Morphology: experiments
Oct 6, 2008
Typical questions asked in
morphology and experiments
1.
2.
3.
4.
How are certain morphemes related?
Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than
poly-morphemic words? (is there a “morpheme” place
in the brain)?
Are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular
morphemes?
How do we learn morphemes in other languages (and
which are the hardest and why)?
Typical questions asked in
morphology and experiments
1.
2.
3.
4.
How are certain morphemes related? (lexical decision
tasks)
Do we store mono-morphemic words differently than
poly-morphemic words? (is there a “morpheme” place
in the brain)? (aphasia)
Are irregular morphemes stored differently than regular
morphemes? (brain imaging)
How do we learn morphemes in other languages (and
which are the hardest and why)? (grammaticality
judgment tasks, morpheme order studies)
Lexical Decision Task
comma
tubes
have
acid
govern
employ
jubbing
bribe
leckom
tubes
trade
government
command
acidic
kepter
flup
employer
allowing
broth
leckom
tribe
flupper
swap
rejont
allow
brother
gave
http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/experiments/lexical.html
1. How are certain morphemes
related?
How are these words related?
1-nurse/doctor, pillar/column, tree/leaf
2-leave/leaf, burn/urn/ though/through, red/bread
3-teach/taught, speak/speaker, goat/goats, ox/oxen
How are these words related?
A-serenity/serene, water/watering, proof/prove, read/reread
B-receive/deceive, transmit/remit
C-transmit/transmission, redeem/redemption, fall/fell
electric/electricity, ten/tithe, brother/bretheren,
child/children
D-teach/teacher, friend/friendly, walk/walked
E-go/went, good/best, am/is
types of priming
A-real word repetition priming (tubes)
B-non-word repetition priming (leckom)
C-semantic priming (trade/swap; sea/ocean;
mouse/cheese)
D-orthographic priming (tribe/bribe, gave/have)
E-morphological priming (govern/government;
sing/sang; walk/walking)
F-non-word morphological priming (flup/flupper),
types of morphological form
Transparent: govern/government
Opaque: arch/archer, court/courteous
Form: again/against, broth/brother
Results (Rastle et al., 2004)
2. Do we store mono-morphemic words
differently than poly-morphemic words?
Aphasia: Local trauma to one area of the
brain that affects language processing
Lobes of the Brain
How do each one of these relate to language learning?
1. Frontal Lobe –
– personality, planning, emotion, problem solving
– motor cortex - movement
– Broca’s area – speech production
2. Parietal Lobe
– somatosensory perception integration of visual,
auditory & somatospatial information
3. Temporal Lobe – hearing
– Inferotemporal Cortex – object recognition
– Wernicke’s area – language comprehension
4. Occipital Lobe - vision
Wernicke’s aphasia
Damage to the brain in the parietal/temporal
region in the left hemisphere
Karl Wernicke discovered
Wernicke’s area in 1873
Examiner: What kind of work have you
done?
Patient: We, the kids, all of us, and I, we
were working for a long time in the ... you
know ... it's the kind of space, I mean place
rear to the spedawn ...
Examiner: Excuse me, but I wanted to know
what work you have been doing.
Patient: If you had said that, we had said
that, poomer, near the fortunate, porpunate,
tamppoo, all around the fourth of martz. Oh,
I get all confused.
Broca’s aphasia
Damage to left hemisphere, where the
frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
meet
Paul Broca discovered Broca’s
area in 1861
– "Yes ... Monday ... Dad, and Dad ... hospital, and
... Wednesday, Wednesday, nine o'clock and ...
Thursday, ten o'clock ... doctors, two, two ...
doctors and ... teeth, yah. And a doctor ... girl,
and gums, and I."
–
– "Me ... build-ing ... chairs, no, no cab-in-ets. One,
saw ... then, cutting wood ... working ..."
2. Do we store mono-morphemic words
differently than poly-morphemic words?
2. Do we store mono-morphemic words
differently than poly-morphemic words?
3. Are irregular morphemes stored
differently than regular morphemes?
Spatiotemporal Maps of English Verb Inflection (Dhoud et
al., 2003)
Looked at what parts of the brain are activated when
processing the regular and irregular past tense
3. Are irregular morphemes stored
differently than regular morphemes?
• Brighter areas indicate
higher activity levels
• During hearing words, for
example, auditory cortex
and Wernicke’s area are
most active
Lexical decision task
big
tlask
jump
jumped
bread
butter
run
ran
talked
talk
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd
languages (which are the hardest & why)?
Brown (1973) found a consistent order of acquisition for 14
grammatical morphemes in L1English; rates of
acquisition varied:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Present progressive
In/on
Plural -s
Irregular past
Possessive ‘s
6. Uncontractibe copula
7. Articles
8. Regular past
9. Third person regular
10. Third person irregular/Auxilliary be
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd
languages (which are the hardest & why)?
• Repeated with L2 learners (Dulay and Burt
(1974)
Point to the mice.
Ask: “What are these?”
Ask: “What happened to the
cup?”
Bilingual syntax measure
How many birds are
there?
Why is the man so fat?
What is the skinny man
doing?
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd
languages (which are the hardest & why)?
Dulay and Burt (1974)
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd
languages (which are the hardest & why)?
Dulay and Burt (1974)
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd
languages (which are the hardest & why)?
*Dulay and Burt (1974)
** Bailey et al. (1974)
4. How do we learn morphemes in 1st and 2nd
languages (which are the hardest & why)?
This order of acquisition didn’t reflect their frequency in
parents’ speech. Possible explanations?
– Perceptual saliency
– Syllabicity
– Lack of exceptions
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Morphology: Experimental - Brigham Young University