Sufism is said to have been originated near a place called Basra
located in Iraq. The Muslims located in this region started off this
as a path to reach the divine.
 The divine form who is worshipped in Sufism is Prophet
Mohammed and all schools of Sufism consider the Prophet as the
manifestation of God.
 Hence Sufi order is considered to have branched from Islam.
However, ancient Islamic scriptures have no mention of Sufism in
them.
 Some scholars hold the view that Sufism is the evolution of Islam
in a more spiritual and mystic direction. Sufism in its earlier stages
was recited and meditated from the Quran.
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There are different versions about the derivation
of the term Sufi.
Derived from the word Arabic Safa (Purity), for
the Sufi is one who is purified of all worldly
passions.
From Saff (rank) since the Sufi is in first rank in
virtue of his communion with the supreme Being
(Allah).
From the word Suf-a garment of coarse, undyed
wool which was the dress of the Sufi saints.
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The claim of Sufi’s that they inherited their doctrine from the
prophet cannot be dismissed. Sufi doctrine were a result of Islamic
monotheistic ideas, Christian asceticism and mysticism, Greek and
Indian philosophy also. The Sufi’s claim that Mohammad had two
types of revelation.
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Embodied in the Quran meant for everybody and binding on all
known as Ilm-I-Safina ,(book of knowledge) custodian of which
were the Ulema.
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Other was Ilm-I-Sina, knowledge in his heart, reserved for the
closest to him which he transmitted personally to Sufi’s. They thus
claimed to be companions of Prophet-Shahaban.
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Earliest time to 9th century – It was merely a tendency and
had no system.
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The Sufi’s were ascetics, recluses with headquarters at
Basra and Kufa.
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They were seekers of piety and other worldliness than of
divine knowledge.
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The earliest form of Sufism had two features,
Renunciation of worldly pleasures & intense fear of
judgment of Allah.
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. The second pd. began after 9th century &
developed into pantheistic mysticism (a
doctrine that identifies God with Universe). In
this period. several groups came to existence
which differed from each other with details of
organization & philosophical nations.
Sufism is basically a religion based on the truth of life. It is a
mystic tradition that consists of a varied range of ideas and
practices that emphasize on the attainment of divine love and
compassion of the heart.
 In the 14th century, a Sufi saint wrote a book known as the
"Principles of Sufism" that defines the essence of Sufism as "a
science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning
it away from all else but God".
 Universal Sufism has been defined by great Sufi masters as a way
to travel to the presence of the Divine force and fill oneself with
inner beauty and compassion.
 The Sufi doctrines spoke of the mystical union of man’s soul with
God. The world was a mere reflection of the supreme being & one
required the aid of a spiritual guide to reach God. They
emphasized on faith rather than action for the salvation of man.
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To
the
Sufi’s
there
are
seven
stages(mogamat) in the journey of the soul to
the supreme being.
Pir is a guide who has already taken this
journey and is familiar with the process and
the end result.
Fazl or grace of God is also required in this for
the complete destruction or annihilation of
self meaning Fana.
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Ubudiyat:- It is the first stage when man starts realizing he is a
pure man and prepare for the journey.
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Ishaq:- Divine influence leads him to Ishq of God and
everything is forgotten except this poverty is essential in this
stage and no room for earthly desire.
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Zuhd:- Renunciation of worldly pleasures once you are in Ishq.
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Maarifat:- Knowledge also called gnosis, in which the traveler
contemplates the attributes and works of God. Slowly the
logical reasoning based on intellect is abandoned and the
traveler seeks relief only in the mercy of God.
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Wajd:- Ecstasy in which mental excitement is
produced only through contemplation of one.
reality God. He repeats the name of God often.
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Haqiqat:- Reality when you reach this stage your
heart is illumined by the true nature of God and you
see his power, strength, reliability & surrender to him.
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Wasl:- Union. When the traveler finds himself face to
face with God leading to fana- merger.
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Dhikr
Dhikr is basically about remembering God for all Sufis. According to
Islam, one who engages in Dhikr has awareness of God. It basically
includes chanting of God's name and reciting sections of the Quran. It has
similarities with the Jewish Merkavah practice of meditation used to
attain a higher level of consciousness. This can be done through singing,
dance, meditative music, swirling, etc. that finally leads to a trance.
Hadhra
The Hadhra basically consists of various forms of Dhikr, songs and dances
that are used to appeal God and Angels. The word Hadhra is Arabic and it
means "Presence".
Qawwali
In Sufism, Qawwali is the devotional form of music, which is common in
Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran, etc. The Qawwali is known for
its worldly appeal and transcends all bounds and limitations of countries
and different regions. Some of the modern day masters of Qawwali are
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Sabri Brothers.
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Sama is an Arabic word
which means listening. In
Sufis, the holy ritual of
whirling dance is known as
Sama. It is basically an act of
devotion that takes a person
to a higher level of
consciousness. The right kind
of music invokes the right
kind of emotion which is
elated when one does the
whirl dance. This helps in the
process of contemplating the
divine force.
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Khalwa
Khalwa basically refers to a
kind of retreat that a person
can experience under the
guidance of a Sufi teacher.
There is a belief in Sufism
that all prophets must have
retreated into seclusion at
some point of time in order
to derive inspiration and
divine power. Thus, the Sufis
practice retreat in order to
concentrate on the divinity of
the Almighty.
It is very difficult to disassociate
Sufism in India with Sufism outside
India.
 The same saints often got
associated with many branches.
One of beliefs of Sufis is that saints
never die and one can communicate
with his living spirit and discuss their
ideology.
 A man who is able to establish
contacts with a large number of
saints dead or alive is most
informed.
 So when a saint initiated into one
order he made it a point to go and
establish contacts with spirits of
others going to their Dargah.
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It is difficult to pin down a particular date
for the coming of Sufism in India.
It is generally believed to have entered with
Islam when 1st Muslim saint Talim Ansari
buried at Mailapur.
After 12th century they gradually expanded
their activities.
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Most successful and
popular of all the orders
because it knew better
how to adapt itself to the
usages and customs of the
country in which it had
come to settle down.
It was introduced in India
by Khwaja Muinuddin
chisti, who came to India a
little before the invansion
of Mohd. Ghori. After his
death his numerous
disciples continued his
mission.
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The Chisti Sufi saints believed in spiritual
importance of music and they patronized
professional singers of talent irrespective of
their religion or caste.
They followed the practice of chilla-a spiritual
exercise strictly observed for 40 days when
God is remembered in every breadth
spending the time in a mosque or a close
room accepting minimum food.
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Nizamuddin Auliya was
another important saint
who possessed a liberal
out look and inspired
men with love of God.
His tomb in Delhi is
generated by both Hindu
and Muslims.
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Other were Khwaja
Fariduddin, Ganja
Shakar(Baba Farid),
Qutub Sahib.
Reached India a little
late by 15th century by
Shah Niamatullah and
Makhdum Mohammad
Jilani. Others of this
order were Shaikh
Daud Kirmani, Abdul
Maali Qadiri.
 Dara Shukoh was a
great patron of this
order.
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This order was introduced in India by Khwaja Bagi
Billah- seventh in line of succession to Khwaja
Bahanddin Naqsband the founder of this order.
 They laid great emphasis on strict observance of
Islamic law (Shariat).
 Bagi Billah’s chief disciple was Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi
demolished the doctrine of ‘unity of being’ and in its
place put faith philosophy of modified monism.
 Khwaja Mia Dard also attempted a synthesis between
elements of love and legalism. He regarded himself
both a slave and lover of God.
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Introduced in India by Shaikh Bahauddin
Zakariyya Suharwardy succeeded by his son
Shaikh Sadruddin, who was very friendly to
Balban’s son Muhammad Shaikh Ahmad Masud
who in fits of ecstacy neglected the Islamic
practices.
This order divided into two groups. Basharawho were in favour of observing the laws of
Shariat strictly and Beshara- who did not
observe Shariat saying it is only a means not in
end.
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K.A. Nizami and Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizvi have
highlighted the spiritual and worldly role of the
Sufis and established the fact that the
relationship between Sufis and medieval Indian
state was close.
The Arab traders were visiting Deccan much
before the birth of Islam. The first settlement of
Muslims in South are dated back to the caliphate
of Abdul Malik bin Marwan 692-705 A.D.
The armies of Allauddin Khilji and Mohammad
Bin were accompanied with various Sufis, who
facilitated the spread of Islam in Deccan.
K.A. Nizami says, long before the Khilji armies marched into the
Deccan, the Sufi saints had settled in various parts of South and
their pious ways and concerns for the welfare of the people had
made them a welcome group in large society.
 But this could not crystallize into the form of a movement
 It was when Mohd Tughlug shifted to Deccan that organized
mystic silsilas reached south and the settlement of small Muslim
cultural groups in various towns, the Sufi movement assumed a
new dimension.
 All the tradition of Muslim mysticism as they had developed in
North India were transplanted in the South. The
Mudhakirs(preachers) of Delhi were seen delivering sermons in
various towns and Qawab(musicians) could be found reciting the
verses of Amir Khusrn and Amir Hassan in courts and streets.
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Sufism found a place in medieval Deccan society and polity through its
specialized techniques like Sama, urs and ecstacy(wajd).
When these coincided with deliverance from disease it had a lot of
impact. The Sufi ideology influenced people at popular level and oriented
their spiritual and material life.
The Sufis defined man more in terms of “becoming than being” human
life was a store house of misery and men could get salvation only by
renouncing worldly pleasure.
But in Deccan unlike the Chisti Silsila in North the Sufis did not live in
isolation nor did they strip themselves of social and political loyalties.
Rather they used their mystical identity to realize more fully their
political aspirations in the Deccan.
The Sufis organized endownaent of worldly organization of Khangah,
morgnes and madarsas.
They also adapted Turkish, Persian and Deccani ideas and impressions
alongside their Islamic identity.
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The Bahmani’s patronised the Sufis such as Sheikh Ahmad Harawi, Sharif
Samarkandi Al Hussain, Gesu Daraz, Hakeem Hassan Gilami, Hakeem Al
Tabrezi and many more.
They were accompanied by a large number of their disciples who
included wlama, unaara and people skilled in various professions.
Madarsas, Maktabs and Khangas were opened in Gulbarga, Elchipur,
Daulatabad, Warangal, Aurangabad, Naldurg.
These centers popularized Persian language. Only a tiny percentage was
literate.
The largeness of Sufis to establish a direct contact with common man
and share the joys and sorrows of his life led to the growth of a new
medium of communication called “proto urdu” by H.K. Sherwani.
Thus grew up Rekta(Deccani urdu). However Persian remained the
official language of the state. But the Suffis composed and wrote in
Rekta small treatises in vernacular which could be rhymed and so easily
memorized.
The Sufis preached the attitude of Sulhikul(peace with all creeds and cults) and
social harmony with non Muslims. This appealed to non Muslims even though
they did not formally accept Islam.
 Sufis taught to abstain from sin and remain detached from the material realities
of the world and accept poverty as an essential condition of life.
 These ideas and preaching's point to the evolution of an ideological
infrastructure of Med. State.
 Through these the st. justified its punishments inflicted on people and repression
in the name of spirituality, morals and other worldlynes. This served as a social
framework for appropriation of various struggles going on in Medieval Deccan
society.
 Sufis also occupied lands in populated and unpopulated areas. They derived
material strengths from organization and the ascetic life and extended their
patrimony.
 They obtained large amount of surplus production which facilitated growth and
helped states territorial expansion. Slowly their roles changed and they became
landed estate owners and indulged in exploitation of people.
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1. Shaik Zainuddin Dawood:- During the reign of Mohd. Shah I. One day did not
attend the durbar along with hlema Answers, sultan addicted to wine and other
vices forbidden by Islam. King insested on his presence or a written homage, so
ordered banishment, moved to tomb of Burhanuddin his preceptor and
challenged any one to remove him. King came to senses, ordered closure of wine
shops and drinking in others company.
2. Hazrat Syed Muhammad Gesu Daraj:- settled near a Khangah in Gulbarga.
Firoz Shah granted him many villages but soon his popularity caused jealousy.
Firoz Shah’s successor Ahmad Shah was very embarrassed with saints durbars
attended by both Hindu and Muslims, he had no peace of mind till the capital
shifted from Gulbarga to Bidar. Today next to his tomb at Gulbarga is the sivite
temple of Channa Visweswar alangayat who turned into a Sufi saint in the
company of Gesu Daraz.
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The Sufis did not think that the women were disqualified to be
initiated as murids (disciples) though the process of her initiation
differed from that of man. The Shaikh would recite some hymns
over a bowl of water by placing his index finger over it and after
that the bowl was taken to the women and she would immerse her
index finger and complete the initiation. While following
chillah(forty days prayers) restrictions were placed on women’s
diets and for men it was only mentioned that the diet should be
moderate like the Bhakti saints, the Sufis also regarded women as
a mean of illusion in this world and the cause to delude people
from the right path. During a congregation women not allowed to
speak and if they noticed any ritual being forgotten by the Imam
during performance of Namaz they had to clap the knuckle of one
hand on the palm of the other, while the men could chaut “Sulthan
Allah”.
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Bibi Zulaikha:- The mother of Shaikh Nizamuddin Anha. After her
death the saint would often go to his mother’s tomb and narrate
his tales of war and with in few days he would get relief.
Bibi Auliya:- Contemporary of Sultan Mohd. Bin Tugluq. He
respected her.
Bibi Sara:- Mother of Shaikh Nizamuddin Abdul Murid. Strict
purdah and no male had seen her face. When it did not rain in
Delhi the inhabitants prayed for rain but no respite. So Shaikh
prayed holding his mothers Aaman and it rained.
Bibi Raasti:- Wife of Shaikh Sadruddin Arif. Read the whole Quran
daily. She became disciple of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya.
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Bibi Jamal:- Daughter of Shaikh Moinuddin Chisti.
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Bibi Qarsum Masuma:- She was mother of Baba Farid.
Story that once she was praying and some thiefs entered
became blind. When pleaded for mercy and promised to
refrain from such acts in future and her eye sight was
restored.
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Bibi Fatimah Saam:- She was respected so much by Baba
Farid that he stated she was a male in the garb of a
female. She had great mystical powers due to her piety,
courage. She was an accomplished poeters.
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In the 9th century when the Abbasids were in decline, Sindh was slipping out of
their clutches, India came to be known as a faraway land whose inhabitants were
on par with those of Rum and China.
They were regarded as one of the most civilized communities outside of Islamic
rule. Here the Sufis had built Khanquahs or hospices which were the focal points
for the spread of Islam and diffusion of Islamic teaching. Under each main centre,
sub-centres sprang up which owed their allegiance to the order. While the kings
at that time used their political power, the Sufi saints exercised their spiritual
power and had a greater hold on people.
They interpreted Islam in a liberal way and brought about large-scale conversions
to Islam. The relations between Sufis and the rulers of Sindh were greatly
influenced by the presence of the Suhrawardis, who enjoyed the favor of the
Sindhi rulers.
The Sufis in Sindh received a stepmotherly treatment until the arrival of the
Mughals in 1707. Sufi saints helped in the refinement and development of Indian
languages and bridging the spiritual gap between the masses.
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A large number of eminent Sufis whose vision of Islamic spiritual life was
broadly based gave moral courage to the people by awakening in them
spiritual values and reliance on God during calamities such as drought,
floods, and panic due to protracted wars and foreign invasions.
The early Chishti believed that contact with the saintly was the only
means by which people would renounce evil or convert to Islam. The
social and economic position of the masses of Muslim converts who
accepted Islam under a variety of pressures was in fact no better than
that of the Hindu masses, because of the dominance of the
discriminating ruling classes.
The khanqahs did offer peace and comfort to the thousands of Muslims
who crowded the towns.
The lack of literary evidence is the most formidable obstacle to the
presentation of any pictures of village khanqahs, where the tombs of
local Pirs and the graves of local martyrs both real and fake offered the
sole spiritual comfort to the inhabitants in their sufferings and anguish.
The 'urs (death anniversaries) and other ceremonies celebrated in
khanqahs developed into significant cultural institutions.
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The greatest of all the spirits task” remarks Albert Schweitzer, “is
to produce a theory of the universe. In that all the ideas,
convictions and activities of the ape have their roots” The sufis not
only produced a theory of the universe they also build their lives in
consonance to it . they spoke of the doctrine of Wahdat-ul-Wajud
ie, what ever exists objectively as well as subjectively outside the
mind of man and well are inside it is one- by what ever name we
may call it universe, nature, reality, truth or God.
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The early Muslim mystics believed in a pacific and non violent
approach towards all problems of human society. Force, they said
created more problems than it solved. They encouraged the
development of faculties of patience and endurance. They felt self
criticism was the best way to minimize chances of friction in
society.
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The Muslim mystics of early stages cut themselves off
completely from Kings, Politics and Govt. service. These
they felt distracted a mystic from single minded pursuit of
God.
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They also rejected offers of jagirs and endowments for
they felt acceptance of such gifts would make them
subsequent to royal wish and curb the independence of
soul.

They also rejected Govt. service.

With settlement of Muslims in India, conciliation and concord between
the various culture groups was not only a moral and intellectual demand
but an urgent social necessity.

These Sufis rare to the occasion and released synergetic forces which
liquidated social, ideological and linguistic barriers between groups and
helped in development of common cultural outlook.]

The Muslim mystics desired to comprehend Hindu religion at
psychological and emotional level rather than philosophical. They were
more interested in Hindu religious practices rather than philosophy, in
order to establish close relations with Muslims. They spoke of unity of
God and brotherhood of man, Hindu mind was moved by this.
The Bhakti movement of 14th , 15th century came from lower strata of
Hindu society, a section which was much moved by the Muslim mystics
and their kranqah life.

The urban revolution in the wake of establishment of
Turkish rule had also brought moral laxities and social
vices as clear with the atmosphere that prevailed in
Delhi after death of Balban and rise of Alauddin Khilji.
 The Khankahs acted as counter weight in maintaining
moral equilibrium in med society.
 They spoke against Slavery, hoarding, black
marketing, profiteering, wine etc.
 Barni remarks that as a result of the teaching of these
Sufis vices among men have been reduced.
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The early Muslim mystics belived in a pacific and non violent approach
towards all problems of human society. Force, they said created more
problems than it solved. They encouraged the development of faculties
of patience and endurance. They felt self criticism was the best way to
minimize chances of friction in society.
The Muslim mystics of early stages cut themselves off completely
from Kings, Politics and Govt. service. These they felt distracted a mystic
from single minded pursuit of God. They also rejected offers of jagirs and
endourments for they felt acceptance of such gifts would make them
subsequient to royal wish and curb the independence of soul. They also
rejected Govt. service.
Prof. Gibbs “From 13th century Sufism increasingly attracted
creative, intellectual and social energies with in the community and
because the bearer of social and cultural rev.”
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These Sufis had came to India much before the Ghorian conguet in
a caste ridden society. Their unassuming ways, human sympathies
and classless atmospheres in their kranagas attracted the
depressed section of Indian society. Their political attitudes also
undeared them to public. They bought against illiteracy and rather
than the rulers it was they who held the Islamic principles of
equality and brotherhood. The contamination of court life could
not touch their seremity and classless atmosphere.
With settlement of Muslims in India, conciliation and concord
between the various culture groups was not only a moral and
intellectual demand but an urgent social necessity. These Sufis
rare to the occasion and released syncretic forces which liquidated
social, idealogical and linguistic barriers between groups and
helped in development of common cultural outlook.]
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The Muslim mystics desired to comprehend
Hindu religion at psychological and emotional
level rather than philosophical.
They were more interested in Hindu religious
practices rather than philosophy, in order to
establish close relations with Muslims.
They spoke of unity of God and brotherhood of
man, Hindu mind was moved by this.
The Bhakti movement of 14th , 15th century came
from lower strata of Hindu society, a section
which was much moved by the Muslim mystics
and their khanqah life.
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The urban revolution in the wake of
establishment of Turkish rule had also brought
moral laxities and social vices as clear with the
atmosphere that prevailed in Delhi after death
of Balban and rise of Alauddin Khilji.
The Khangahs acted as counter weight in
maintaining moral equilibrium in med society.
They spoke against Slavery, hoarding,
blackmarketing, profiteering, wine etc.
Barni remarks that as a result of the teaching of
these Sufis vices among men have been
reduced.
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Dedicating their whole being to the Absolute, the Sufis achieved their spiritual
goal through intuition, esoteric knowledge, and experience of the mystical world.
Theirs was naturally the antithesis of the solely intellectual experience fostered
by some of the philosophers.
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Not only was Sufi poetry an expression of the mystic love of thirsty soul seeking
an intuitive understanding of God, but it was also avenue for the outlet of
emotions and spiritual feelings which would otherwise never have been
expressed because of the fury of the orthodox, social, inhibitions, and political
repressions.
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The Natha Panthī and Vaishnavite symbols did not necessarily make them
syncretic, for a number of Sufis who used such symbols enjoyed a reputation for
excessively deep devotion to Islam.
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Both the Sufi poets of the regional languages and the pioneers of Hindu bhaktī
(devotional) movements rebelled against all forms of religious formalism,
falsehood, hypocrisy, and stupidity and tried to create a world in which spiritual
bliss was the all-consuming goal.
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The devotion of some of the rulers and members
of the governing classes to the Sufis went a long
way toward making possible the erection of such
masterpieces of architecture as the tomb of the
Suhrawardī Shaykh Rukn al-Dīn in Multan, the
khanqah of Mir Sayyid 'Alī Hamadānī in Srinagar
(Kashmir), and the tombs of Shaykh
Muhòammad Ghawth in Gwalior and Shaykh
Salīm Chishtī at Fatehpur Sikri.
Even the Mughal miniatures did not neglect the
Sufi landscape; some of them integrate Sufi
themes with the bhaktas (Hindu devotees).
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In fact, many aspects of Sufi belief systems and practice had their
parallels in Indian philosophical literature, but often, amongst the more
conforming streams of Sufi discourse, these had to be circumscribed
within the boundaries of what Islam could politically tolerate.
Even though most Sufis (like many Hindu Vedantics) considered formal
religion a shell - they didn't reject formal religion - allowing that for the
average practitioner, day-to-day rituals and traditional religious practices
could play a useful role.
Most were not outright rebels - but adapted to the pressures of
mainstream religion.
Nevertheless, Sufis were much less likely to approve of rigid and literalist
interpretations of the Quran. "Words cannot be used in referring to
religious truth, except as analogy". This sentiment of Hakim Sanai as
expressed in his 'The Walled Garden of Truth' echoed what is most
immediately evident in the Kena and Chandogya Upanishads.
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The more advanced of the Sufi scholars worried less about Quranic compatibility,
and emphasized that there was a spiritual truth that exceeded what could be
gleaned from the standard religious texts.
There was an emphasis on spiritual discovery and cultural evolution - through
practical experience, through the development of intuition and a sharpened world
perspective as opposed to the mere repetition of dogma.
As the Sufis synthesized older ideas and philosophical traditions that attracted
them - they also transcended them in some ways, adding their own unique and
perspicacious insights as they Mulla Nasruddin immortalized by The Subtleties of
the Incomparable Nasruddin communicated through witty parables in the manner
of Birbal, and became an illustrious example of the Sufi satirist.
Later Sufi poets like Kabir in India often brought a wry sense of humor, or a touch
of folk wisdom to their poetry, and like their counterparts amongst the Indian
Bhakti saints to comment on life and the human situation - subtly conveying their
wisdom - and shedding light on moral and ethical dilemmas.
Although much of the primary focus was on discovering spiritual "truths" there
were secular aspects in their writings that had a broader appeal.
Some of the finest of the Sufi literary and poetic output dealt with
the psychology of romantic love, perhaps as a consequence of
how life in a sexually conservative, puritanical society led to
romantic and erotic feelings having to be sublimated. Often, the
outpourings of emotion that may have otherwise been considered
immoral or illicit (as in the love of someone of the same gender)
were situated in a devotional or mystical spiritual framework to
escape social and political censure. Fariduddin Attar (Nishapur,
Iran, early 13th C) was an important poet.
 He spoke of various stages of human evolution in terms of spiritual
progress and Attar noted: "To abandon something because others
have misused it may be the height of folly; the Sufic truth cannot be
encompassed in rules and regulations, in formulas and rituals - but
yet it is partially present in all these things."

Jalaluddin Rumi (Balkh, Afghanistan, 13th C) were amongst those
whose writings dealt with the theme of romantic love.
 Rumi appeared to endorse a theory of social evolution that
resembled earlier Indian spiritual theories: "I died as inert matter and became a plant; And as a plant I died and became an animal;
And as an animal I died and became a man; So why should I fear
losing my human character? I shall die as a man, to rise in angelic
form" - in Mathnavi, Story 17
 Rumi wrote: "He who is fortunately enlightened knows that
sophistry is from the Devil and love from Adam" - in Mathnavi.
 Rumi is known for several other pithy sayings: A man never having
seen water is thrown blindfolded into it, and feels it. When the
bandage is removed, he knows what it is. Until then he only knows it
by it's effect. - in Fihi Ma Fihi.


Amongst Rumi's most
interesting
observations was
a notion that
Europeans might be
more likely to associate
with Hegel: "Opposite
things work together,
even though nominally
opposed" - in Fihi Ma
Fihi


Sheikh Saadi of Shiraz (13th C), a contemporary
of Rumi, and author of the Gulistan (Rose
Garden) and Bustan (Orchard) is also renowned
for his thoughtful insights into human nature.
Educated in Baghdad, he was widely-traveled,
and had also visited India.
Like Rumi, Saadi left a deep imprint on Sufi
orders in India, and across the Middle East (from
Damascus to Kabul). Notable in his writings are
critiques of authoritarian and unjust rule, and
miserliness amongst the rich (a theme also
developed by Kabir).


Hence the Sufis made a lot
of impact to the society,
economy and arts and
literature in the past.
Even today Sufi music
means the music that
connects with the heart. It
is the music of submission
and surrender that bonds
the physical and the metaphysical and transcends all
religious boundaries and
has attracted a large
number of youths to it.
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SUFISM (Islamic mysticism) Wahadat-ul