FROM THE GLOBAL TO THE LOCAL..
Mari Fitzduff
BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY
‘All nice people are like Us and We
– and everybody else is They’
Rudyard Kipling
HISTORY OF CONFLICT
RESOLUTION
1940's:
1945:
1944/50
1959:
As applied behavioural science - Kurt Lewin.
Peace Research Laboratory, Missouri.
Game theory - maths applied to conflict. Prisoners dilemma.
Centre for Research on CR Kenneth and Elise Boulding.
(Journal of Conflict Resolution)
1960:
Oslo centre, which became PRIO. Johann Galtung
1963:
Conflict Research Society, London. John Burton.
1966:
Stockholm (SIPRI)
1970's : Interest in Non-Violent Theorists: Ghandi, Quakers and Mennonites.
Gene Sharp (1973)
1970's: "ADR" Alternative Dispute Resolution. (Negotiation/Mediation)
1970's: Problem Solving Workshops - Harvard.
1973:
Bradford UK - degree programmes.
1973:
Centre for the Study of Conflict (UNU/INCORE 1994)
1980's: ICAR - first post-grad US course, Harvard negotiation project, etc,.
1980-2001: Proliferation.
Multidisciplinary: Law, Economics, Social Psychology, International Relations, Sociology, Mathematics,Education,
Public Policy (Kennedy School) Diplomacy, Politics, Anthropology,etc.
Undergraduate/Masters programs
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80 in USA
15 in UK/Ireland
6 in Europe
14 in Japan
3 in Australia
4 in Latin America
7 in Israel
1 in Africa
1 starting in Peshawar,Pakistan(Coex alum!)
PhD programs
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1. George Mason University
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2. Notre Dame
4. Nova Southeastern
5. University of Manitoba
6. University of Sydney
7. University of Bradford
8. American University
9. Lancaster University
10 Bar Ilan University
11. University of Gotheborg
12. Uppsala University
13. Kings College London
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Language variations..
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Conflict Resolution
Dispute Resolution
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Negotiation
Mediation
Peace Studies/Science
Conflict Management
Conflict Transformation
Conflict Prevention
Peacebuilding
Coexistence Work
Social Integration
Social Inclusion
JOURNALS IN THE FIELD
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Journal of Conflict Resolution .http://jcr.sagepub.com/ This is now ranked 2/51 in the International Relations
and 5/93 in Political Science!
The Journal of Peace Research which ranked at 9th in IR http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/52/2/175
Conflict Management and Peace Science which ranked 10th in
IR. http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/07388942.asp
The American Psychological Association Journal: Peace and Conflict: The Journal of Peace
Psychology (quarterly) http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t775653690l
Peace and Conflict studies http://shss.nova.edu/pcs/ brought out by NSU.
Berkeley brings out a Journal called Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public
Policy, http://www.bepress.com/peps/
Defense and Peace Economics http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10242694.html
The International Journal of Peace Studies at http://www.gmu.edu/academic/ijps/vol11_2/cover11_2.htm
Negotiation Journal at http://www.pon.harvard.edu/publications/journal.php
Journal of Religion, Conflict and Peace, at http://www.plowsharesproject.org/journal/
Two development and conflict journals i.e. the Development and Conflict journal http://www.journalpeacedev.org/ at American University and Peace, Conflict and
Development http://www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk/index.asp)
GLOBAL CONTEXT
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90% of states now multi-ethnic/religious eg
9/11, 81 nationalities.
Demands around identity now endemic
Ireland - 100 languages.
Northern Ireland 40 - forum elections
Most states having difficulty with diversity
Most conflict now due to mismanagement of
diversity
Coexistence as goal..rather than method.
Coex Masters: Intercommunal work - unique.
Coexistence is used to describe societies where:
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Diversity is valued for its positive potential,
Equality is actively pursued,
Interdependence between different groups is recognized, and
The use of weapons to address conflicts is increasingly obsolete
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http://www.brandeis.edu/coexistence/work/coexist.html
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CONFLICT EQUATION
(P) IC x MI x NL = (V) C
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(Perceived) Inequitable Context x
Mobilised Identity x
Negative Leadership
= (Violent) Conflict
History of Northern Ireland reflects the above
equation.
The Basics ?
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Categorization.
Simplification v complexity
Belonging
Meaning
Heroism
Followership.
Transformation v Transactional leaders
Power
Context
Differing Theories of change in
conflict work
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Structural v psycho cultural
Attitudes v behaviour
Healthy relationships (Solutions not the problem ?)
Balance of Diversity,Equality,Interdependence
Change of leaders/politicians
Greed versus Grievance
Dialogue/Mediation.
Justice versus ‘Peace’
Grass roots mobilization
Meta Conflict Resolution Contextual Variables e.g.
Equality work
Reconciliation
work
Socio Political
Activity
Security Work
JUST &
SUSTAINABLE
SOLUTION
Demobilization,
disarmament and
decommissioning
Socio - Economic
Development
Community
Development
& Leadership
META CONFLICT RESOLUTION
CR worker assists contact/dialogue on the above from a CR perspective (Fitzduff 2002)
DEBATES….mediation..
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‘IMPARTIALITY’ ‘NEUTRALITY’
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‘CO-PARTIAL’ ‘INCLUSIVE’
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ASYMMETRICAL CONFLICTS
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‘ADVOCACY’ VERSUS ‘CR/ADR’
Peace versus Conflict : Tactics
‘Peace”
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Change Persons
Mindfulness
Inner Peace/Meditation
‘Be the Change’, ‘Walk the Talk’
Demonstrations
Pacifism
Peace Education
Civil disobedience
Want a ‘Peace’ ministry
Often will not work with military
Opposition to power/government
‘Conflict’
Change Contexts/Institutions
Applied /comparative studies
Analysis. Strategic plans
Law, Politics, Mediation.
Evaluation.
Change behavior
Policy, Graduate studies
Skeptical about its remit.
Practical/pragmatic strategies
Will work with military
Work with power as insider
‘Peace’ work
v
‘Conflict’ work
Below are caricatures – both terminology and activities often overlap
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Values:
Emphasizes Personal values.
Ideological approach
Non-violence as principle
Values Important
Emphasizes Effectiveness
Evidence based Approach
Uses non-violence as tactic.
Research/skills important
Vocabulary
Culture of peace, love
spirit, children, doves
compassionate listening
vision, spirit, prayer
Strategy, leverage, power
Context analysis, structural
conflict dynamics, policy
Leverage, tools/skill set
Career Relationship
Personal/Social Activism
Professional
Debates…
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What kinds of contexts facilitate
positive coexistence ?
Factors to be measured
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Inequalities that are related to identity
Non-participation of minorities in all levels of
legislature and governance
Security groups (police and army) that are not
representative and not trusted
Exclusion of groups from economic life of a
country
Negative political use of coexistence issues
Factors to be measured
6.
7.
8.
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Lack of cooperation and bonding social capital
between communities
Widespread identification of prejudice and
discrimination between groups
Exclusion of cultural expressions of minorities such
as language, art, music and symbols
Media that is not inclusive of all communities.
No Government Structures to ensure adequate and
effective attention to coexistence issues
DEBATES..
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Transactional versus transformational political leadership - how to develop it ?
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Mediating Asymmetrical Conflicts
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‘Post Conflict’ - Peace versus Justice
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Cultural differences in dealing with conflict.
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How do we evaluate our work ?
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3 D’s Defense, Diplomacy, Development - the balance.
CHANGING STEREOTYPES
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Long term co-operative work – successful,
but takes time
Legislation – necessary but not usually
enough
Group work – costly – but can give useful
insights
Media – often effective
Leadership by political parties, local
leaders, churches – often effective
END VISION
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Assimilation ?
Integration?
Inclusion ?
Separatism ?
Pluralism ?
‘A pluralist society is one in which the existence of varying
aspects of identity are seen to positively contribute to the
social, economic and moral development of a vibrant and
cohesive society’
Organizations now mainstreaming Coex
work within their institutions.
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United States State Department: Office of the Coordinator for
Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS).
USAID Office of Conflict Management /Mitigation (CMM) within Bureau
for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance
UNDESA: Capacity building in conflict management
UNDP : Crisis Prevention & Recovery
UNDPA: 150 new staff.
United Nations Peace-building Commission /Peacebuilding Fund
UK Government Post Conflict Stabilisation Unit) MOD
U.K. Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit
Conflict Humanitarian and Development Unit.(DFID)
UK Global Conflict Prevention Pools. (FCA)
UN Compact: Business and Conflict.
Contd.
Aid/Development Oxfam, CARE, Mercy Corps, World Vision, Action Aid,
CAFOD,etc.
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OAS Program for Promotion of Dialogue and Conflict Resolution
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The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI)
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EU: Crisis Management and Conflict Prevention Unit. (100 Mediators)
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World Bank Fragile and Conflict affected Countries.
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OSCE: Conflict Prevention Centre (CPC)
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Swedish Min Foreign Affairs, Secretariat for Conflict Prevention
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Swiss Government unit for mediation.
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Internal units within national governments dealing with issues of
equality diversity and interdependence – 44.
AND…..
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UNDESA - MDG for Coexistence work ?
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WHAT OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS ARE DOING
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CAFOD Conflict Program Manager for East Africa
Director Civic Education for National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC) in Rwanda
Protection Officer for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Pristina Kosovo
Conflict Program Manager, United States Agency for International Development, West Africa
Research Associate at ICRD International Center for Religion & Diplomacy
Operations Officer of the Situation Center , European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX)
International Organization for Migration
Mediation Training Officer Massachusetts Office of Dispute Resolution and Public Collaboration
Second Secretary of the Security Policy Department, Latvia
Arms Decommissioning Consultant
Founder of a non-profit company Leaders of Tomorrow, with Ministry of Trade & Industry in
Jordan
Completed PhD Harvard, Doctor of Design Post Doctoral work at Cornell University Faculty at the College
of William and Mary
Project Manager for Creators of Peace
Assistant Director for the Detroit Chapter of the American Jewish Committee.
Policy Analyst with the Reut Institute Conflict Management Consultant for the Jerusalem
Municipality Department of Education
WHAT OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS ARE DOING
contd.
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Facilitator at Soliya
Manager for New Program Development, National Council on Economic Education
Deputy Team Leader at Internews Europe
Senior Media Specialist at AED
The Chief of Party (COP) for the a USAID-funded Darfur Community Strengthening Project
(DCSP)
Program Director of EastWest Institute/Institute for Stability and Development, Serbia
Strategy Desk for the Israeli Government
Women's Program Coordinator at the Wome’s Violence Center, Kazakhstan
Executive Director Nashville Peace & Justice Center
International Development Enterprises, Winrock International (WI) Team Leader for the
USAID - ACDI/VOCA funded case study exploring value chain development for conflictaffected environments.
Independent advisor to e.g. : PACT-Sudan, Impact assessment of the USAID-funded UJYALO
Project CARE UK/International
The World Conference of Religions for Peace Consultant to the Cohen Centre in France
Consultant with Turkish - Armenian Dialogues, a joint initiative of The Harvard
WHAT OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS ARE DOING
contd.
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Program Officer, Search for Common Ground in Israel
Adjunct lecturer at Tufts
Director of Training and Technical Assistance, Institute for Responsive Education
Consultant/Field Associate, CDA Collaborative Learning Project,
Civic Education Officer at the Office of the Ombudsman, Malawai Government
Senior Program Officer working with GTZ Forum for Dialogue and Peace
Chief Executive of Samerth Trust
Advisor for the West India Program of the Paul Hamlyn Foundation, UK
Director of Delegation Leaders Program for Israel Jerusalem, Seeds for Peace in Jerusalem
Program Officer at the Eurasia Foundation of Central Asia.
Lecturer in Coexistence work, Peshwar.
SID Hon COEX alumni ie. SID students who have taken Coex core courses.
Conflict Program Analyst, UNDP Gaza
Conflict Program Manager, Oxfam, Sudan region
Head of UNDP Threat and Risk Mapping and Analysis Unit for Darfur
Program officer for WANEP (West African Network for Peacebuilding.)
THE FUTURE OF DIVERSITY
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Mobility/Pluralism is unstoppable…
Polyethnic/religious states will be increasingly the
norm
Majority/minority to Pluralism
Transition from Ethnicity/Race to Power/Poverty
focus?
Political identity constitutional arrangements?
Move from disorientation into sense of gain
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FROM THE GLOBAL TO THE LOCAL..