Chapter 4
Focusing Marketing Strategy
with Segmentation and
Positioning
For use only with
Perreault/Cannon/
McCarthy texts, © 2009
McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
www.mhhe.com/fourps
Focusing Marketing Strategy with
Segmentation and Positioning (Exhibit 4-1)
Focusing Marketing Strategy with
Segmentation and Positioning (Exhibit 4-1)
Segmentation
•Defining markets
•Dimensions to use
•Identifying segments
•Identifying segments to target
•Segmentation approaches
Positioning
•Understanding customer’s view
•Positioning techniques
•Evaluating segment preferences
•Differentiating the marketing mix
•Relationship between
positioning & targeting
Taking
Advantage of
Opportunities
Naming Product Markets and Generic Markets
Product
Type
Customer
Needs
Product-Market
Definition
Geographic
Area
Customer
Type
No Product Type in Generic Market Definition
Segmentation is a Two-Step Process
1. Naming broad
product-markets
and
2. Segmenting
markets and
selecting
targets
The Process of Narrowing Down to Target
Markets (Exhibit 4-3)
All customer needs
Some generic market
One broad
product-market
Homogeneous
(narrow) productmarkets
Single
target
market
Multiple
target
markets
Combined
target
markets
Narrowing
down to
specific
product-market
Segmenting
into possible
target markets
Selecting target
marketing
approach
Market Segmentation Defines Possible Target
Markets (Exhibit 4-4)
Broad product-market (or generic market) name
goes here (The bicycle-riders product-market)
Submarket 1
(Exercisers)
Submarket 2
(Off-road
adventurers)
Submarket 3
(Transportation riders)
Submarket 4
(Socializers)
Submarket 5
(Environmentalists)
How Far Should the Aggregating Go? (Exhibit 4-5A
and 4-5B)
Status dimension
B. Product-market showing
A.
six segments
three
segments
Dependability dimension
Segmenters and Combiners Aim at Specific
Target Markets (Exhibit 4-6)
A segmenter
develops a
different
marketing
mix for each
segment.
Single target
market approach
Multiple target
market approach
A combiner aims at two or
more submarkets with the
same marketing mix.
The
Strategy
Strategy two
Strategy
one
The
strategy
Strategy three
Segmenting vs. Combining
Combiners
Try to Satisfy
“Pretty Well”
Too Much
Combining Is
Risky
Segmenters
Try to Satisfy
“Very Well”
Key Issues
Profit Is the
Balancing
Point
Segmenting
May Produce
Bigger Sales
Segment or
Combine?
Behavioral dimensions for segmenting
consumer markets
Needs
Information
required
Type of
problemsolving
Kind of
shopping
Benefits
Sought
Thoughts
Behavioral
Segmenting
Dimensions
Rate of use
Brand
familiarity
Purchase
relationship
Geographic dimensions for segmenting
consumer markets
Region of
world or
country
Region in a
country
Geographic
Segmentation
Dimensions
Size of city
Demographic dimensions for segmenting
consumer markets
Income
Gender or age
Demographic
Segmentation
Dimensions
Family size or family
life cycle stage
Occupation or
education
Ethnicity or social
class
Segmenting business markets
Type of
customer
Kind of
relationship
Purchasing
methods
Segmenting
Dimensions
for
Business
Markets
Type of buying
situation
Demographics
How customers
will use the
product
Business-toBusiness
Segmentation
What Dimensions are used to Segment
Markets?
Qualifying
Dimensions
• Relevant to
including a
customer type in a
product-market
• Help identify “core
benefits”
Determining
Dimensions
OR
• Affect the
customer’s
purchase of a
product or brand
• Can be further
segmented
Determining vs. Qualifying Dimensions
Determining
Dimensions May
Change
Determining
Dimensions May
Be Very Specific
Key Issues
Different
Dimensions For
Different
Submarkets
Qualifying
Dimensions Are
Important Too
Ethical Issues in Segmenting Markets
Ethical
Issues
Exploitation
Creates
Unnecessary
Wants
Does Harm
International
Issues
Psychographic Segmentation
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Segmenting Product Markets (Exhibit 4-11)
1. Select (name) the broad
product-market
2. Identify potential
customer needs
3. Form initial homogeneous
submarkets
Best
Practice
Approach
for
Segmenting
Product-Markets
4. Identify determining
dimensions
5. Name possible
product-markets
6. Evaluate product-market
segments
7. Estimate size of each
product-market segments
More Sophisticated Techniques May Help in
Segmenting
Clustering
Customer Database
Customer Relationship
Management (CRM)
Cluster
Analysis
“Product Space” Representation of Positioning
(Exhibit 4-13)
High moisturizing
4
7
Tone
Zest
Lever 2000
Dove
5
Nondeodorant
2
Lux
Coast
Safeguard
8
Deodorant
3
1
Dial
Lifebuoy
Lava
6
low moisturizing
You should now be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Know about defining generic markets
and product-markets.
Know what market segmentation is and
how to segment product-markets into
submarkets.
Know three approaches to marketoriented strategy planning.
Know dimensions that may be useful
for segmenting markets.
Know a seven-step approach to market
segmentation that you can do yourself.
Know what positioning is and why it is
useful.
Key Terms
• Market
• Generic market
• Product market
• Market
•
•
•
•
•
segmentation
Segmenting
Market segment
Single target market
approach
Multiple target
market approach
Combined target
market approach
• Combiners
• Segmenters
• Qualifying dimensions
• Determining dimensions
• Clustering techniques
• Customer relationship
•
management (CRM)
Positioning
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Basic Marketing, 17e