Business Process Management
Systems
Pascal Ravesteyn
UU/HU - 2007
General overview
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
What is BPMS?
Research question
BPMS implementation framework
Assignment
Introduction
Business Process Management: the Third Wave
(Smith, Fingar, 2003)
•
•
•
•
Internet
Globalization
Governance (SOX, Tabaksblatt)
Outsourcing
Source: CIOinsight (2006)
View of processes and organization
webservices
EAI
Value
Chain
Act. Based costing
TQM
CASE
Workflow UML
Rules
management
engines
Java
Cont. process
improvement
ERP
ISO9001
Balanced Scorecards
Kaizen
Six Sigma
B2Bi
So…
BPMS
A new IT
software
category that supports
the entire
lifecycle of modeling,
organization
Business
organization
executing, and monitoring business processes
What is
Business Process Management
(System)
History BPMS
Number
1
2
3
•
•
Total Quality Management
Process orientation
Customer focus (intern and
extern)
Support and commitment of
employees and management
Requires cultural change
Cross-functional teams to analyze
and resolve quality problems
Business Process Reengineering
Process orientation
Customer focus (mainly external)
Support and commitment of
employees and management
Requires cultural change
Cross-functional teams to redesign
processes
4
Management Concepts:
5
– Total Quality Management
Root
Characteristic
existing work processes
Develop entirely new processes
– Business Process Re-engineering 67 BPR Improve
Focus on
external customers One-time project
Continuous
change
Process change
descriptions (graphical)Project radical ness
8 BPR
Evolutionary
TQM
Measurement
and control
of process
– Business Proces Management
9
Focus on individual
process
Focusperformance
on core processes
TQM
Continuous
optimization
of
processes
activities
automated
processes
across
functional
– Etc.
10BPR
Use Implementation
of statistics to ofmeasure
creative
use of IT
to enable
new
departments
improvement
processes
Culture change
IT Innovations
11TQM / BPR'self-renewal
learning' culture As few people as possible should
Systematic
automation
business
processes
by integrating
with all
employees
involved of core be
involved
in the performance
of all
a
software
applications
that
support
these
processes
process
– Enterprise Resource Planning
Table 2 Characteristics of Business Process Management
Table 1 based on Jarrar and Aspinwall (1999); Hackman and Wageman (1995)
– Workflow Management
– Enterprise Application Integration
– Business Intelligence /Dashboard and portals
– Etc.
TQM
BPR
General Workflow
Interface
Layer
BPM
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
Process
Layer
An y Process
Calculation
Business
Rules
Layer
Mana
geme
nt Co
ncept
s
Inv oices
Business Lev el
Obj ects
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
BPMS
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Production
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
IT
EAI
WFM
Back end \ Systems
Layer
Self-Generating Integration
ns
o
i
t
va
Inno
API
API
API
Web
Service
XML
SAP using
java
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
API
Excel using
com
Databases using
jdbc
ERP
Databases
‘85
Ravesteyn, 2007
‘90
‘95
‘98 ‘00
‘05
time
History of SOA
Mainframe
SQL
Databases
Batch
processing
EAI
Visicalc R/2
Distribution
technology
Client/Server
CORBA
RPC NFS
VT3270
VT100
Content: data &
Business logic
R/3
Data Warehouse
TCP/IP
sockets
BPM
WSDL
MQ
EJB
EAI
SOAP
WWW
Programming
language
Modula2
Smalltalk
Pascal
PROLOG
COBOL
Ada
Assembler
Implementation
Platform, interfacing
Techniques interaction
patterns
Java
.NET
C#
SIMULA
C++
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
Remote access &
infrastructure
2000
Service Oriented Architecture
Business
computing
WWW
IBM PC
Classification of Services
• Basic services; represent the basic elements of a SOA
• Data centric services
• Logic centric services
• Intermediairy services; are stateless services that
function as client of server in a SOA
• Process centric services; encapsulate the knowledge of the
organization’s business processes (maintain the process state)
• Public enterprise services; provide interfaces for cross-enterprise
integration
Application frontends are the active elements of a SOA. They initiate
all business processes and ultimately receive their results (e.g. GUI)
Classification of Services (2)
Process-centric
services
Public Enterprise
services
simple data or
logic centric
services
Intermediairy
Services
technology
gateways,
adapters and
functionality
adding services
encapsulate
process logic
service shared with
other enterprises or
partner organizations
low to moderate
moderate to high
high
service specific
stateless
high
stateless
low
stateful
low
service specific
high
low
moderate to high
high
low
yes
no
no
no
Basic Services
Description
Implementation
complexity
State
management
Reusability
Frequency of
change
Mandatory
element of SOA
Krafzig et al. 2005
BPMS Architecture
Process
Designer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
An y Process
Process
Layer
Web Work
Portal/
Forms/
WSDL
Interface
Layer
Example - 1
Component
Manager
Business
Rules
Layer
Calculation
Inv oices
Business Lev el
Obj ects
General Workflow
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
System and User Interactions
Production
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Existing
Systems
Back end \ Systems
Layer
Self-Generating Integration
API
API
API
Web
Service
XML
SAP using
java
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
API
Excel using
com
Databases using
jdbc
BPMS Architecture
Example - 2
Role Based Presentation + Applications (CAF)
Business Activity Monitoring (BAM)
Business Process Management (BPM)
Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
Enterprise Applications (ERP + others)
Market Overview
“The Forrester Wave™:
Integration-Centric Business Process Management Suites”
(Q4, December 20, 2006)
When to use BPMS
high
BPMS
Complexity of
coordination
EAI
Application
server
low
high
low
Frequency
of change
Krafzig et al. 2005
Maturity of SOA
in relation to Business Integration
Process
enabled
Not cost-effective
Maturity of
SOA
agility
networked
flexibility
maintainability
fundamental
Not feasible
Intra
Cross
Cross
Simple
departmental departmental Bus. unit
B2B
Intra
enterprise
Krafzig et al. 2005
Complex
Processes
integration
Cross-enterprise
Scope of
Business integration
Research
Research goal
• “Provide an overview of the critical success
factors when implementing a BPMS”
• To accomplish this….
Research Activities and Articles
•
•
•
•
Literature Research
Framework & Model
Validation (qualitative & quantitative)
Case Studies
Informatica (2005)
Ishikawa (1986)
Jablonski (1995)
Jarrar, Aspinwall (1999)
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
Juopperi, et al (1995)
Juran (1945)
Juran (1951)
Karagiannis (1995)
Kettinger, et al (1997)
Khoshaflan (2006)
Kim, Ramkaran (2004)
X
change management
Not applicable
X
Not applicable
Armistead, Machin (1997)
DesignateXa process
champion
X
organization
coordination
X
project planning and
management
IT infrastructure
Work on the tradeoffs
Teach others about
the process
Train within the
process
cultural fit
improvement
measurement
draw early drafts of
process maps
use a standard
process modeling
language
Aversano, et al (2002)
Know the process
X
XX
process definition
X
Understand the
linkages
organization
structuring
use of a well-defined
and practical method
accurately select
to reverse engineer process owners X
and
listen to process X use multiple data
processes
key users
owners and key users gathering approaches
X
X
X
Becker, etXal (2003)
X
X
X
Bhatt, Stump (2001)
Bhatt, Troutt (2005)
X
Involvement of
X
management
as
targeted users of the
system
to enable
communication
among IS systems
standardization is
needed
Not applicable
X
X
X
X
X
ManagementX
understandingXand
support X
for global interX
operability,
transparency to the
X
end user is needed
X
Integration of CRM
and SCM data from
an operative (EAI)
perspective and a
The effectiveness of
management (data
datawarehouses for
The availability of
warehouses and
business process X data within the Supply
decision support
integration
Chain
systems) perspective
Top management
support is critical to
establish Network
Integrative capability
connectivity and
of IS networks
Network Flexibility
XX
X
X
X
X
Build
specialist
expertise
Improve
the
process
delay the technology
evaluation until
take into account the
X
process reverse
industrial partners
engineering
and the target
X is
finished
environment
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
involve many people
Manage careers
X
X
X
Box, Platts (2005)
X
Measure the process
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Longitudinaal
organisational
structure
X
X
Cross-sectional
X
Vergelijkende studies (bijv. Van
software of implementatie methode)
management
competency and
support
X
Vergelijkende case studies
X
Longitudinaal
Is it possible to use
modelingtechniques
that are related to the
X
type of company?
X
X
14
X
when modeling a
when altering private
supply chain this
processes, which
requires each
modifications are
X to
the level of detail in
business partner
allowed without
modeling entire
understand the nature
jeopardizing the
processesXin a supply of their partners' local correct operation ofX
chain
processes
the overall workflow
X
Not applicable
Not applicable
Al-Mashari,X
Zairi (1999)
Anzböck, Dustdar (2005)
Arkin(2002)
X
X
X
Armistead (1996)
Other
KRITISICHE SUCCESFACTOREN ZOALS GENOEMD IN ARTIKEL (niet alles is KSF, soms betreft het aspecten zoals uit artikel
X naar voren komt)
X
Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004)
BPMS
Empirisch
X
X
Aalst (2002)
Aalst, et al(2003)
Aalst, Hee (2004)
BI/BAM
Surveys
X
EAI
Cross-sectional
X
X
X
X
X
X
Toegepast (consultancy gericht)
ARTIKEL
WFM
Case studies
Conceptueel
BPM
Modelmatig
TQM
Wetenschappelijk
CONCEPT
BPR
ARTICLE
Aalst (2002)
Aalst, et al(2003)
Aalst, Hee (2004)
Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004)
Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999)
X
Nummer
Anzböck, Dustdar (2005)
Arkin(2002)
Armistead (1996)
Armistead, Machin (1997)
Aversano, et al (2002)
X
Becker, et al (2003)
Bhatt, Stump (2001)
1
Bhatt, Troutt (2005)
X
2
Box, Platts (2005)
3
Burlton (2001)
Çakular, Wijngaarden (2002)
Chang (2006)
Cunningham, Finnegan (2004)
4
Datastream (2005)
Davenport (2000)
5
Deming (1982) ARTICLE
6
Dennis, et al (2006)
Aalst (2002)
7
Aalst, et al(2003)
Es, et al (2005)
Aalst, Hee (2004)
Fremantle, et al (2002)
8
Georgakopoulos (1999)Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004)
Grefen, De Vries (1998) Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999)
9
Gulledge, Sommer (2002)Anzböck, Dustdar (2005)
X
Arkin(2002)
Hammer, Champy (2001)
X
Armistead (1996) X
Harrington (1995)
Armistead, Machin (1997)
Hill (1999)
X
Aversano, et al (2002)
Hillegersberg, et al (2004)
Becker, et al (2003)
10
Informatica (2005)
Bhatt, Stump (2001)
Ishikawa (1986)
Bhatt, Troutt (2005)
Jablonski (1995)
Box, Platts (2005)
Jarrar, Aspinwall (1999)
Burlton (2001) X
Jeston, Nelis (2006) Çakular, Wijngaarden (2002)
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
Chang (2006)
Juopperi, et al (1995)Cunningham, Finnegan (2004)
11
Juran (1945)
Datastream (2005)
Davenport (2000)
Juran (1951)
Deming (1982)
Karagiannis (1995)
Dennis, et al (2006) X
Kettinger, et al (1997)
Es, et al (2005)
Khoshaflan (2006)
12
13
Kim, Ramkaran (2004) Fremantle, et al (2002)X
Georgakopoulos
(1999)
Klen, et al (2001)
Grefen, De Vries (1998)
Kobayashi (2003)
Koedijk, Verstelle (1999)Gulledge, Sommer (2002)
Hammer, Champy (2001)
Kuo (2004)
Harrington (1995)
Laudon, Laudon (2000)
Hill (1999)
Lee, Dale (1998) Hillegersberg, et al (2004)
Theoretisch
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Number
translate project
X
objectives into very
X
specific deliverables
X
X
X
formulate a business
case
deliver on the
business case
X
a clear
make sure
path must
that
be created
people
from
that are
corporate
X
engaged
strategy to
to the
strong
project
project leadership goals, and
X
can attach
is
ultimately
create challenging rewards & incentives their own essential to team
assign the best
roles and new job when deliverables are meaning
for
and
good executive
possible people to the perspectives after the met before time, with
to the
effective individual
involvement (sponsor)
project full time
project
higher quality etc.
project
change objectives
X
X
single
point
accountab
ility; each
person
should
fully
understan
d her role
in
achieving
the overall
objective
and be
accountab
le for
his/her
tasks
Business Process Management
Framework
Monitoring & Control
BI / BAM
BPMS
WFM
Strategy & Policy
TQM Bus.
Organization
Proc.
& Processes
Model.
BPR
People & Culture
Ravesteyn, 2006
EAI
Information
Technology
Business Process Management System
Implementation approach
• A literature study of 104 articles and books
• Based on a meta-analysis of the literature a list was compiled with
over 337 critical success factors from the different background
principles
• This list was based upon the principles according to the following
composition:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.86% of the factors came from TQM
17.51% from BPR
29.97% BPM
11.57% WFM
12.76% EAI (incl. SOA)
2.08% BAM
12.17% from the BPMS domain
10.08% from various other related areas
Business Process Management System
Implementation approach
Management of Implementation & Change
Project domain
Man.
Org. & Proc.
Architecture
Process
Information
Development
Infrastruc.
Ser. Appl.
Measurement and Control
(Ravesteyn, 2007)
Organizational domain
Man.
Org. & Proc.
Management of Organization & Processes
Critical Success Factors:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Project management
Change management and involving people
Understanding the BPM concept
Management support and involvement
Strategic Alignment
Governance & accountability
Training
Culture
Management of Organization & Processes
Other factors mentioned:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
take into account the customers, industrial partners and the target
environment
create challenging roles and new job perspectives after the project
establishing a support organization because ongoing maintenance and
management is very difficult
Treat value as realizable by all stakeholders, irrespective of geography or
organizational boundaries
Build a knowledge base around processes
implementation guide: follow an "inside-out" strategy, this means first
prioritize the integration of internal systems and applications, defining and
institutionalizing your business processes then the company is better suited
for integration with external systems
use of best practices
Architecture Design
(process model)
Critical Success Factors:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Understanding the process
Use the 'best' modeling standards & techniques
Organizing the modeling ‘design’ phase
Maintenance and control - including quality - of the models is important
Architecture Design
(process model)
Formal models
Analysis
Design
Visualisation
For different
stakeholders
Napkin
Whiteboard
Powerpoint
Idea Architecture Use
process
Management
Maintenance
Version control
The architecture description life cycle (Lankhorst et al. 2005)
Link with
implementation
Architecture Design
(coherence)
(Lankhorst et al. 2005)
Architecture Design
(process model)
Other factors mentioned:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
When altering private processes, which modifications are allowed without
jeopardizing the correct operation of the overall workflow
Strategic objectives and functional objectives should be identified and linked to
process model
lack of documentation of embedded processes in application systems
Multi process adaptation alternatives should be present, and also a contextual
adaptation process
Underestimating the difficulty in integrating offshore-supplier employees into the
processes and work flows of their companies
Modeling interfaces related to software systems
pre-determined collaboration choreography of participating organizations (ad
hoc changes are not possible)
Architecture Design
(information model)
Critical Success Factors:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Interdependencies and Integration of Data sources
Discovery of Information
Process Orientation
Defining (web) services
Understanding the BPMS paradigm
Business & IT divide
Use of Business Rules
Architecture Design
(information model)
Other factors mentioned:
•
•
Sometimes information-processing work is subsumed into the real
work that produces the information
For global inter-operability, transparency to the end user is needed
which has consequences for the information availability
Development
(infrastructure)
Critical Success Factor:
1) IT Infrastructure:
– IT infrastructure is not aligned to the developed solution
– embedded business logic within communications networks
Development
(Service Oriented Business Appl.)
Critical Success Factors:
1)
2)
Integration of processes and data
(Use of) Webservices
Development
(Service Oriented Business Appl.)
Other factors mentioned:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Transformation of design models into implementation models
Delay the technology evaluation until process reverse engineering is
finished
SOA (currently) works best when working with applications from large
IT vendors
Reliability of Internet (standards)
The process manager might get direct access to the application server
where connections are running
Testing prototypes and the final solution
The inflexibility of IT application systems
Management of Implementation & Change
Critical Success Factors:
1)
2)
Project management
Change management and involving people
Measurement & Control
Critical Success Factors:
1)
2)
3)
Performance Measurement
Continuous Optimization
An organization and culture of Quality
Measurement & Control
Other factors mentioned:
•
•
•
•
•
Use multiple data gathering approaches
The availability of data within the Supply Chain is critical
Both formal and informal monitoring and reporting activities should be taken into
account
Capture information once and at the source (tasks are performed wherever it
provides the most value)
Granularity and visibility control (information is not available or private
information is made public)
Assignment
Assignment
Investigate the validity of (part of) the provided
success factors. Extend and/or drill-down
when necessary. Aspects to consider:
– Mapping on the Model
– Weight
– Aspects per CSF
Assignment form
•Teams of two
•Several teams are validating one domain
•One paper per domain with at least one chapter per team
Structure team chapter:
Structure domain paper:
Summary
Team x
Team x
Team n
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction
Validation
Validation
Validation
Results
Results
Results
Conclusion
(validation method & overall results)
Resources
• BPM Forum
• Suppliers (BEA (Fuego), Cordys, IBM,
Microsoft, SAP, Seebeyond, Tibco,
Webmethods etc.)
• Consultancy Organizations (Capgemini,
InterAccess, LogicaCMG, Ordina etc.)
• Users (Interpay, ING, ABN-AMRO, Nuon etc.)
Questions?
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Business Process Management Systems