Chapter 6
Global Information
Systems and Market
Research
6-1
Introduction
Understand the importance of information
technology and marketing information systems
Utilize a framework for information scanning and
opportunity identification
Understand the formal market research process
Know how to manage the marketing information
collection system and market research effort
6-2
Globalisation of brands
Re-branding with global brand names
– Jif - Cif, Marathon - Snickers, etc
– Unilever reducing portfolio from 1600 to 400
brands
e.g., Citibank/corp
6-3
6-4
MASSIVE COST SO WHY BOTHER?
•> international travel
•World media channels
•Regional / global HQ’s
•Economies of scale packaging, PR, image, signs,
etc.
•International consistency & global reach
6-5
Information Technology for Global
Marketing
Information Technology refers to an
organization’s processes for creating,
storing, exchanging, using, and managing
information.
Management Information Systems provide
managers and other decision makers with a
continuous flow of information about
company operations
6-6
Tools of MIS
Intranet
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)
Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS)
Data Warehouses
6-7
Customer Relationship Management
New business model
Philosophy that values two-way
communication between company and
customer
Every point of contact with a consumer is
an opportunity to collect data
Can make employees more productive and
enhance corporate profitability
6-8
Customer Relationship Management
The major thing is, ‘One size fits all’ is not
true. CRM is designed to support the sales
process, and if I develop a system that
works in the U.S., it might not work in
Europe.”
- Jim Dickie, Insight Technology Group
6-9
Privacy
Safe Harbor Agreement establishes
principles for privacy protection for
companies that transfer data to the US from
Europe
– Purposes of the information collected and used
– An ‘opt out’ option to prevent disclosure of
personal information
– Can only transfer information to 3rd parties that
are in compliance with Safe Harbor
– Individuals must have access to information
6-10
Information Subject Agenda
The starting point for global marketing
information system is identifying a list of subjects
for which information is desired
– Should be tailored to the needs and objectives of the
company
Two essential criteria
– Is all the information subject areas relevant to a
company with global operations
– Categories should be mutually exclusive
6-11
Information Subject Agenda
6-12
Scanning Modes: Surveillance and
Search
Surveillance
– Informal information gathering
• VIEWING – general exposure to information
• MONITORING – paying special attention and
tracking a story as it develops
Search
– Formal information gathering
• INVESTIGATION – seeking out secondary data
• RESEARCH – conducting primary research
6-13
Avoiding Information Overload
Global organizations need
– Efficient, effective system to scan and digest
published sources of information in all
countries in which it conducts business
– Daily scanning, translating, digesting,
abstracting, and electronic input of information
into MIS
6-14
Sources of Market Information
Human sources
– Executives based abroad are likely to have
established communication with distributors,
consumers, customers, suppliers, and
government officials
– Friends acquaintances, professional colleagues,
consultants, and prospective employees
6-15
Formal Market Research
Global Marketing Research is the projectspecific, systematic gathering of data in the
search scanning mode on a global basis
– Challenge is to recognize and respond to
national differences that influence the way
information is obtained
6-17
Steps in the Research Process
Identifying the research problem
Developing a research plan
Collecting data
Analyzing data
Presenting the research findings
6-18
Int’l research considerations
(emerging mkts) IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL PITFALLS
Research norms may vary
Local researchers: availability / quality
Secondary data source reliability
Totally different infrastructure, e.g.,
–Communications, transport, equipment, etc.,
–Employment: staffing costs / availability of field staff
Socio-cultural differences, living standards, literacy,
tribalism
Political instability
–Exchange rate fluctuations
Security
Legislation issues / corruption
6-21
Standardised / multi country
research
Direct comparisons between countries feasible
Economies of scale


senior management time
research development, data processing, etc.
Uniform quality control standards

data collection, processing/analysis,
confidentiality, etc,
6-22
6-23
Managing multi-country studies
Using own staff only
Using local agency only (Preferably
international name)
Using own staff + local agency
6-25
Identifying the Information
Requirement
What information do I need?
– Existing Markets – customer needs already
being served by one or more companies;
information may be readily available
– Potential Markets
• Latent market – an undiscovered market; demand
would be there if product was there
• Incipient market – market will emerge as macro
environmental trends continue
Why do I need this information?
6-26
Overcoming the SRC
Self-Reference Criterion occurs when a person’s
values and beliefs intrude on the assessment of a
foreign culture
Must be aware of SRC’s
– Enhances management’s willingness to conduct market
research
– Ensures that research design has minimal home-country
bias
– Increases management’s receptiveness to findings
No right or wrong, just different
6-28
Are Latin Americans really Americans too?
U.S. perception
Latin American perception
Turkish perception
6-29
Perception of Time
Organization of work
– U.S.
– Latin America
Organization of free time
– U.S.
– Latin America
6-30
How to avoid SCR:
– Define the business problem according to culture,
habits,norms in home market.
– Define the business problem according to culture,
habits,norms in foreign market.
– Isolate the SCR influence in the problem and examine it
carefully to see how it complicates the problem.
– Refine the problem without the SCR influence and
solve for the optimum business goal situation.
6-31
Ten Good Reasons to use export
marketing research and take control of
your export markets
1) Put yourself in the "driving seat"
2) Develop an efficient market entry strategy
3) Control overseas representatives
4) Increase your profits
5) Familiarize yourself with the market
6) Save time and money
7) Gain favor with potential customers
8) A comprehensive report
9) Expert help at hand
10) Double your budget
6-32
Developing A Research Plan
Do we need quantitative or qualitative data?
What is the information worth (versus what
will it cost to collect)?
What will it cost if we don’t get the
information?
What can be gained from the information?
6-33
Availability and Use of Secondary
Data
Availability of Data
8-4
Reliability of Data
Comparability of Data
Validating Secondary Data
6-35
Collecting Data (cont.)
Primary Data Collection Methods
–
–
–
–
–
Survey research
Interviews
Consumer panels
Observation
Focus groups
6-36
Special Considerations for Surveys
Benefits:
– Data collection from a large sample
– Both quantitative and qualitative data possible
– Can be self-administered
Issues
– Subjects may respond with social desirability
– Translation may be difficult
• Use back and parallel translations to ensure
accuracy and validity
6-37
Sampling
A sample is a selected subset of a
population that is representative of the
entire population.
– Probability samples
– Non-probability samples
6-38
Analyzing Data
Demand Pattern Analysis
Income Elasticity Measurements
Market Estimation by Analogy
Time-series displacement
Comparative Analysis
Cluster Analysis
6-39
Presenting the Findings
Report must clearly address problem
identified in Step 1
Include a memo or executive summary of
the key findings along with main report
6-40
Global Issues in Marketing Research
Many country markets must be included
Markets with low profit potential justifies
limited research expenditures
Data in developing countries may be
inflated or deflated
Comparability of international statistics
varies greatly
Limits created by cultural differences
6-41
Enhancing Comparability of
Data
Emic analysis
– Ethnographic in
nature
– Studies culture
from within
– Uses cultures’ own
meanings and
values
Etic analysis
– From the outside
– Detached
perspective that is
used in multicountry studies
– Enhances
comparability but
minimizes precision
6-42
Looking Ahead
Chapter 7 Segmentation, Targeting, and
Positioning
6-43
Intranet
A Private network
Allows authorized
company personnel (or
outsiders) to share
information
electronically
24-Hour Nerve Center
Return
6-44
Electronic Data Interchange
Allows business units to:
– Submit orders
– Issue invoices
– Conduct business
electronically
Transaction formats are
universal
Return
6-45
Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)
This is in addition to EDI
An effort for retailers and vendors to work
closely on sock replenishment
ECR can be defined as a joint initiative by
members of a supply chain to work toward
improving and optimizing aspects of the
supply chain to benefit customers.
Return
6-46
Electronic Point of Sale
Gathers data at checkout
scanners
– Identifies product sales trends
– Identifies how consumer
preferences vary
geographically
Return
6-47
Data Warehouses
Can help fine-tune
product assortments
for multiple locations
Enhances the ability of
management to
respond to changing
business conditions
Return
6-48
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Chapter 6 Global Information Systems and Market …