INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE STUDENTS:
Conflicts between Security and Science in the Issuing of Visas
Dr. John V. Richardson Jr.
Associate Dean, UCLA Graduate Division
Winter 2005
1
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ENROLLMENT DECLINES
Comparison of Fall 2004 and Fall 2003 Graduate Enrollment
International Students by School/Division
FALL 2004
UCLA School/Division
NEW CONT RET
FALL 203
TOT NEW CONT RET
NUMBER CHANGE
TOT NEW CONT RET
PERCENT CHANGE
TOT
NEW
CONT
RET
TOT
COLLEGE
83
416
15
514
106
434
18
558
-23
-18
-3
-44
-21.7%
-4.1%
-16.7%
-7.9%
Humanities
16
72
5
93
17
79
4
100
-1
-7
1
-7
-5.9%
-8.9%
25.0%
-7.0%
Life Science
5
38
0
43
9
32
0
41
-4
6
0
2
-44.4%
18.8%
Physical Science
24
151
3
178
42
157
4
203
-18
-6
-1
-25
-42.9%
-3.8%
-25.0%
-12.3%
Social Science
35
151
7
193
29
163
9
201
6
-12
-2
-8
20.7%
-7.4%
-22.2%
-4.0%
2
4
0
6
2
2
1
5
0
2
-1
1
0.0%
100.0% -100.0%
20.0%
International Institute
UCLA Access Program
4.9%
1
0
0
1
7
1
0
8
-6
-1
0
-7
-85.7%
-100.0%
213
630
26
869
277
670
27
974
-64
-40
-1
-105
-23.1%
-6.0%
-3.7%
-10.8%
Arts & Architecture
23
36
4
63
27
40
5
72
-4
-4
-1
-9
-14.8%
-10.0%
-20.0%
-12.5%
Engineering & Applied Science
94
427
16
537
138
467
13
618
-44
-40
3
-81
-31.9%
-8.6%
23.1%
-13.1%
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS
Education & Information Studies
-87.5%
5
26
0
31
10
26
2
38
-5
0
-2
-7
-50.0%
0.0%
-100.0%
-18.4%
Management
66
96
1
163
74
92
1
167
-8
4
0
-4
-10.8%
4.3%
0.0%
-2.4%
Public Affairs
8
20
4
32
12
18
3
33
-4
2
1
-1
-33.3%
11.1%
33.3%
-3.0%
17
25
1
43
16
27
3
46
1
-2
-2
-3
6.3%
-7.4%
-66.7%
-6.5%
32
74
3
109
32
69
1
102
0
5
2
7
0.0%
7.2%
6.9%
Basic Biomedical Science
0
8
0
8
0
9
0
9
0
-1
0
-1
-11.1%
-11.1%
Health Science Academic
10
47
1
58
10
43
0
53
0
4
1
5
0.0%
9.3%
9.4%
Theater, Film & TV
HEALTH SCIENCES
Nursing
Special Fee
TOTAL GRADUATE DIVISION
1
3
0
4
3
2
0
5
-2
1
0
-1
-66.7%
50.0%
21
16
2
39
19
15
1
35
2
1
1
4
10.5%
6.7%
100.0%
11.4%
328
1,120
44
1,492
415
1,173
46
1,634
-87
-53
-2
-142
-21.0%
-4.5%
-4.3%
-8.7%
-20.0%
SOURCE: UCLA Graduate Division, IRIS (Dr. Pamela Taylor, 310.825.6453)
2
GRADUATE APPLICATIONS DECLINE
March 1, 2004
March 1, 2005
Total Applications
19,215
17,463
Domestic
13,086
11,869
International
6,129
5,594
Total Applications are down by 9.1%
Domestic Applications are down by 9.3%
International Applications are down by 8.7%
Applications from:
•
•
•
•
•
the PRC are down by 19% (1694 to 1371)
Taiwan are down by 3% (789 to 763)
India are down by 15% (826 to 702)
Korea are down by 6.7% (984 to 918)
Japan are down by18% (357 to 292)
SOURCE: Dan Bennett (Graduate Admissions) and Mats Granlund (IRIS)
3
A SERIOUS PROBLEM NATIONALLY
•
•
•
Decline in applications
Decline in offers
Decline in acceptances
“This is a serious problem
for our country”
according to Dr. Peter D. Spear, Provost at the University of Wisconsin
(New York Times, 10 November 2004)
4
MULTIPLE REASONS
•
Increase in Non-Resident Tuition (NRT)
•
EU’s Higher Education Zone (2010)
•
English instruction in Hong Kong, Singapore,
Australia and New Zealand
•
Growing educational infrastructure in China,
India, and elsewhere
•
GRE suspensions
•
Attitudes and perceptions of visa process
•
Visa denials
5
INCREASE IN NRT AT UCLA
UCLA Graduate Student Total Annual Mandatory Fees
1995-present
Total Fees and Annual % Change Annual % Change Annual % Change
Academic Year
Total Fees*
NRT**
NRT Cost***
in Fees
in NRT
in Total Cost
2004/2005 (0)
$7,478.50
$14,694.00
$22,172.50
14%
20%
18%
2003/2004 (1)
$6,562.50
$12,245.00
$18,807.50
35%
10%
18%
2002/2003 (2)
$4,873.50
$11,132.00
$16,005.50
3%
4%
4%
2001/2002 (2)
$4,740.00
$10,704.00
$15,444.00
1%
4%
3%
2000/2001 (2)
$4,693.50
$10,244.00
$14,937.50
2%
4%
4%
1999/2000 (2)
$4,594.50
$9,804.00
$14,398.50
0%
4%
3%
1998/1999 (2)
$4,594.50
$9,384.00
$13,978.50
2%
4%
4%
1997/1998 (2)
$4,501.50
$8,984.00
$13,485.50
1%
7%
5%
1996/1997 (3)
$4,443.00
$8,394.00
$12,837.00
14%
9%
11%
1995/1996 (3)
$3,889.50
$7,698.00
$11,587.50
-7%
0%
-2%
1994/1995 (3)
$4,165.50
$7,698.00
$11,863.50
6
EUROPEAN UNION (EU)
7
EU HEADS OF STATE (LISBON, 2000)
•
Meeting in Lisbon in March 2000, heads of state
set an ambitious ten-year goal for a united
Europe, to have:
•
“The most competitive and dynamic
knowledge-based economy in the world by
2010” (European Commission)
8
EU’S AREA OF HIGHER EDUCATION
•
Aka the Bologna Process, Sorbonne Declaration, Prague
Communiqué, and Berlin Communiqué
•
The Bologna Process articulated multiple objectives of
increased mobility, improved employability, and a more
attractive and competitive area with:
•
Harmonization by 2010 on the following:
•
English language instruction, joint degrees, a common
transcript, and internships
SOURCE: http://www.eng.unibo.it/PortaleEn/University/Bologna+Process/default.htm
(accessed 30 November 2004)
9
HONG KONG
•
HK’s University Grants Committee makes awards to 8
universities based on 3 exercises:
• Research Assessment Exercise,
• Teaching and Learning Quality Program Review, and
• Management Review
•
$5 B “Technology and Innovation Fund” established in
November 1997
SOURCE: http://www.ugc.edu.hk/english/documents/tlqpr.html and
http://www.chamber.org.hk/memberarea/chamber_view/policy_statement_template.asp?id=440
10
SINGAPORE
•
Singapore has 3 universities (National University
Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, and
Singapore Management University) plus
•
4 polytechnics (Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Republic
Polytechnic, Singapore Polytechnic, and Temasek
Polytechnic), and
•
One institute (Institute of Technical Education)
SOURCE: http://www.moe.gov.sg/corporate/post_secondary.htm
11
SOUTH KOREA
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Its Education Ministry wishes to nearly triple the number
of its international students…
Growth from17,000 to 50,000 in the next five years
Korean website (www.studyinkorea.go.kr)
Increases number of scholarships by 25 percent next year
Promises to streamline student visa process
85% of its foreign students are from Asian countries
SOURCE: Alan Brender, “South Korean Seeks Huge Increaser in Number of
Foreign Students,” Chronicle of Higher Education 51 (4 March 2005): A36.
12
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
•
In 2003, Australia enrolled 539 international students in
the natural sciences, engineering, and information
technology; 108 are from China; about 45 in science and
30 in engineering from India
•
Online visa application for study in Australia
•
Higher education is a $5B industry for Australia
SOURCE: Mervis, Science, May 2004 and http://www.immi.gov.au/e_visa
13
FIRST US DECLINE SINCE 1971
•
Uninterrupted enrollment growth in
international students for three decades
•
2.4 percent decline in fall 2003
SOURCE: Institute of International Education, Open Doors 2004
http://opendoors.iienetwork.org
14
GRE SUSPENSIONS
•
In 2002, ETS suspended GRE General Test in China,
South Korea, and Taiwan due to widespread cheating
as evidenced by monthly scalloping of scores
•
From Fall 2002 to Spring 2003, ETS suspended GRE
Computer Science in China and India due to “sharing
of questions”
•
In April 2003, ETS suspended GMAT, GRE, TOEFL, and
other tests in China for two months due to SARS
SOURCE: Mervis, Science May 2004 citing David Payne at ETS (Princeton, NJ) and
http://www.ets.org/news/archive.html
15
FEWER GRE EXAM TAKERS
•
Percentage change from 2002/03 to 2003/2004:
• India, down 56%
• China, down 51%
• South Korea, down 28%
•
Re-start of GRE on paper; takers still down
SOURCE: ETS; “U.S. Slips in Status as Global Hub of Higher Education,” New York Times, 21
December 2004, p. A1 and A19.
16
ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS
•
Response to 9/11
•
America is for Americans
•
America is less safe (crime and popular culture)
•
New languages and cultures are a threat
• “No one will speak my language…”
•
Long visa delays (of the past)
• “It’s not worth queuing up for two days outside the U.S.
consulate…”
•
High likelihood of (type of) visa denial
•
Visas are hard to get…
17
PERCEPTUAL CHANGES,1999 TO 2003
SOURCE: Office of Research, State Department; Pew Center for the People and the Press at
http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=175 (2003)
18
A TYPICAL GRADUATE STUDENT
Top recruit
• Admit offer
• Returns SIR
• Financial Documentation
• Issue I-20
• Next…
•
19
UCLA INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS, 2001
Fall 2001 Total Campus Registrants of International
Graduate Students by Country of Citizenship or Region
(Students with temporary visas only)
Subsaharan Africa
Other Europe 2%
France13%
United Kingdom
2%
Peoples Republic of China
Turkey 2%
2%
21%
Italy
Other Americas and 2%
Carribean
Brazil
0%
Republic of Korea
2%
12%
Canada
4%
Other Middle East
2%
Other Asia and Pacific
Islands
Iran
Republic of China
2%
Hong Kong Japan
6%
2%
India
11%
8%
5%
20
UCLA INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS, 2001
Fall 2001 Total Campus Registrants of International Graduate
Students by Field and School
(Students with temporary visas only)
Special Fee
2%
Law (JD & MCL)
Dentistry (DDS)
Public Health
Health Science
Academic
3%
1%
Humanities
0%
7%
Nursing
6%
Medicine (MD)
0%
0%
Life Science
2%
Physical Science
10%
Public Policy and
Social Research
Social Science
2%
12%
Management
L&S / Health Sc Acad
11%
0%
Arts and Architecture
5%
Education & Info
Engineering
33%
Studies
3%
21
BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS (STATE)
•
“CA administers laws, writes regulations and implements
policies relating to a broad range of consular services
…including issuing visas and travel advisories.”
•
Funded predominately by fee collections
•
Processed 8M visa applications with a staff of 400 in 1990
up to 10M with 600 staff in 2001;
•
Mexico City and Seoul process the majority of nonimmigrant visas (NIV)
SOURCE: GAO; State OIG ISP I 03 26 (December 2002)
22
WHAT IS A VISA?
•
“If you’re a citizen of a foreign country, in most cases you’ll need
a visa to enter the United States.
•
“A visa doesn’t permit entry to the U.S., however. A visa simply
indicates that your application has been reviewed by a U.S.
consular officer at an American embassy or consulate, and that
the officer has determined you’re eligible to enter the country
for a specific purpose. Consular affairs are the responsibility of
the U.S. Department of State.
•
“A visa allows you to travel to the United States as far as the
port of entry (airport or land border crossing) and ask the
immigration officer to allow you to enter the country. Only the
immigration officer has the authority to permit you to enter the
United States. He or she decides how long you can stay for any
particular visit. Immigration matters are the responsibility of the
U.S. Department of Homeland Security.”
SOURCE: http://www.unitedstatesvisas.gov/whatis/index.html
23
VISAS ISSUED, 1995 TO PRESENT
All Non Immigrant Visas F1, J1, and M1
1995, 6.18M
1996, 6.23M
1997, TBS
1998, TBS
1999, TBS
2000, TBS
2001, 7.58M
2002, 5.76M
2003, 4.81M
2004, 5.05M
TBS
TBS
TBS
TBS
480,131
526,997
560,499
492,279
473,716
478,219
SOURCE: TBS—TO BE SUPPLIED; US State Department, Visa Office, February 2005
24
STUDENT & EXCHANGE VISITOR INFORMATION SYSTEM
(DHS/ICE)
•
Aka SEVIS, required by Congress in 2002
under the “Enhanced Border Security…Act”
•
1 August 2003 deadline for entering all
international students into this system
•
ATLAS, Newfront™ enterprise software,
version 6.1 for managing student data
25
APPLICANT CALLS POST FOR…
•
An appointment in the proper consular district and then…
•
Waits (wait was “generally 2 weeks or more”); since FY2003
students, however, are given priority appointments…
•
Their student data must be in SEVIS first…
•
Interviewed in person by the post…and may require:
•
•
•
•
•
Form I-20 AB “Certificate of Eligibility for Nonimmigrant (i.e., F-1) Student
Status” or
Form DS-2019 “Certificate of Eligibility for Nonimmigrant Visitor (i.e., J-1)
Status”
Form DS-156 “Non-immigrant Visa Application” and, if male, then a
Form DS-157 “Supplemental Non-immigrant Visa Application” (both are
electronic)
Form I-901 “Fee Remittance for Certain F, J, and M Nonimmigrants”
•
Includes a photograph and a quick fingerprint scan
•
Payment of fees (for example, $100 application fee, $100 SEVIS
fee, plus any reciprocal fee)
SOURCE: US GAO 04—371 and http://www.ice.gov/graphics/sevis/pdf/I-901.pdf and State
26
JURIDICAL PERSONS (PASSPORTS)
•
Identification (who you say that you are)
•
Validation (who you really are)
•
Since the 18th Century, nation states have tried
to control the internal as well as external
movement of citizens and foreigners
SOURCE: Torpey, Invention of Passports (2004)
27
SEVERAL PROBLEMATIC PASSPORTS
SOURCE: Google Images
28
STATE SPONSORED TERRORISM (STATE)
6 nation states which sponsor
terrorism, as of 2005:
Cuba
Iran
Libya
North Korea
Sudan
Syria
SOURCE: http://www.state.gov/s/ct and 9 FAM 40.31, Exhibit II;
http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm and
http://foia.state.gov/masterdocs/09FAM/0940031X2.PDF
(Iraq was removed in 2004)
29
CONSULAR POST
•
Each embassy or consulate abroad offers its own free
advice, guidelines, “how-to,” and other tips on their
own Websites at:
•
http://www.unitedstatesvisas.gov and
•
“Links to U.S. Embassies and Consulates Worldwide” at
http://travel.state.gov/travel/abroad_embassies.html
30
CONSULAR OFFICER
•
What does a consular officer do?
• acquire expertise in local laws, economic conditions,
political situation and culture to make informed and rapid
decisions affecting US citizens abroad
• help American citizens obtain emergency medical assistance
• evacuate American citizens as disasters or armed conflicts
require
• visit arrested Americans and ensure they have access to
legal counsel
• Re-issue passports to US citizens
• screen foreign visa applicants and decide whether to issue
or deny visa to travel to the U.S. port of entry
SOURCE: http://www.careers.state.gov/officer/co.html
31
A CONSULAR INTERVIEW
INTERVIEWER: Why do you want to go and study in our country?
INTERVIEWEE: Well, sir…I think…hm, eh, I mean going abroad will
allow me to be more knowledgeable, and hm…, it
will provide me with necessary tools that can help
me with my future career. Also, by going abroad to
study…I think I can learn more about other
people.
INTERVIEWER: Are you saying you can’t learn all those things in
this country?
INTERVIEWEE: No sir.
INTERVIEWER: OK, why do you want to go and study in our
country?
INTERVIEWEE: I would like to go there to further my study and
because I have some friends who are studying
there right now.
SOURCE: Olaniran and Williams (1995): 230-231
32
CLASS (State)
•
Consular Lookout And Support System (CLASS), a watch list
and “every visa applicant must be name checked prior to
adjudication and issuance”
•
A name check database consisting of 20 million records of
“visa refusals, immigration violations, and terrorism concerns”
•
Reviews name, DOB, and nationality in the database
•
A fuzzy logic query returns either of two results:
•
•
Negative record (i.e., high likelihood of visa without further
investigation)
Positive (i.e., a derogatory means potential ineligibility)
•
A negative record means the visa can be printed
•
However, a positive “hit” may invoke an Security Advisory
Opinion (SAO)
SOURCE: 9 FAM Appendix D and Tony Edson, Head of VISA Office State, 10 January 2005
33
CONSULAR CONSOLIDATED DATABASE
•
Consular Consolidated Database (CCD), a database of
visa applications, non-immigrant visas, US passports,
service to American citizens abroad:
• Which interacts with uploaded SEVIS information (i.e.,
Forms I-20 or DS-2019):
• I-20, application form for F-1 visa, identifying the field of study,
length of study, and reporting date
• DS-2019, application form for J-1 visa
• 80 M records, 40M of which have biometric facial photos and
can be run against face matching software
34
SECURITY ADVISORY OPINION
•
Aka SAO; simply, a written opinion from
Washington on student’s clearance
•
Only 2.5% of all visas require SAO’s (Maura
Harty, Assistant Secretary of State for
Consular Affairs)
•
Approval comes as a cable; for example,
"Donkey Mantis 99 State 99999".
35
SAO (State)
•
Security Advisory Opinion may involve:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Central Intelligence Agency
Commerce Department
Department of Defense
Department of Homeland Security
Drug Enforcement Agency
Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Investigative Division (response
database as well as its National Criminal Information Center
(NCIC))
Interpol
State Department’s Bureau of Non-proliferation
Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control and Secret Service
And any other agencies which report back to the State
Department within 15 days, and which then prepares and forwards
it to the post…
SOURCE: http://travel.state.gov/visa/testimony10.html; GAO 04-371 (February 2004)
36
(State)
•
Now classified “official use only;” aka “critical fields list” covers 200 scientific and
technical fields
•
In August 2002,TAL’s last public iteration included 16 areas: advanced ceramics,
advanced computer/microelectronic technology; aircraft and missile propulsion
and vehicular systems; chemical and biotechnology engineering; conventional
munitions; high-performance metals and alloys; information security; laser and
directed energy systems; marine technology; materials technology; navigation and
guidance control; nuclear technology; remote imaging and reconnaissance;
robotics; and sensors.
•
As recently as November 2000, the list included: “conventional munitions, nuclear
technology, rocket systems and unmanned vehicles, navigation, avionics and flight
control; chemical, biotechnical and biomedical engineering; remote sensing;
advanced computer and microelectronic technology; materials technology;
information security; laser and directed energy systems; sensors and sensor
technology; marine technology; robotics; and urban planning.”
SOURCE: 9 FAM 40.31, Appendix 1; August 2002
http://foia.state.gov/masterdocs/09fam/0940031X1.pdf
37
VISAS MANTIS (codeword1)
•
Dating from the cold war, involves illegal technology transfer
•
Cablegrams are urgent telegrams
•
According to 9 FAM 300, App. E
•
•
Mantis criteria, illegal transfer of sensitive technology
Codeword1 according to 9 FAM 300, App. E
•
•
•
•
Bear, foreign government officials
Condor, special target demographic: “male national between the ages of 16
and 45 from a classified list of countries” (Section 306)
Donkey, derogatory watch list information (CLASS hit)
Eagle, name check for certain nationalities (such as People’s Republic of
China nationals applying in China or Russian nationals applying in Russia)
SOURCE: State OIG, Memo Report ISP-I-03-26; Tony Edson, 10 December 2004
38
VISAS MANTIS (State)
•
Started in January 1998 in its current form
•
See Maura Harty, Assistant Secretary of State’s Op Ed Piece in Chronicle of Higher
Education, 8 October 2004
•
Concern is Illegal transfer of sensitive technology
•
Five full-time from BCA, State employees help ensure the process moves
smoothly, with more in other agencies which actually do the clearance
•
Backlogs of 2K cases in the summer of 2002; peaks in late December 2003 (see
next slide)
•
Wait times are now posted for individual consulates
•
China is the largest source of MANTIS cases
•
Expedited clearing is possible
SOURCE: http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2004/Feb/27-585249.html;
http://travel.state.gov/visa/testimony10.html
39
MANTIS SAO BACKLOGS DECLINE
Average Time to Clear Mantis SAOs by Month
as of 1/3/2005 VISTA Data
90.00
80.00
Average Time to Clear in Days
76.23
70.00
60.00
71.66
58.08
56.74
50.00
47.57
45.45
46.42
40.00
39.81
30.78
30.00
22.02
20.00
22.47
21.87
21.53
14.51
13.84
10.00
0.00
Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04 Apr-04 May-04 Jun-04
Jul-04 Aug-04 Sep-04 Oct-04 Nov-04 Dec-04
Month
40
IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT
•
P.L. 82-414; 8 USC 1101 et seq.
•
This 1952 Act has been amended
numerous times including:
• Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act of 1996
• The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (FBI access)
• Enhanced Border Security and Visa Reform Act
of 2002; and
• Homeland Security Act of 2002.
SOURCE: www.uscis.gov
41
INA 214 (b) VISA DENIALS
“Every alien shall be presumed to be an immigrant until he
establishes to the satisfaction of the consular officer, at the
time of application for admission, that he is entitled to a
nonimmigrant status...”
WHAT CONSTITUTES "STRONG TIES"?
“Strong ties differ from country to country, city to city,
individual to individual. Some examples of ties can be a
job, a house, a family, a bank account. ‘Ties’ are the
various aspects of your life that bind you to your
country of residence: your possessions, employment,
social and family relationships.”
SOURCE: http://travel.state.gov/visa/frvi_denials.html
42
P.L. 107-173
•
“Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002”
•
“America is not a fortress; no, we never want to be a fortress.
We're a free country; we're an open society. And we must
always protect the rights of our law--of law-abiding citizens
from around the world who come here to conduct business or
to study or to spend time with their family,” according to
President Bush on 14 May 2002.
•
Title 3 (Visa Issuance), Section 306 “State Sponsored Terrorism”
•
State met the 26 October 2004 deadline for biometric finger
scans of all visa applicants; also done at port of entry (POE)
SOURCE: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ173.107
43
SUCCESS…VISA IS ISSUED
•
Waiting for an approved:
• I-129 “Petition for a Non-immigrant Worker”
• I-797 “Notice of Action”
•
from the DHS, Bureau of Citizenship and
Immigration Services
44
FY 2003 F-1 VISA DENIALS (GAO)
Nationality
F-1 Issued
F-1 Refused
F Workload
Rough Estimate of
% Refused
South Korea
34,697
8,119
42,816
18.96
China (and Taiwan)
31,322
22,995
54,317
42.33
Japan
25,962
1,387
27,349
5.07
India
20,320
17,973
38,293
46.94
Brazil
7,625
1,761
9,386
18.76
Germany
5,376
1,122
6,498
17.27
Great Britain
3,536
874
4,410
19.82
Russia
1,645
1,325
2,970
44.61
Poland
1,243
906
2,149
42.16
All others
103,853
71,733
175,586
40.85
TOTAL
235,579
128,195
363,774
35.24
45
FY 2003 J-1 VISA APPROVALS (GAO)
Nationality
J visas issued
J visas refused
J workload
Rough Estimate
of % Approved
South Korea
14,218
1,507
15,725
90.4
China (mainland and Taiwan)
10,171
7,003
17,174
59.2
Japan
11,377
305
11,682
97.4
India
5,311
1,718
7,029
75.6
Brazil
8,297
520
8,817
94.1
Germany
22,600
923
23,523
96.1
Great Britain
17,354
1,052
18,406
94.3
Russia
17,185
8,412
25,597
67.1
Poland
20,675
2,637
23,312
88.7
All others
156,472
30,537
187,009
83.4
Total
283,660
54,614
338,274
83
46
COMPUTER ASSISTED PASSENGER PRESCREENING PROGRAM II
(TSA)
•
15 minutes before departure; airline manifest is shared with US
government
•
Proposed on January 2003, CAPPS II (Passenger and Aviation
Security Screening Records) would compare “passenger
records…against commercial data-bases [such as Lexis-Nexis
and Acxiom, using name, home address and telephone, and
DOB]…and [then] national security information [looking for
criminal and terrorist records].”
•
Would score all passengers, but especially non-US citizens, with
a number and a color
•
Currently, cash customers and one-way ticket purchases are
subject to secondary screening; “SSS” or “***” is marked on the
boarding pass
SOURCE: http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?content=1115
47
PORT OF ENTRY
“Your passport, valid for at least six months beyond the date of
your expected stay;
With the attached envelope; When you receive your nonimmigrant visa
at a U.S. embassy or consulate, the consular officer will seal your
immigration documents in an envelope and attach it to your passport. You
should not open this envelope! The Customs and Border Protection Officer
at the U.S. Port of Entry will open the envelope; and
SEVIS Form I-20.”
“In addition, it is strongly recommended that you also hand carry the following
documentation:
•
•
•
•
Evidence of financial resources;
Evidence of student status, such as recent tuition receipts and transcripts;
Paper receipt for the SEVIS fee, Form I-797, and
Name and contact information for your “Designated School Official”,
including a 24-hour emergency contact number at the school.”
“If Arriving By Air: Flight attendants will distribute Customs Declaration
Forms (CF-6059) and Arrival Departure Record Forms (I-94). These must
be completed prior to landing.”
SOURCE: http://www.ice.gov/graphics/sevis/factsheet/100104ent_stdnt_fs.htm
48
PORT OF ENTRY DIGITAL SCREENING
US-VISIT (United States Visitor and Immigrant Status
Indicator Technology) involves:
1. “Inkless, digital finger scanner captures scans of left and
right index fingers.
2. Officer then takes a digital photograph.
3. Biographic and biometric data are used to match identity
against State Department data acquired when visa was
issued.”
SOURCE: DHS; “More Ports of Entry to Use Digital Screening,” LA Times, 4 January 2005, p. A14.
49
THINGS TO AVOID…
•
Congressional offices cannot expedite visas
•
Embassies and consulates probably should
not be contacted directly about particular
visa applications
50
APPLICANT RECOMMENDATIONS
•
Applicants should consistently use their
passport name on all other official
documentation
•
Follow the recommendations and tips at
http://travel.state.gov for the US consular
office which has jurisdiction…
51
FACULTY RECOMMENDATIONS
•
On international trips, give a talk about
getting into US graduate schools
•
Make earlier departmental decisions
•
Increase departmental support to
international students
•
Goal: change perception that the US is not
welcoming and that visas are hard to get
52
DEAN RECOMMENDATIONS
•
NRT waivers and IELTS/TOEFL interchangeability
•
Propose paying for SEVIS fee
•
Support staff membership in NAFSA
•
Consider visiting US Congress on macro
visa topics:
• Representative (Boehner, R-OH; Lugar, R-IN)
• Senator (Gregg, R-NH; Kennedy, D-MA)
• Members, Committee on Government Reform
53
UNIVERSITY STAFF RECOMMENDATIONS
•
Encourage applicants to use name on passport
consistently on all official documents
•
Campaign for NRT waivers
•
Consider writing US Congress re macro issues:
• Representative
• Senator
• Members, Committee on Government Reform
54
FURTHER QUESTIONS
•
What else would you like to know about?
•
What other questions do you have?
55
READINGS
Barr, Stephen. “At Foreign Service, Road to the Top Will Run Through Hardship Posts,” The
Washington Post, 10 December 2004, p. B2.
Brender, Alan. “South Korean Seeks Huge Increaser in Number of Foreign Students,” Chronicle of
Higher Education 51 (4 March 2005): A36
Brown, Heath A. and Syverson, Peter D. International Graduate Admissions Survey Program.
Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools, Summer 2004.
Freedman, Samuel G. “Grad School’s International Glow Dims,” New York Times, 27 October 2004.
Gordon, Charles; Stanley Mailman and Stephen Yale-Loeh. Immigration Law & Procedure. ***:
Matthew Bender, 2004.
Hanassab, Shideh and Tidwell, Romeria. “International Students in Higher Education: Identification of
Needs and Implications for Policy and Practice,” Journal of Studies in International Education 6
(Winter 2002): 305-322.
Harty, Maury. “US Visa Policy: Securing Borders and Opening Doors,” Washington Quarterly 28
(Spring 2005): 23-34.
Hunt, Gaillard . The American passport; its history and a digest of laws, rulings and regulations
governing its issuance Washington, DC: GPO, 1898.
Mervis, Jeffrey. “Is the U.S. Brain Gain Faltering?” Science 304 (no. 5675, 28 May 2004): 1278-1282.
Olaniran, Bolanle A. and Williams, David E. ”Communication Distortion: An Intercultural Lesson from
the Visa Application Process,” Communication Quarterly 43 n2 (Spring 1995): 225-40.
56
EVEN MORE READINGS
Reid, T.R. The United States Of Europe: The New Superpower and the End of American
Supremacy . New York: Penguin, 2004.
Selvaratnam,Viswanathan. Innovations in Higher Education. Singapore at the
Competitive Edge. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1994.
Stimpson, Catharine. “Foreign Students Need Not Apply,” CGS Communicator 39, no.
9 (November 2003): 1, 4.
Torpey, John et al. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the
State. Cambridge: CUP, 2000.
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Inspector General. Review of Nonimmigrant
Visa Issuance Policy and Procedure. Memorandum Report ISP-I-03-26.
Washington, DC: December 2002.
U.S. Department of State, “Technology Alert List,” 9 FAM 40.31, Exhibit I.
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, “Overview
of State-Sponsored Terrorism” (30 April 2001).
U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. “Dealing with Foreign Students and Scholars
in an Age of Terrorism:Visa Backlogs and Tracking Systems.” Hearing before the
Committee on Science. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth
Congress, First Session (March 26, 2003).
57
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
•
In UCLA’s Graduate Division: Dan Bennett (Graduate
Admissions/Student & Academic Affairs), Mats Granlund
(IRIS), Ken Hill (GEL), Jacqueline Nagatsuka (IRIS), Pamela
Taylor (IRIS), Jim Turner (former AVC), and Mary Watkins
(IRIS);
•
In UCLA’s Graduate Student Association: Amanda Moussa
and Michelle Sugi; and
•
At US State Department: Kelly Shannon and Stephen
“Tony” Edson (Head of Visa Services).
58
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International Students: Visa Processes