. It is difficult to pin down a particular date for the coming of Sufism in India. It is generally believed to have entered with Islam when 1st Muslim saint Talim Ansari buried at Mailapur. After 12th century they gradually expanded their activities. Most successful and popular of all the orders because it knew better how to adapt itself to the usages and customs of the country in which it had come to settle down. It was introduced in India by Khwaja Muinuddin chisti, who came to India a little before the invansion of Mohd. Ghori. After his death his numerous disciples continued his mission. The Chisti Sufi saints believed in spiritual importance of music and they patronized professional singers of talent irrespective of their religion or caste. They followed the practice of chilla-a spiritual exercise strictly observed for 40 days when God is remembered in every breadth spending the time in a mosque or a close room accepting minimum food. Nizamuddin Auliya was another important saint who possessed a liberal out look and inspired men with love of God. His tomb in Delhi is generated by both Hindu and Muslims. Other were Khwaja Fariduddin, Ganja Shakar(Baba Farid), Qutub Sahib. Reached India a little late by 15th century by Shah Niamatullah and Makhdum Mohammad Jilani. Others of this order were Shaikh Daud Kirmani, Abdul Maali Qadiri. Dara Shukoh was a great patron of this order. This order was introduced in India by Khwaja Bagi Billah- seventh in line of succession to Khwaja Bahanddin Naqsband the founder of this order. They laid great emphasis on strict observance of Islamic law (Shariat). Bagi Billah’s chief disciple was Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi demolished the doctrine of ‘unity of being’ and in its place put faith philosophy of modified monism. Khwaja Mia Dard also attempted a synthesis between elements of love and legalism. He regarded himself both a slave and lover of God. Introduced in India by Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariyya Suharwardy succeeded by his son Shaikh Sadruddin, who was very friendly to Balban’s son Muhammad Shaikh Ahmad Masud who in fits of ecstacy neglected the Islamic practices. This order divided into two groups. Basharawho were in favour of observing the laws of Shariat strictly and Beshara- who did not observe Shariat saying it is only a means not in end. K.A. Nizami and Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizvi have highlighted the spiritual and worldly role of the Sufis and established the fact that the relationship between Sufis and medieval Indian state was close. The Arab traders were visiting Deccan much before the birth of Islam. The first settlement of Muslims in South are dated back to the caliphate of Abdul Malik bin Marwan 692-705 A.D. The armies of Allauddin Khilji and Mohammad Bin were accompanied with various Sufis, who facilitated the spread of Islam in Deccan. K.A. Nizami says, long before the Khilji armies marched into the Deccan, the Sufi saints had settled in various parts of South and their pious ways and concerns for the welfare of the people had made them a welcome group in large society. But this could not crystallize into the form of a movement It was when Mohd Tughlug shifted to Deccan that organized mystic silsilas reached south and the settlement of small Muslim cultural groups in various towns, the Sufi movement assumed a new dimension. All the tradition of Muslim mysticism as they had developed in North India were transplanted in the South. The Mudhakirs(preachers) of Delhi were seen delivering sermons in various towns and Qawab(musicians) could be found reciting the verses of Amir Khusrn and Amir Hassan in courts and streets. Sufism found a place in medieval Deccan society and polity through its specialized techniques like Sama, urs and ecstacy(wajd). When these coincided with deliverance from disease it had a lot of impact. The Sufi ideology influenced people at popular level and oriented their spiritual and material life. The Sufis defined man more in terms of “becoming than being” human life was a store house of misery and men could get salvation only by renouncing worldly pleasure. But in Deccan unlike the Chisti Silsila in North the Sufis did not live in isolation nor did they strip themselves of social and political loyalties. Rather they used their mystical identity to realize more fully their political aspirations in the Deccan. The Sufis organized endownaent of worldly organization of Khangah, morgnes and madarsas. They also adapted Turkish, Persian and Deccani ideas and impressions alongside their Islamic identity. The Bahmani’s patronised the Sufis such as Sheikh Ahmad Harawi, Sharif Samarkandi Al Hussain, Gesu Daraz, Hakeem Hassan Gilami, Hakeem Al Tabrezi and many more. They were accompanied by a large number of their disciples who included wlama, unaara and people skilled in various professions. Madarsas, Maktabs and Khangas were opened in Gulbarga, Elchipur, Daulatabad, Warangal, Aurangabad, Naldurg. These centers popularized Persian language. Only a tiny percentage was literate. The largeness of Sufis to establish a direct contact with common man and share the joys and sorrows of his life led to the growth of a new medium of communication called “proto urdu” by H.K. Sherwani. Thus grew up Rekta(Deccani urdu). However Persian remained the official language of the state. But the Suffis composed and wrote in Rekta small treatises in vernacular which could be rhymed and so easily memorized. The Sufis preached the attitude of Sulhikul(peace with all creeds and cults) and social harmony with non Muslims. This appealed to non Muslims even though they did not formally accept Islam. Sufis taught to abstain from sin and remain detached from the material realities of the world and accept poverty as an essential condition of life. These ideas and preaching's point to the evolution of an ideological infrastructure of Med. State. Through these the st. justified its punishments inflicted on people and repression in the name of spirituality, morals and other worldlynes. This served as a social framework for appropriation of various struggles going on in Medieval Deccan society. Sufis also occupied lands in populated and unpopulated areas. They derived material strengths from organization and the ascetic life and extended their patrimony. They obtained large amount of surplus production which facilitated growth and helped states territorial expansion. Slowly their roles changed and they became landed estate owners and indulged in exploitation of people. 1. Shaik Zainuddin Dawood:- During the reign of Mohd. Shah I. One day did not attend the durbar along with hlema Answers, sultan addicted to wine and other vices forbidden by Islam. King insested on his presence or a written homage, so ordered banishment, moved to tomb of Burhanuddin his preceptor and challenged any one to remove him. King came to senses, ordered closure of wine shops and drinking in others company. 2. Hazrat Syed Muhammad Gesu Daraj:- settled near a Khangah in Gulbarga. Firoz Shah granted him many villages but soon his popularity caused jealousy. Firoz Shah’s successor Ahmad Shah was very embarrassed with saints durbars attended by both Hindu and Muslims, he had no peace of mind till the capital shifted from Gulbarga to Bidar. Today next to his tomb at Gulbarga is the sivite temple of Channa Visweswar alangayat who turned into a Sufi saint in the company of Gesu Daraz. The Sufis did not think that the women were disqualified to be initiated as murids (disciples) though the process of her initiation differed from that of man. The Shaikh would recite some hymns over a bowl of water by placing his index finger over it and after that the bowl was taken to the women and she would immerse her index finger and complete the initiation. While following chillah(forty days prayers) restrictions were placed on women’s diets and for men it was only mentioned that the diet should be moderate like the Bhakti saints, the Sufis also regarded women as a mean of illusion in this world and the cause to delude people from the right path. During a congregation women not allowed to speak and if they noticed any ritual being forgotten by the Imam during performance of Namaz they had to clap the knuckle of one hand on the palm of the other, while the men could chaut “Sulthan Allah”. Bibi Zulaikha:- The mother of Shaikh Nizamuddin Anha. After her death the saint would often go to his mother’s tomb and narrate his tales of war and with in few days he would get relief. Bibi Auliya:- Contemporary of Sultan Mohd. Bin Tugluq. He respected her. Bibi Sara:- Mother of Shaikh Nizamuddin Abdul Murid. Strict purdah and no male had seen her face. When it did not rain in Delhi the inhabitants prayed for rain but no respite. So Shaikh prayed holding his mothers Aaman and it rained. Bibi Raasti:- Wife of Shaikh Sadruddin Arif. Read the whole Quran daily. She became disciple of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya. , Bibi Jamal:- Daughter of Shaikh Moinuddin Chisti. Bibi Qarsum Masuma:- She was mother of Baba Farid. Story that once she was praying and some thiefs entered became blind. When pleaded for mercy and promised to refrain from such acts in future and her eye sight was restored. Bibi Fatimah Saam:- She was respected so much by Baba Farid that he stated she was a male in the garb of a female. She had great mystical powers due to her piety, courage. She was an accomplished poeters. In the 9th century when the Abbasids were in decline, Sindh was slipping out of their clutches, India came to be known as a faraway land whose inhabitants were on par with those of Rum and China. They were regarded as one of the most civilized communities outside of Islamic rule. Here the Sufis had built Khanquahs or hospices which were the focal points for the spread of Islam and diffusion of Islamic teaching. Under each main centre, sub-centres sprang up which owed their allegiance to the order. While the kings at that time used their political power, the Sufi saints exercised their spiritual power and had a greater hold on people. They interpreted Islam in a liberal way and brought about large-scale conversions to Islam. The relations between Sufis and the rulers of Sindh were greatly influenced by the presence of the Suhrawardis, who enjoyed the favor of the Sindhi rulers. The Sufis in Sindh received a stepmotherly treatment until the arrival of the Mughals in 1707. Sufi saints helped in the refinement and development of Indian languages and bridging the spiritual gap between the masses. A large number of eminent Sufis whose vision of Islamic spiritual life was broadly based gave moral courage to the people by awakening in them spiritual values and reliance on God during calamities such as drought, floods, and panic due to protracted wars and foreign invasions. The early Chishti believed that contact with the saintly was the only means by which people would renounce evil or convert to Islam. The social and economic position of the masses of Muslim converts who accepted Islam under a variety of pressures was in fact no better than that of the Hindu masses, because of the dominance of the discriminating ruling classes. The khanqahs did offer peace and comfort to the thousands of Muslims who crowded the towns. The lack of literary evidence is the most formidable obstacle to the presentation of any pictures of village khanqahs, where the tombs of local Pirs and the graves of local martyrs both real and fake offered the sole spiritual comfort to the inhabitants in their sufferings and anguish. The 'urs (death anniversaries) and other ceremonies celebrated in khanqahs developed into significant cultural institutions. The greatest of all the spirits task” remarks Albert Schweitzer, “is to produce a theory of the universe. In that all the ideas, convictions and activities of the ape have their roots” The sufis not only produced a theory of the universe they also build their lives in consonance to it . they spoke of the doctrine of Wahdat-ul-Wajud ie, what ever exists objectively as well as subjectively outside the mind of man and well are inside it is one- by what ever name we may call it universe, nature, reality, truth or God. The early Muslim mystics believed in a pacific and non violent approach towards all problems of human society. Force, they said created more problems than it solved. They encouraged the development of faculties of patience and endurance. They felt self criticism was the best way to minimize chances of friction in society. The Muslim mystics of early stages cut themselves off completely from Kings, Politics and Govt. service. These they felt distracted a mystic from single minded pursuit of God. They also rejected offers of jagirs and endowments for they felt acceptance of such gifts would make them subsequent to royal wish and curb the independence of soul. They also rejected Govt. service. With settlement of Muslims in India, conciliation and concord between the various culture groups was not only a moral and intellectual demand but an urgent social necessity. These Sufis rare to the occasion and released synergetic forces which liquidated social, ideological and linguistic barriers between groups and helped in development of common cultural outlook.] The Muslim mystics desired to comprehend Hindu religion at psychological and emotional level rather than philosophical. They were more interested in Hindu religious practices rather than philosophy, in order to establish close relations with Muslims. They spoke of unity of God and brotherhood of man, Hindu mind was moved by this. The Bhakti movement of 14th , 15th century came from lower strata of Hindu society, a section which was much moved by the Muslim mystics and their kranqah life. The urban revolution in the wake of establishment of Turkish rule had also brought moral laxities and social vices as clear with the atmosphere that prevailed in Delhi after death of Balban and rise of Alauddin Khilji. The Khankahs acted as counter weight in maintaining moral equilibrium in med society. They spoke against Slavery, hoarding, black marketing, profiteering, wine etc. Barni remarks that as a result of the teaching of these Sufis vices among men have been reduced. The early Muslim mystics belived in a pacific and non violent approach towards all problems of human society. Force, they said created more problems than it solved. They encouraged the development of faculties of patience and endurance. They felt self criticism was the best way to minimize chances of friction in society. The Muslim mystics of early stages cut themselves off completely from Kings, Politics and Govt. service. These they felt distracted a mystic from single minded pursuit of God. They also rejected offers of jagirs and endourments for they felt acceptance of such gifts would make them subsequient to royal wish and curb the independence of soul. They also rejected Govt. service. Prof. Gibbs “From 13th century Sufism increasingly attracted creative, intellectual and social energies with in the community and because the bearer of social and cultural rev.” These Sufis had came to India much before the Ghorian conguet in a caste ridden society. Their unassuming ways, human sympathies and classless atmospheres in their kranagas attracted the depressed section of Indian society. Their political attitudes also undeared them to public. They bought against illiteracy and rather than the rulers it was they who held the Islamic principles of equality and brotherhood. The contamination of court life could not touch their seremity and classless atmosphere. With settlement of Muslims in India, conciliation and concord between the various culture groups was not only a moral and intellectual demand but an urgent social necessity. These Sufis rare to the occasion and released syncretic forces which liquidated social, idealogical and linguistic barriers between groups and helped in development of common cultural outlook.] The Muslim mystics desired to comprehend Hindu religion at psychological and emotional level rather than philosophical. They were more interested in Hindu religious practices rather than philosophy, in order to establish close relations with Muslims. They spoke of unity of God and brotherhood of man, Hindu mind was moved by this. The Bhakti movement of 14th , 15th century came from lower strata of Hindu society, a section which was much moved by the Muslim mystics and their khanqah life. The urban revolution in the wake of establishment of Turkish rule had also brought moral laxities and social vices as clear with the atmosphere that prevailed in Delhi after death of Balban and rise of Alauddin Khilji. The Khangahs acted as counter weight in maintaining moral equilibrium in med society. They spoke against Slavery, hoarding, blackmarketing, profiteering, wine etc. Barni remarks that as a result of the teaching of these Sufis vices among men have been reduced. Dedicating their whole being to the Absolute, the Sufis achieved their spiritual goal through intuition, esoteric knowledge, and experience of the mystical world. Theirs was naturally the antithesis of the solely intellectual experience fostered by some of the philosophers. Not only was Sufi poetry an expression of the mystic love of thirsty soul seeking an intuitive understanding of God, but it was also avenue for the outlet of emotions and spiritual feelings which would otherwise never have been expressed because of the fury of the orthodox, social, inhibitions, and political repressions. The Natha Panthī and Vaishnavite symbols did not necessarily make them syncretic, for a number of Sufis who used such symbols enjoyed a reputation for excessively deep devotion to Islam. Both the Sufi poets of the regional languages and the pioneers of Hindu bhaktī (devotional) movements rebelled against all forms of religious formalism, falsehood, hypocrisy, and stupidity and tried to create a world in which spiritual bliss was the all-consuming goal. The devotion of some of the rulers and members of the governing classes to the Sufis went a long way toward making possible the erection of such masterpieces of architecture as the tomb of the Suhrawardī Shaykh Rukn al-Dīn in Multan, the khanqah of Mir Sayyid 'Alī Hamadānī in Srinagar (Kashmir), and the tombs of Shaykh Muhòammad Ghawth in Gwalior and Shaykh Salīm Chishtī at Fatehpur Sikri. Even the Mughal miniatures did not neglect the Sufi landscape; some of them integrate Sufi themes with the bhaktas (Hindu devotees). In fact, many aspects of Sufi belief systems and practice had their parallels in Indian philosophical literature, but often, amongst the more conforming streams of Sufi discourse, these had to be circumscribed within the boundaries of what Islam could politically tolerate. Even though most Sufis (like many Hindu Vedantics) considered formal religion a shell - they didn't reject formal religion - allowing that for the average practitioner, day-to-day rituals and traditional religious practices could play a useful role. Most were not outright rebels - but adapted to the pressures of mainstream religion. Nevertheless, Sufis were much less likely to approve of rigid and literalist interpretations of the Quran. "Words cannot be used in referring to religious truth, except as analogy". This sentiment of Hakim Sanai as expressed in his 'The Walled Garden of Truth' echoed what is most immediately evident in the Kena and Chandogya Upanishads. The more advanced of the Sufi scholars worried less about Quranic compatibility, and emphasized that there was a spiritual truth that exceeded what could be gleaned from the standard religious texts. There was an emphasis on spiritual discovery and cultural evolution - through practical experience, through the development of intuition and a sharpened world perspective as opposed to the mere repetition of dogma. As the Sufis synthesized older ideas and philosophical traditions that attracted them - they also transcended them in some ways, adding their own unique and perspicacious insights as they Mulla Nasruddin immortalized by The Subtleties of the Incomparable Nasruddin communicated through witty parables in the manner of Birbal, and became an illustrious example of the Sufi satirist. Later Sufi poets like Kabir in India often brought a wry sense of humor, or a touch of folk wisdom to their poetry, and like their counterparts amongst the Indian Bhakti saints to comment on life and the human situation - subtly conveying their wisdom - and shedding light on moral and ethical dilemmas. Although much of the primary focus was on discovering spiritual "truths" there were secular aspects in their writings that had a broader appeal. Some of the finest of the Sufi literary and poetic output dealt with the psychology of romantic love, perhaps as a consequence of how life in a sexually conservative, puritanical society led to romantic and erotic feelings having to be sublimated. Often, the outpourings of emotion that may have otherwise been considered immoral or illicit (as in the love of someone of the same gender) were situated in a devotional or mystical spiritual framework to escape social and political censure. Fariduddin Attar (Nishapur, Iran, early 13th C) was an important poet. He spoke of various stages of human evolution in terms of spiritual progress and Attar noted: "To abandon something because others have misused it may be the height of folly; the Sufic truth cannot be encompassed in rules and regulations, in formulas and rituals - but yet it is partially present in all these things." Jalaluddin Rumi (Balkh, Afghanistan, 13th C) were amongst those whose writings dealt with the theme of romantic love. Rumi appeared to endorse a theory of social evolution that resembled earlier Indian spiritual theories: "I died as inert matter and became a plant; And as a plant I died and became an animal; And as an animal I died and became a man; So why should I fear losing my human character? I shall die as a man, to rise in angelic form" - in Mathnavi, Story 17 Rumi wrote: "He who is fortunately enlightened knows that sophistry is from the Devil and love from Adam" - in Mathnavi. Rumi is known for several other pithy sayings: A man never having seen water is thrown blindfolded into it, and feels it. When the bandage is removed, he knows what it is. Until then he only knows it by it's effect. - in Fihi Ma Fihi. Amongst Rumi's most interesting observations was a notion that Europeans might be more likely to associate with Hegel: "Opposite things work together, even though nominally opposed" - in Fihi Ma Fihi Sheikh Saadi of Shiraz (13th C), a contemporary of Rumi, and author of the Gulistan (Rose Garden) and Bustan (Orchard) is also renowned for his thoughtful insights into human nature. Educated in Baghdad, he was widely-traveled, and had also visited India. Like Rumi, Saadi left a deep imprint on Sufi orders in India, and across the Middle East (from Damascus to Kabul). Notable in his writings are critiques of authoritarian and unjust rule, and miserliness amongst the rich (a theme also developed by Kabir). Hence the Sufis made a lot of impact to the society, economy and arts and literature in the past. Even today Sufi music means the music that connects with the heart. It is the music of submission and surrender that bonds the physical and the metaphysical and transcends all religious boundaries and has attracted a large number of youths to it.