1 APA Advanced: Preparing for FSEHS Final Review (Using APA 6th ed.) APA Advanced: preparing for FSEHS Final Review (using APA 2007 Style Guide) Hot off the press in 2009! Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. http://www.schoolofed.nova.edu/arc Title: Student’s Name Info on Applied Dissertation Institution Year Disable Auto-Formatting in Word Before you type a word: • Go to Format • Lines and Page Breaks • Uncheck first 4 boxes It is OK to turn off Widow/Orphan control. Table of Contents • Do NOT use a row of periods in the TOC! Need to use a “dot leader”. • How to Set Up Tabs and Dots for TOC: http://www.schoolofed .nova.edu/arc/word/ tochowto.doc Use ERIC Thesaurus to Identify ERIC Descriptors for Abstract Abstract Free Version of ERIC Thesaurus Pagination • Use roman numerals in first section for Acknowledgments, Abstract, and TOC – at bottom in the middle of the page Pagination in Body of Paper • Page numbers go in upper right-hand corner • Use a section break to divide the paper into sections to change from roman numerals at bottom to numbers in upper right Pagination in Word 2007 • Page numbers go in upper right-hand corner • Use a section break to divide the paper into sections to change from roman numerals at bottom to numbers in upper right No running headers • 1½ inch left margin for dissertation. • For the final dissertation report, use a ruler Tip: Try setting bottom margin at 0.95 inches. • Tables and appendices MUST have correct margins! Margins See ARC document, Tips for Correct Margins http://www.schoolofed.nova. edu/arc/word/margins.doc 12 Spacing • Bolding used for headings & mathematical symbols but not text. APA Headings 72 Formatting rules for the paper – no bolding, no underlining, not bullets, APA headings Chapter 3 Level 1 Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within • No underlining references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326 of the Publication Manual.) • No Introduction section Methodology Level 2 Major headings require specific formatting (a) The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words; (b) articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not capitalized; and (c) the heading is not italicized. Sample and Exceptions forPopulation. dissertation. Other issues also need to be Level 3 Headings --APA (6th ed.) , p. 62 Use Level 1 Headings Level 2 – Flush Left, Bold, Upper and Lower Case Side Heading Level 3 is indented, bold, uses lowercase, and ends with a period. Don’t use Microsoft Word headings Ahah! Do not use Word’s headings to format the different levels of APA headings. Level 2 This is not Definition of Terms numbered so Formatting definitions For the purposes of this study, do not use the following terms are defined. a colon. Level 3 Information literacy. This phrase refers to a set of standards approved by … Outcomes. For the purposes of this applied dissertation, outcome refers to …. Assessment. This term refers to … Italicized -- APA, p. 91 Note bolding and period after word or phrase being defined when using Level 3 format. Use complete sentence(s) for the definition of the term or phrase. Paragraph Seriation Numbered list for conclusions, steps in a process, chronology, or priority. Method Formatting research questions The methodology of this applied dissertation followed the following three steps: 1. The sample and participants were The arabic identified. …. numerals 2. Assessment measures were selected…. followed by 3. Implementation took place over aa period. period of one school year…. Paragraph seriation – Indented. The second line wraps back to margin. APA manual, pp. 63-64 A colon is not used when the list is not numbered Seriation for items in a sentence or paragraph APA, p. 64 Seriation in paragraph The ACRL Information Literacy Comprehensive Standards address the ability of students (a) to determine the nature and extent of the information need, (b) to access information efficiently and accurately, and (c) to evaluate information critically. Items are not indented. Use lowercase letters in parentheses. Do not italicize. Seriation in paragraph The ACRL Information Literacy Comprehensive Standards address the ability of students (a) to determine the nature and extent of the information need, (b) to access information efficiently and accurately, and (c) to evaluate information critically. Use commas to separate 3 or more elements. If there are no internal commas, use commas. If there are internal commas, use semicolons. Appendices • Must have correct margins and all pages in appendices must be numbered • Each appendix must have an individual cover page • Do not include any appendices that are not mentioned in the text • Do not include IRB information • If there is only one appendix, just use Appendix, not Appendix A Slang vs Key or Linguistic Term Use quotation marks for slang, coined, or ironic terms. p. 91 • The students felt “slammed” by the email. • The term school media specialist is defined in this study to include only librarians with MLS degrees and state certification. • The letter b was used to … Italicize linguistic examples and technical or key terms. p. 91 Use sparingly Abbreviations and Acronyms: Abbreviations and acronyms Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Nova Southeastern University (NSU) • Spell out first time • Must abbreviate thereafter Parenthetical Use Latin (e.g., ) (i.e., ) (, etc. ) Nonparenthetical (in the text) Use English for example, that is, , and so forth APA, pp. 106-111 Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols • Use standard typeface for Greek letters, subscripts, superscripts, and abbreviations that function as identifiers, not variables. sin, log, β • Symbols for vectors and matrices are bolded. V, ∑ APA manual, p. 118 Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols • Italicize letters used as statistical symbols: f – frequency Mdn – median n – number in a subsample N – number in a sample p – probability P – percentage, percentile t – computed value for t test APA manual, pp. 119-121 Numbers: See APA pp. 111-114 • Use figures for numbers 10 and above: 343 students in 26 classes • The numbers between one and nine should be spelled out: A total of six experiments went awry. Numbers: See APA pp. 111-114 • Use figures for all times – years, months, days, hours, minutes The teachers take 3 hours to complete the work. 3 months ago 2 weeks later 11:30 a.m. • Numbers representing dates, age, exact sums of money April 16, 2007 2-year-olds reimbursed $5 • Exception --Use word when a number is the first word in the sentence. Two hours is more than enough time. Numbers, cont. More exceptions: • Numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table Table 5 Session 3 Grade 7 • Percentages, fractions, ratios, percentiles, quartiles Twenty-four percent replied but 76% did not. APA manual, pp. 111-114 • In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) • In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) • In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … • In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) • In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … (Note: Do NOT use superscript -- 12th grade) • In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) • In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … (Note: Do NOT use superscript -- 12th grade) Twelfth grade presents…. • In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) • In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … (Note: Do NOT use superscript -- 12th grade) Twelfth grade presents…. • The first-grade students … (hyphenated compound adjective APA, p. 91) but The 12th-grade students (APA p. 128, 3.45) 1. Tenth-grade students ate in the cafeteria. or 2. 10th-grade students ate in the cafeteria. 1. The seventh grade went on a field trip. or 2. The 7th grade went on a field trip. 1. Students in Grades 4 and 5 took the test. or 2. Students in grades 4 and 5 took the test. or 3. Students in grades four and five took the test. Compound Adjectives • Role playing • High anxiety • Seventh grade • Role-playing technique • High-anxiety situations • Seventh-grade students but • Type II error • Post hoc comparisons • randomly assigned participants APA manual, pp. 98 - 100 Commas Use commas: • Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. APA (6th ed.), pp. 88-89 Commas Use commas: • Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. • Series of three or more Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money. APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79 Commas Use commas: • Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. • Series of three or more Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money. • Nonessential or nonrestictive clauses Direct TV, which is available in south Florida, offers some nice features. APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79 Commas Use commas: • Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. • Series of three or more Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money. • Nonessential or nonrestictive clauses Direct TV, which is available in south Florida, offers some nice features. But: • Comma are not used to separate a compound predicate Jane baked a cake and worked on her homework. APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79 Rules for Capitalizing Titles APA manual, p. 101 • Article title: Capitalize first word after a hyphen in text title but not in reference list. – In text: The article entitled “An Assessment of the Reading Skills of Inner-City Students” settled the question about appropriate techniques. – In reference citation: Smith, D. (1999). An assessment of reading skills of inner-city students. The Reading Teacher, 14(3), 45-46. • Book title: Capitalize – In text: The book, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,all is awords modern classic. of four letters or – In reference citation: more as well as Gibbon, E. (1963). The decline and fall of the Roman Empire. New verbs in text but not York: Dell. reference list. Capitalizing Proper Names of School/ University Departments and Courses • Department of Education, Valparaiso University • Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000 • Educational Assessment 101 Proper names APA manual, pp. 96-97 Capitalizing Proper Names of School/ University Departments and Courses • Department of Education, Valparaiso University • Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000 • Educational Assessment 101 but Trade names • an education department • a doctoral orientation • an educational assessment course APA manual, p. 102 Other Proper Names • In the third week, the class will be… but • In Week 3, the class will be … • In the second chapter, read the section … but • In Chapter 2, read the section on …. In midsentence Formatting for Direct Quotes: The principal stated, “Instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class quotes assignments” (Tunon, 2006, p. 34), but she concluded that they always summarized the essential content of the paper. See APA , pp. 92, 171 At end of a sentence Tunon (2006) found that “instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments” (p. 34). Block quote Use a colon if there is a complete introductory phrase. Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Tunon (2006) found the following: Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, … or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a shot [sic] title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342) When Citing Direct Quotes Citing direct quotes “… victims of emotional abuse” (O’Higgins, 2004, p. 237) . Vest (2008) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). in a definition (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2001, p. 346). See APA manual, pp. 92, 171-173. Text Cites of Electronic Resources In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be “based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning” (Methods section, para. 7). Use name of section. “The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu” (Pival, Falcao, & Quinlan, 2009, “Problems with Qualitative Resarch,” para. 5). Use shortened title in quotation marks. See APA (6th ed.), p. 172 Paraphrasing • To avoid plagiarizing, express other people’s ideas, theories, and research in your own words. • You still must give credit to the author(s) by citing the source using author-date of publication method. • Self-plagiarism. Paraphrasing Direct quote “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system” (Smith, 2004, p. 212). More than 50% reworded Paraphrased When the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law in January of 2002 by President Bush, the law provided the most sweeping education reform in the United States in decades and provided a foundation for strengthening educational policy at the national level for years to come (Smith, 2004). APA manual, p. 349 46% of Paper Plagiarized Found Using Turnitin Words in blue were taken • Researchers have noted adjustment problems during a rising ninth grader’s verbatim from transition period. The rising ninth graders’ grade point averages and attendance one source. tend to decrease. The upcoming freshman experience feelings of connectedness, and co-curricular participation. They also experience an increase in anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. So far, transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a Words in red one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused were taken curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several verbatim important from a aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial. second source. Dropout There is a high school dropout epidemic in America. Each year, almost one-third of all public high school students – and nearly one-half of all blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans – fail to graduate from public high school (Bridgeland, Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons for dropping out of high school are attitude towards school, poor school performance, and poor relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had lower academic Theperformance, original idea was decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the (Lan&&Lanthier, Lanthier,2003). 2003). Research also revealed that high school from Lan &environment Lanthier, (Lan students often consider the social organizational changes and academic but school the source of this work as the most difficult part of transition (Akos, 2004). “paraphrase” was not Only a few cited. words were paraphrased. Basic Citation Styles Citations in text: Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated Quinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors) Parenthetical citations in text: (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008) (Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2009) Always use et al. for six or more authors. (Wienhorst et al., 2009) See APA manual, p. 177 Groups as Authors American Psychological Association (APA) was founded in… First citation in text: American Psychological Association (APA, 2009) stated… Subsequent citations in text: APA (2009) observed… Parenthetical citations in text: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE: Always use abbreviation after it is introduced in the text. Do not switch back and forth between the full name and the abbreviation. See APA manual, pp. 106-107 for abbreviations, p. 177 for group authors Groups as Authors American Psychological Association (APA) was founded in… First citation in text: American Psychological Association (APA, 2009) stated… Subsequent citations in text: APA (2008) observed… Parenthetical format, first and subsequent citations: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE: Always use abbreviation after it is introduced in the text. Do not switch back and forth between the full name and the abbreviation. See APA manual, p. 177 Citing Several Resources Within Same Parentheses Citing sevral resources A couple of experiments (Jordan, 2004, 2007) found…. A couple experiments (Eifrig & Gehring, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... Several studies (Department of Defense, 2002, 2008, in press-a; Smith & Jones, 2009a, 2009b) See APA manual, pp. 176-178. Secondary Sources Text citation: Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) … List the primary source in the reference list entry: Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993.) Models of reading aloud. Psychological Review, 100(5), 589-608. Formatting Reference List Citations Eight or More Authors in Reference List Zapeta, L., Ramirez, L., Jones, K., Smith, R. Bardeen, E., Stonebraker, M. B., … Obata, H. (2007). The greening of America. Journal of Environmental Studies, 12(4), 43-47. When you have eight or more authors, list the first six authors’ names and then insert three ellipses, followed by the last author’s name. See APA manual, pp. 184, 198 Spacing after Punctuation: Use the find and replace feature Students’ scores improved. The study demonstrated that … Brown, J. D. (2003). Pitfalls of formatting. Reading Teacher, 24(3), 22-24. Exception: Hyphenated initials Smith, E.-R. (2009). Magazines, Newsletters, and Newspapers: Formatted Differently Than Journals Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers. Science, 20, 1113-1120. The new health-care lexicon. (1993, Spring). Copy Editor, 4, 1-2. Newspaper New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12. See APA manual, p. 200 Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) How to find a DOI for an article? Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3), 660-670. Coming soon! DOI lookup tool Reference with a DOI Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3), 660-670. doi:10.1044/1092 -4388(2006/048) Article and Book with Assigned DOIs Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 443-449. doi:10.1037 /0002-9418.104.22.1682 Schaeffer, A. (2009). Life in the fast lane. doi:10.2312/ 2342113949 • No URL is needed because the DOI functions as both a unique identifier of the content and a link to the content. • No location or publisher is included for an electronic version of a book. When to Use Retrieval Statements: • If there is no DOI, then ask: • Was it obtained from an open access source or can you provide URL? DOI available Compare two formats Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 43-49. doi:10.1037/0002-9422.214.171.1242 Exact URL for open access journal Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 43-49. Retrieved from http://ojs.swin.edu.au /index.php/ejap/article/view/71/100 From a subscription database, no DOI (FSEHS recommendation) Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 43-49. In-Press Article and Advance Online Publication Clark, K. F. (in press). What can I say besides “sound it out”? Coaching word recognition in beginning reading. The Reading Teacher. Retrieved from http://rtprints.org/2009/1/clark.pdf Clark, K. F. (2009). What can I say besides “sound it out”? Coaching word recognition in beginning reading. The Reading Teacher. Advance online publication. doi:10.2134/palgrave .jnro.231623 • Use (in press) when the article is not yet officially published. Use Advance online publication when it has not been formatted for final production. • Use the exact URL when the article is informally published and available through a preprint archive . • Update the reference with the final version of the reference when finally published. APA (6th ed.) pp. 199-200 Unpublished Dissertations (Such as NSU MARPs and Practicums) Batson-George, A. (2008). Evaluating the library training programs for graduate psychology students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. • Identify unpublished dissertation or theses in parentheses after title. APA (6th ed.) pp. 207-208 Dissertation from a Commercial Database: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database DAI – vol.#, issue #, p. #, etc • If the dissertation is available through PD&T, give the accession number in parentheses at the end of the reference. • Use (UMI No. 9934633) Do not put a period after the number. APA (6th ed.) p. 208 Dissertation Obtained from PD&T Published dissertation citation – 5 ed. Clarke, D. C. (2001). Differences in student dropout th rate, attendance rate, and grade point average after the implementation of the North Carolina Dropout Prevention/Drivers License Law (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 45689011) • ProQuest Dissertations and Theses is a commercial database so include (Doctoral dissertation) in parentheses after the dissertation title. • Use Available from since the name of the database is provided where the document can be obtained. • Use (UMI No. XXXXXXXX) instead of (AAT XXXXXXXX). APA manual, p. 208, # 40 Online Newspaper Citation: “Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs” (APA, 2009, p. 201) . Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved http://www .nytimes.com/ No period after Web addresses. Break URLs after slash or before period. (APA, p. 271) Before most punctuation (APA p. 192) Electronic-Only Book Peltier-Davis, C., & Renwick, S. (Eds.) (2007). Caribbean libraries in the 21st century [Monograph]. Retrieved from http://www .infotoday .com/1212.html Include http:// in the URL and remove hyperlink. Do not use superscript for 21st Use [Monograph] to clarify the type of resource. Use “Retrieved from” instead of “Available from” when the URL leads to information to the material itself rather than on how to obtain the cited material. Archival Documents • Discontinued journals, monographs, dissertations, or papers not formally published. • If you cannot easily located through primary publishing channels, give the home or entry page URL for online archives such as ERIC and JSTOR. APA (6th ed.), p. 192 ERIC Report ERIC Citation Boone, Young, & Associates. (1984). Minority enrollment in graduate and professional schools: Recruitment, admissions, financial assistance [Handbook]. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED396652) Data Sets U.S. Department of Education, Institution of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. (2008). Profiles of undergraduates in U.S. postsecondary institutions [Data file]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed .gov/globallocator/col_info _popup.asp?ID=136215 • Italicize the title of a data set. • In brackets immediately after the title, identify the type of source – [Data file]. APA manual, pp. 210-211 Software NVivo 8, SPSS, Excel -- proper name of standard software is only referenced in text. Tunon, J. (2007). Citation analyzer [Computer software]. Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. • The name of the computer is not italicized. • Put [Computer software] in brackets. • If it is not published, then it needs to be cited in the reference list. APA (6th ed.), pp. 210-211 Measurement Instrument Unpublished instrument Malkasian, C. (2007). Malkasian Information Literacy Scale. Unpublished instrument. Available from http://www.nova.edu/malkasian/ • Do not italicize the names of software, programs, or languages. • Use Unpublished instrument. Published instrument Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2002). Multifactor Leadership Inventory. Published instrument. Available from http://www.mindgarden.com/ APA (6th ed.), pp. 210-211 Ahah! What about using citation software? EndNote X2 • https://www.nova.edu/common-lib/ISI/ • http://www.nova.edu/library/dils/tutorials/endnote/ No Short Cut for Learning the APA Rules Still confused? Still confused? You can call your North Miami Beach Librarian at (800) 541-6682 ext. 28423 or email [email protected] Recommendation: Hire an Editor for Final Review Considerations for Selecting an Editor: • The university does not assume responsibility for a student's contractual agreement with a private editor or typist or for the quality of the editor's or typist's work. • Fully communicate with editor about the services included, turn-around time, and costs. • Don’t send your only copy of manuscript to the editor. Get a copy of this PowerPoint Questions? Thanks!