Swat- Dee
Higher Education
in Thailand
Royal family and Thai HE
Presentation Outline




Thai Higher Education Profiles
University Governance + Regulations
Quality Assurance
Major issues in Thai HE and
policy initiatives
Education System in Thailand
General Administration of MOE
after 2003 Education Reform
Ministry of Education
Office of
Permanent
Secretary
Office of
National
Education
Commission
Office of
Basic
Education
Commission
School
Office of
Vocational
Education
Commission
Commission
on Higher
Education
Vocational
Colleges
Higher
Education
Institutions
Commission on Higher Education
Ministry of Education
Commission on Higher Education
Secretary - General
Special Organizations
Bureaus
Thai Higher Education
Commission on
Higher Education
Autonomous
Public Universities
(13)
Public Universities
(65)
Private HEIs (68)
Community
Colleges
(19)
Universities
(34)
Institutions
(5)
Colleges
(29)
8
Relationship: Autonomy VS Gov. regulation/CHE
Autonomy/Regulation
Type of
Univ.
CHE Roles
Academic
Admin.
Personnel
Admin.
Financial
Admin.
Policy
HE
standards
Financial
support
Monitoring
&
evaluation
Autonomous
Public Univ.
Auto
Auto
Auto




Public Univ.
Auto
Partial
Auto
Gov.
regulate




Private
Univ.
Auto
Auto
Auto


Non

Responsibilities of University Council
Responsibilities
Public
university
Public
autonomous
university
Private HEIs
1. Policy
formulation



2. Quality &
standard
supervision



3. Regulations
set up
Authorized
for personnel
admin. to the
extent
approved by
CHE Board
4. Monitoring &
Evaluation

Fully
Fully
authorized for
authorized for
personnel &
personnel &
financial admin. financial admin.
& investment
& investment


10
Term of office
Type of
Universities
Public University
Autonomous
Public University
Private University
Chairman of
University Council
Appointed by HM the
King
Not more than
2-4 year term
can be reappointed
Appointed by Minister of
Education
4-year term
can be reappointed
University
President
Appointed by HM
the King upon UC’s
recommendation
Not more than
4-year term
can be reappointed
not more than 2 terms
consecutively
Appointed by UC
Not more than
4-year term
can be reappointed
Future Direction
Give full
autonomy
to
public &
private
universities
• Reduce
state
regulations
Strengthen
governance
of University
• Focus on
Council
-policy
&
formulation university
-Post auditing management
Promote
good
governance
&
management
of universities
12
• University Governance
Teaching
University’s
responsibilities
Research
Providing academic services
Preserving & promoting arts &
culture
Types of HEIs
(Degree Granted)
Specialized/
Comprehensive
University
Liberal Arts
University
Groups of HEIs
Community
College
Research/
Graduate
University
Types of HEIs
Types of
Institution
1.Community
College
2. Liberal Arts
University
Degree
granted
AS/AA
B/M
Proportion
of Ph.D.
academic
staff
10%
50%
Proportion
of Science
vs.
Social
Science
students
20:80
40:60
3.Specialized/
Comprehensive
B/M/D
4. Research/
Graduate
Education
B/M/D
Post D
University
70%
100%
Mission
for country’s
development
Characteristics
Strengthen
community and
promote sustainable
development
Manpower for local
production sector
Develop local
administration
organization and
regional business
Manpower for
driving local change
of graduates
60:40
Manufacturing
sector
Knowledge/
Professional
workers
90:10
Competitive
Industry
Global prime mover/
opinion leader
Service
area
Province/
District
Province/
region
Metropolitan/
small cities
Metropolitan/
big cities
Distribution of Higher Education Institutions
Bangkok, 48, 29%
East, 8, 5%
Northeast, 32, 19%
South, 22, 13%
North, 24, 15%
Central ,
31, 19%
No. of HEIs.
Bangkok
North
Central
Northeast
South
East
48
24
31
32
22
8
(29%)
(15%)
(19%)
(19%)
(13%)
(5%)
No. Students in 2007 & Graduates in 2006
Number of Graduates in 2006 (all degree levels)
Public HEIs
28,5941
85%
Private
HEIs
51,428
15%
Number of Students in 2007 (all degree levels)
Private HEIs
283,588
14%
Public HEIs
1,765,409
86%
Total: 2,048,997
Curriculum
Degree
Current Curriculum
New Curriculum
Public
Private
Public
Private
368
2
21
-
Bachelor
7,299
1,320
389
82
Diploma
194
20
9
4
Master
2,472
236
92
15
48
-
13
-
842
40
42
4
Specialized
3
-
2
-
Others
17
-
2
-
11,243
1,681
570
105
Lower Bachelor
Post Grad. Dip.
Doctoral
Total
Number of Total Students Classified by Type of
Institution for the Year 2004-2007
HE Institutions
2004
2005
2006
2007
991,110
1,050,160
1,162,511
1,084,016
- Open Admission
597,428
602,582
668,047
558,050
- Limited Admission
393,682
447,578
494,464
525,966
2. Private
256,008
256,148
276,723
283,588
3. Rajabhat
Universities
450,381
474,456
557,580
533,192
4. Rajamangala U. of
Technology
107,074
114,984
110,055
131,665
5. Community Colleges
10,046
13,365
16,155
16,536
Total
1,804,573
1,909,113
2,123,024
2,048,997
1. Public
Number of New Enrollments
for the Year 2004-2007
2004
2005
2006
2007
288,361
294401
309,964
291,542
- Open Admission
153,463
146,415
151,608
126,614
- Limited Admission
134,898
147986
158,356
164,928
86,147
80,690
103,030
95,635
161,420
171280
171,409
150,845
47,732
49,443
52,032
52,510
4,613
6,488
6,549
7,378
583,660
602,302
642,984
597,910
Higher Education
Institutions
1.Public
2.Private
3.Rajabhat Universities
4.Rajamangala U. of
Technology
5.Community Colleges
Total
Number of Academic Staff and Non-Academic Staff (2007)
1.Academic
Staff and
NonAcademic
Staff
78 Public Higher Education Institutions
66 Private
Ins.
%
Public
and
Private
%
Civil .
Uni.
Gov.
Permanent
Temporary
Total
%
1. Academic
Staff
29,005
10,916
681
274
4,553
45,429
10
0
14,133
100
59,562
100
- Bachelor
2,932
1,554
227
65
2,024
6,755
15
2,731
19
9,486
16
- Master
16,972
6,887
451
175
2,338
26,676
59
9,107
65
35,783
60
- Ph.D.
9,101
2,475
3
34
191
11,804
26
2,295
16
14,099
24
2.NonAcademic
Staff
23,705
17,551
683
16,510
23,793
82,242
6,942
89,184
1+2
52,710
28,467
1,364
16,784
28,346
127,671
21,075
148,746
Proportion of Faculty
Bachelor: Master: Ph.D. (Public Higher Education Institution)
Proportion of Faculty
Bachelor: Master: Ph.D. (Private Higher Education Institution)
Proportion of Faculty
Bachelor: Master: Ph.D. (Public and Private Higher Education Institution)
15 : 59 : 26
19 : 65 : 16
16 : 60 : 24
Number of Graduates Classified by Type of
Institution for the Year 2003 - 2006
2003
2004
2005
2006
132,256
132,198
141,134
143,762
- Open Admission
49,994
39,372
42,173
43,714
- Limited Admission
82,262
92,826
98,961
100,048
2. Private
55,013
55,428
53,816
51,428
3. Rajabhat Universities
109,890
107,692
109,036
104,851
4. Rajamangala U. of Technology
31,938
32,372
38,262
34,062
-
2,534
1,667
3,266
329,097
330,224
343,915
337,369
Higher Education
Institutions
1. Public
5. Community Colleges
Total
Enrollment in higher education institutions
classified by level of education in 2007
Level of Education
Number
Percentage
Lower than Bachelor
57,254
2.79%
Bachelor
1,774,315
86.59%
Diploma
18,215
0.90%
Masters’
182,210
8.89%
764
0.04%
16,246
0.79%
2,048,997
100%
Post Graduate Diploma
Doctoral
Total
Source: Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand
23
Quality System of HE
National Education Act (1999)
-
Higher Education Standards
Standard Criteria of HE Curriculum
QA System (IQA & EQA)
NQF(National Qualifications Framework for HE)
Accreditation
Higher Education Standards
Comprising of 3 Standards
 Quality of Graduates
 Administration in Higher Education
 Establishing and developing
knowledge- based and learningbased society
Quality Assurance System
- to ensure
improvement of educational
quality and standards at all levels
- IQA & EQA
- CHE is responsible for IQA
- IQA must be “part of educational
administration and a continuous process
- ONESQA (The Office for National
Education Standards and Quality
Assessment) is responsible for conducting
evaluation of “educational achievements”
of each educational institution (EQA)
Standard Criteria of HE
Curriculum: Topic to Consider
-
-
-
-
Degree Designation
Admission Requirement
Total Credits and Study Duration
Structure of Study Program
Number and Qualification of Instructors
Registration
Evaluation Criteria and Graduation
Program Quality Assurance
Program Development
Types of Degree programs
- Associate Degree Programs
- Undergraduate Programs
- Graduate Program
- Graduate Diploma Program
(post – baccalaureate level)
- Master Program
- Higher Graduate Diploma Program
(post – master degree level)
- Doctoral Program
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
CHE developed a National Qualifications
Framework (NQF) for HE to support QA processes.
NQF…..
- Describe qualifications in terms of standards of
learning outcomes of graduates
- Describe qualifications in terms of learning
outcome rather than prescribing in terms of
syllabus, credits, duration of study, etc.
Domain of Learning Outcome
At least 5 domains
- Ethical and moral development
- Knowledge
- Cognitive skills
- Inter-personal and responsibility skills
- Analytical and communication skills
The Relationships between the Education Standards, Relevant Criteria and the
Education Quality Assurance System
National Education
Standards
Standard 1
Desirable characteristics
of the Thai people as both
good citizens of the country
and member of the world
community
Higher
Education
Standards
Regulations
to oversee
that the
standards are
maintained
Standard 1
The quality of
graduates
Standard 2
Guidelines for
educational
provision
Standard 2
Administration in
higher education
Standards 3
Guidelines for
creating learning
society/Knowledge
society
Standard 3
Establishing and developing
knowledge-based and
learning-based society
The internal and external quality assurance
The quality of educational products
Standard and Quality System
Set up Curriculum Standard
NQF
QA Procedure and KPIs
Standards and
Quality System
Institutional/Discipline
Accreditation
Recommend Special Quality Process
• Distance Education Criteria
• Off-Campus HE. Provision Criteria
Quality and Standard System
-
CHE Policy:
Public, Autonomous, Private HEIs have
to be treated equally under the same
standards
Long Range Plan on
Higher Education 2008-2022
7 Scenarios
Demography
Energy and the Environment
Employment
Violence and Conflicts Management
Decentralization of Thailand
Students Entire Post Industrialization World
Sufficiency Economy
Long Range Plan on
Higher Education
9 Issues of HE Development
Articulation of University System
with Basic/Vocational Education
Reform of the Existing University
Education System
Good Governance and Management
The Role of Universities
Higher Education Financing
Networking of Universities
Learning Infrastructures for
University Education
University Staff Development
Higher education Plan for
Southern Thailand
Policies: Research Consortium
Problem-Based Networking
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Alternative Energy
Nano-materials and Devices
Innovation in Chemistry
Physics
Mathematics
Converging Technologies in Health
Sciences
7. Food, Herb and Fruit Safety
8. Enabling Technologies for Advanced
Agriculture
9. Emerging Diseases and Bio-Warfare
10. Biodiversity Conservation and Utilization
11. Environment, Water and Emergency
Management & Technology
12. Gems, Ornaments and Fashion
13. Standardization and Instrumentation
in S&T
14. Software & Digital Technology
Software
15. Logistics, Transportation, Aviation,
Traffic
16. Education Innovation and Knowledge
Management
17. Intellectual Property and Knowledge
Commercialization
18. Languages, Culture, Art and
Indigenous Knowledge
19. Social Sciences
20. Science and Technology for National
Defense and Security
Output Concept
Excellence
●Publication No.
●Impact Factor
●Research
Grants
vs
Country Needs
●Products
●Patents
●Commercialization
International vs Local
Basic vs
Applied
Thank you
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Higher Education in Thailand - East