Business Process Management Systems Pascal Ravesteyn UU/HU - 2007 General overview • • • • • Introduction What is BPMS? Research question BPMS implementation framework Assignment Introduction Business Process Management: the Third Wave (Smith, Fingar, 2003) • • • • Internet Globalization Governance (SOX, Tabaksblatt) Outsourcing Source: CIOinsight (2006) View of processes and organization webservices EAI Value Chain Act. Based costing TQM CASE Workflow UML Rules management engines Java Cont. process improvement ERP ISO9001 Balanced Scorecards Kaizen Six Sigma B2Bi So… BPMS A new IT software category that supports the entire lifecycle of modeling, organization Business organization executing, and monitoring business processes What is Business Process Management (System) History BPMS Number 1 2 3 • • Total Quality Management Process orientation Customer focus (intern and extern) Support and commitment of employees and management Requires cultural change Cross-functional teams to analyze and resolve quality problems Business Process Reengineering Process orientation Customer focus (mainly external) Support and commitment of employees and management Requires cultural change Cross-functional teams to redesign processes 4 Management Concepts: 5 – Total Quality Management Root Characteristic existing work processes Develop entirely new processes – Business Process Re-engineering 67 BPR Improve Focus on external customers One-time project Continuous change Process change descriptions (graphical)Project radical ness 8 BPR Evolutionary TQM Measurement and control of process – Business Proces Management 9 Focus on individual process Focusperformance on core processes TQM Continuous optimization of processes activities automated processes across functional – Etc. 10BPR Use Implementation of statistics to ofmeasure creative use of IT to enable new departments improvement processes Culture change IT Innovations 11TQM / BPR'self-renewal learning' culture As few people as possible should Systematic automation business processes by integrating with all employees involved of core be involved in the performance of all a software applications that support these processes process – Enterprise Resource Planning Table 2 Characteristics of Business Process Management Table 1 based on Jarrar and Aspinwall (1999); Hackman and Wageman (1995) – Workflow Management – Enterprise Application Integration – Business Intelligence /Dashboard and portals – Etc. TQM BPR General Workflow Interface Layer BPM Web Service Presentation Presentation Process Layer An y Process Calculation Business Rules Layer Mana geme nt Co ncept s Inv oices Business Lev el Obj ects General Workflow System and User Interactions BPMS AFE’s Business Level Objects Production Business Level Objects Anything Business Level Objects Business Level Objects IT EAI WFM Back end \ Systems Layer Self-Generating Integration ns o i t va Inno API API API Web Service XML SAP using java API MSMQ using com or java API API Excel using com Databases using jdbc ERP Databases ‘85 Ravesteyn, 2007 ‘90 ‘95 ‘98 ‘00 ‘05 time History of SOA Mainframe SQL Databases Batch processing EAI Visicalc R/2 Distribution technology Client/Server CORBA RPC NFS VT3270 VT100 Content: data & Business logic R/3 Data Warehouse TCP/IP sockets BPM WSDL MQ EJB EAI SOAP WWW Programming language Modula2 Smalltalk Pascal PROLOG COBOL Ada Assembler Implementation Platform, interfacing Techniques interaction patterns Java .NET C# SIMULA C++ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Remote access & infrastructure 2000 Service Oriented Architecture Business computing WWW IBM PC Classification of Services • Basic services; represent the basic elements of a SOA • Data centric services • Logic centric services • Intermediairy services; are stateless services that function as client of server in a SOA • Process centric services; encapsulate the knowledge of the organization’s business processes (maintain the process state) • Public enterprise services; provide interfaces for cross-enterprise integration Application frontends are the active elements of a SOA. They initiate all business processes and ultimately receive their results (e.g. GUI) Classification of Services (2) Process-centric services Public Enterprise services simple data or logic centric services Intermediairy Services technology gateways, adapters and functionality adding services encapsulate process logic service shared with other enterprises or partner organizations low to moderate moderate to high high service specific stateless high stateless low stateful low service specific high low moderate to high high low yes no no no Basic Services Description Implementation complexity State management Reusability Frequency of change Mandatory element of SOA Krafzig et al. 2005 BPMS Architecture Process Designer Web Service Presentation Presentation An y Process Process Layer Web Work Portal/ Forms/ WSDL Interface Layer Example - 1 Component Manager Business Rules Layer Calculation Inv oices Business Lev el Obj ects General Workflow AFE’s Business Level Objects System and User Interactions Production Business Level Objects Anything Business Level Objects Business Level Objects Existing Systems Back end \ Systems Layer Self-Generating Integration API API API Web Service XML SAP using java API MSMQ using com or java API API Excel using com Databases using jdbc BPMS Architecture Example - 2 Role Based Presentation + Applications (CAF) Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) Business Process Management (BPM) Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) Enterprise Applications (ERP + others) Market Overview “The Forrester Wave™: Integration-Centric Business Process Management Suites” (Q4, December 20, 2006) When to use BPMS high BPMS Complexity of coordination EAI Application server low high low Frequency of change Krafzig et al. 2005 Maturity of SOA in relation to Business Integration Process enabled Not cost-effective Maturity of SOA agility networked flexibility maintainability fundamental Not feasible Intra Cross Cross Simple departmental departmental Bus. unit B2B Intra enterprise Krafzig et al. 2005 Complex Processes integration Cross-enterprise Scope of Business integration Research Research goal • “Provide an overview of the critical success factors when implementing a BPMS” • To accomplish this…. Research Activities and Articles • • • • Literature Research Framework & Model Validation (qualitative & quantitative) Case Studies Informatica (2005) Ishikawa (1986) Jablonski (1995) Jarrar, Aspinwall (1999) Jeston, Nelis (2006) Jeston, Nelis (2006) Juopperi, et al (1995) Juran (1945) Juran (1951) Karagiannis (1995) Kettinger, et al (1997) Khoshaflan (2006) Kim, Ramkaran (2004) X change management Not applicable X Not applicable Armistead, Machin (1997) DesignateXa process champion X organization coordination X project planning and management IT infrastructure Work on the tradeoffs Teach others about the process Train within the process cultural fit improvement measurement draw early drafts of process maps use a standard process modeling language Aversano, et al (2002) Know the process X XX process definition X Understand the linkages organization structuring use of a well-defined and practical method accurately select to reverse engineer process owners X and listen to process X use multiple data processes key users owners and key users gathering approaches X X X Becker, etXal (2003) X X X Bhatt, Stump (2001) Bhatt, Troutt (2005) X Involvement of X management as targeted users of the system to enable communication among IS systems standardization is needed Not applicable X X X X X ManagementX understandingXand support X for global interX operability, transparency to the X end user is needed X Integration of CRM and SCM data from an operative (EAI) perspective and a The effectiveness of management (data datawarehouses for The availability of warehouses and business process X data within the Supply decision support integration Chain systems) perspective Top management support is critical to establish Network Integrative capability connectivity and of IS networks Network Flexibility XX X X X X Build specialist expertise Improve the process delay the technology evaluation until take into account the X process reverse industrial partners engineering and the target X is finished environment X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X involve many people Manage careers X X X Box, Platts (2005) X Measure the process X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Longitudinaal organisational structure X X Cross-sectional X Vergelijkende studies (bijv. Van software of implementatie methode) management competency and support X Vergelijkende case studies X Longitudinaal Is it possible to use modelingtechniques that are related to the X type of company? X X 14 X when modeling a when altering private supply chain this processes, which requires each modifications are X to the level of detail in business partner allowed without modeling entire understand the nature jeopardizing the processesXin a supply of their partners' local correct operation ofX chain processes the overall workflow X Not applicable Not applicable Al-Mashari,X Zairi (1999) Anzböck, Dustdar (2005) Arkin(2002) X X X Armistead (1996) Other KRITISICHE SUCCESFACTOREN ZOALS GENOEMD IN ARTIKEL (niet alles is KSF, soms betreft het aspecten zoals uit artikel X naar voren komt) X Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004) BPMS Empirisch X X Aalst (2002) Aalst, et al(2003) Aalst, Hee (2004) BI/BAM Surveys X EAI Cross-sectional X X X X X X Toegepast (consultancy gericht) ARTIKEL WFM Case studies Conceptueel BPM Modelmatig TQM Wetenschappelijk CONCEPT BPR ARTICLE Aalst (2002) Aalst, et al(2003) Aalst, Hee (2004) Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004) Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999) X Nummer Anzböck, Dustdar (2005) Arkin(2002) Armistead (1996) Armistead, Machin (1997) Aversano, et al (2002) X Becker, et al (2003) Bhatt, Stump (2001) 1 Bhatt, Troutt (2005) X 2 Box, Platts (2005) 3 Burlton (2001) Çakular, Wijngaarden (2002) Chang (2006) Cunningham, Finnegan (2004) 4 Datastream (2005) Davenport (2000) 5 Deming (1982) ARTICLE 6 Dennis, et al (2006) Aalst (2002) 7 Aalst, et al(2003) Es, et al (2005) Aalst, Hee (2004) Fremantle, et al (2002) 8 Georgakopoulos (1999)Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004) Grefen, De Vries (1998) Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999) 9 Gulledge, Sommer (2002)Anzböck, Dustdar (2005) X Arkin(2002) Hammer, Champy (2001) X Armistead (1996) X Harrington (1995) Armistead, Machin (1997) Hill (1999) X Aversano, et al (2002) Hillegersberg, et al (2004) Becker, et al (2003) 10 Informatica (2005) Bhatt, Stump (2001) Ishikawa (1986) Bhatt, Troutt (2005) Jablonski (1995) Box, Platts (2005) Jarrar, Aspinwall (1999) Burlton (2001) X Jeston, Nelis (2006) Çakular, Wijngaarden (2002) Jeston, Nelis (2006) Chang (2006) Juopperi, et al (1995)Cunningham, Finnegan (2004) 11 Juran (1945) Datastream (2005) Davenport (2000) Juran (1951) Deming (1982) Karagiannis (1995) Dennis, et al (2006) X Kettinger, et al (1997) Es, et al (2005) Khoshaflan (2006) 12 13 Kim, Ramkaran (2004) Fremantle, et al (2002)X Georgakopoulos (1999) Klen, et al (2001) Grefen, De Vries (1998) Kobayashi (2003) Koedijk, Verstelle (1999)Gulledge, Sommer (2002) Hammer, Champy (2001) Kuo (2004) Harrington (1995) Laudon, Laudon (2000) Hill (1999) Lee, Dale (1998) Hillegersberg, et al (2004) Theoretisch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 SCIENTIFIC METHOD Number translate project X objectives into very X specific deliverables X X X formulate a business case deliver on the business case X a clear make sure path must that be created people from that are corporate X engaged strategy to to the strong project project leadership goals, and X can attach is ultimately create challenging rewards & incentives their own essential to team assign the best roles and new job when deliverables are meaning for and good executive possible people to the perspectives after the met before time, with to the effective individual involvement (sponsor) project full time project higher quality etc. project change objectives X X single point accountab ility; each person should fully understan d her role in achieving the overall objective and be accountab le for his/her tasks Business Process Management Framework Monitoring & Control BI / BAM BPMS WFM Strategy & Policy TQM Bus. Organization Proc. & Processes Model. BPR People & Culture Ravesteyn, 2006 EAI Information Technology Business Process Management System Implementation approach • A literature study of 104 articles and books • Based on a meta-analysis of the literature a list was compiled with over 337 critical success factors from the different background principles • This list was based upon the principles according to the following composition: – – – – – – – – 3.86% of the factors came from TQM 17.51% from BPR 29.97% BPM 11.57% WFM 12.76% EAI (incl. SOA) 2.08% BAM 12.17% from the BPMS domain 10.08% from various other related areas Business Process Management System Implementation approach Management of Implementation & Change Project domain Man. Org. & Proc. Architecture Process Information Development Infrastruc. Ser. Appl. Measurement and Control (Ravesteyn, 2007) Organizational domain Man. Org. & Proc. Management of Organization & Processes Critical Success Factors: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Project management Change management and involving people Understanding the BPM concept Management support and involvement Strategic Alignment Governance & accountability Training Culture Management of Organization & Processes Other factors mentioned: • • • • • • • take into account the customers, industrial partners and the target environment create challenging roles and new job perspectives after the project establishing a support organization because ongoing maintenance and management is very difficult Treat value as realizable by all stakeholders, irrespective of geography or organizational boundaries Build a knowledge base around processes implementation guide: follow an "inside-out" strategy, this means first prioritize the integration of internal systems and applications, defining and institutionalizing your business processes then the company is better suited for integration with external systems use of best practices Architecture Design (process model) Critical Success Factors: 1) 2) 3) 4) Understanding the process Use the 'best' modeling standards & techniques Organizing the modeling ‘design’ phase Maintenance and control - including quality - of the models is important Architecture Design (process model) Formal models Analysis Design Visualisation For different stakeholders Napkin Whiteboard Powerpoint Idea Architecture Use process Management Maintenance Version control The architecture description life cycle (Lankhorst et al. 2005) Link with implementation Architecture Design (coherence) (Lankhorst et al. 2005) Architecture Design (process model) Other factors mentioned: • • • • • • • When altering private processes, which modifications are allowed without jeopardizing the correct operation of the overall workflow Strategic objectives and functional objectives should be identified and linked to process model lack of documentation of embedded processes in application systems Multi process adaptation alternatives should be present, and also a contextual adaptation process Underestimating the difficulty in integrating offshore-supplier employees into the processes and work flows of their companies Modeling interfaces related to software systems pre-determined collaboration choreography of participating organizations (ad hoc changes are not possible) Architecture Design (information model) Critical Success Factors: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Interdependencies and Integration of Data sources Discovery of Information Process Orientation Defining (web) services Understanding the BPMS paradigm Business & IT divide Use of Business Rules Architecture Design (information model) Other factors mentioned: • • Sometimes information-processing work is subsumed into the real work that produces the information For global inter-operability, transparency to the end user is needed which has consequences for the information availability Development (infrastructure) Critical Success Factor: 1) IT Infrastructure: – IT infrastructure is not aligned to the developed solution – embedded business logic within communications networks Development (Service Oriented Business Appl.) Critical Success Factors: 1) 2) Integration of processes and data (Use of) Webservices Development (Service Oriented Business Appl.) Other factors mentioned: • • • • • • • Transformation of design models into implementation models Delay the technology evaluation until process reverse engineering is finished SOA (currently) works best when working with applications from large IT vendors Reliability of Internet (standards) The process manager might get direct access to the application server where connections are running Testing prototypes and the final solution The inflexibility of IT application systems Management of Implementation & Change Critical Success Factors: 1) 2) Project management Change management and involving people Measurement & Control Critical Success Factors: 1) 2) 3) Performance Measurement Continuous Optimization An organization and culture of Quality Measurement & Control Other factors mentioned: • • • • • Use multiple data gathering approaches The availability of data within the Supply Chain is critical Both formal and informal monitoring and reporting activities should be taken into account Capture information once and at the source (tasks are performed wherever it provides the most value) Granularity and visibility control (information is not available or private information is made public) Assignment Assignment Investigate the validity of (part of) the provided success factors. Extend and/or drill-down when necessary. Aspects to consider: – Mapping on the Model – Weight – Aspects per CSF Assignment form •Teams of two •Several teams are validating one domain •One paper per domain with at least one chapter per team Structure team chapter: Structure domain paper: Summary Team x Team x Team n Introduction Introduction Introduction Validation Validation Validation Results Results Results Conclusion (validation method & overall results) Resources • BPM Forum • Suppliers (BEA (Fuego), Cordys, IBM, Microsoft, SAP, Seebeyond, Tibco, Webmethods etc.) • Consultancy Organizations (Capgemini, InterAccess, LogicaCMG, Ordina etc.) • Users (Interpay, ING, ABN-AMRO, Nuon etc.) Questions?