Institutional Archives for Research: Experiences and Projects in Open Access
ISS, Roma 30 Nov.-1 Dec 2006
Access to Scientific Knowledge:
The Relationship Between Society and Science
Adriana Valente
Science Communication and Education
National Research Council,
Institute of Research on
Population and Social Policies
[email protected]
Science Must be Communicated…
Yes, of course!

…but is it possible to participate in the scientific debate?
…is science social or antisocial?
Participating in Science:
Being an Object of an Announcement
I agree
It is right that scientists be
indipendent and responsible for
choosing the topics and
methods of research
Not
very
much
Not at
all
Don’t
know
M
51,9
34,8
8,1
5,2
F
51,1
34,4
7,4
7,2
M
79,5
11,9
3,2
5,5
77,9
12,9
2,5
6,7
M
22,2
38,4
33,3
6,1
F
17,7
39,1
32,8
10,4
M
42,5
25,0
12,2
20,4
F
35,7
25,0
11,9
27,5
M
76,9
12,9
4,4
5,9
F
75,8
13,4
4,5
6,3
It is right to share scientific
results universally
F
It is right that research be
commissioned according to
specific market requirements
It is right that researchers
receive economic benefits from
the patents resulting from their
work
It is right that developing
countries have full access to
research and its results
Source: CNR surveys 20042005- 2006
Ethics and Polemics
Demand for the Engagement of Scientists in Science Communica
A. In order to proceed with
their
objectives, scientists must
also
communicate outcomes to
society.
B. Scientific research must
continue;
scientists are not
responsible for
communicating outcomes to
society
Agree with A Agree with B Agree with both
86,3
7,6
6,0
Source: IRPPS-CNR survey - Giovani e Scienza, 2004
In A. Valente, M. C. Brandi, L. Cerbara, M. Misiti, Youth and Science in Italy: between enthusiasm and indifference, Journal of
Science Communication (Jcom), giugno 2005, vol. 4 (2). http://jcom.sissa.it/archive/04/02
Who should take part in the decision-making process on
the use of S&T applications?
Ogm
M
Directly involves scientists 41
Scientific community
14
Politicians (gov. and parl.) 5
Producer/patent-holder(ind.) 0
Citizens
23
Bioethics committees
0
Environmental groups
5
Consumers/users groups
4
Other groups
4
Non-Gov. Organizations
4
F
47
14
3
3
16
8
3
6
0
0
Electrosmog
M
F
40
39
32
38
2
3
3
0
11
9
2
2
6
9
3
2
0
0
0
0
Source: CNR surveys 2004- 2005- 2006
In A.Valente(ed.), Science, from specialists to students and back again, Biblink 2006
Space
M
52
14
4
2
8
4
5
4
3
3
F
62
13
4
4
4
4
4
2
3
1
Common Model of Interaction Between Science and Society
..I give you
references and
evidences, you
must be
convinced
We are
communicating…
..why they don’t
understand us
Some of the Main Problems in the Public
Communication of “In Progress Science”
• considering “in progress science,” must experts
be an expert of all aspects involved?
•does the citation system represent an effective
way to cope with the complexity of the different
points of view of science?
• do non specialistic sources and textbooks
accurately represent “in progress science,” and
do they stress that there are different points of
view on the subject?
• the speed of scientific development: a resource, a problem…
Three Main Issues in Gathering Scientific Documentation for
Public Communication of “In Progress Science:”
“open” access (interoperability and free access)
easy-to-understand language
different points of view
…but answers to these questions may be different and not go in
the same direction…
A. within the scientific community
different points of view
B. at interspecialistic level
(interdisciplinary)
C. contextual knowledge (bottom-up)
D. enlargement of participation in the creation
of collective wisdom
A. Depending on the evolution of peer review and evaluation methods
B. May facilitate. but also Garfield: “a multi disciplinary, cover-to-cover index to
eliminate the uncertanties of the selective discipline oriented services”
C. Generally not considered
D. May be counterproductive:
from a problem of cultural egemony to a problem of costs? Or both?
In conclusion,
it would not be so bad for
Gregorio Magno to be
distracted by the world
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