Semantic Web
October 19, 2005
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Semantic
Part Web
3: Semantic
Web
Tools
Content
Infrastructure
Standards
Discipline
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Should you care?
Did the World Wide Web affect you?
Would you have wished you had more advanced
warning, earlier implication of the change?
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Look familiar?
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WWW growth
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The Semantic Web is Comparable
Not a different web, but an extension of the
current one.
It is essentially the addition of “meaningful” tags
to content on the web, such that software can
help us find things.
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“I’ll Wait”
Lead time
Skills development
Leadership
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Naysayers
Cory Doctorow: “Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven
straw-men of the meta-utopia”
http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap.htm
Russell Glass: “Is Anyone Going to Tag all this Stuff?”
http://zoominfo.blogs.com/soughtafter/2005/03/semantic_web_is.html
Clay Shirky: “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and
Worldview”
http://www.shirky.com/writings/semantic_syllogism.html
Peter Norvig, Google: “Semantic Web Ontologies: What
Works and What Doesn't”
http://www.alwayson-network.com/comments.php?id=P7480_0_3_0_C
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We’ve heard all this before
In 1995 the idea that the local
restaurants, the muffler
shop or the bed and
breakfast would have their
own web site was
laughable.
– They would need people to
“program” HTML
– They would need servers,
admins, etc.
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Semantic Web is already here
“only 642,000 documents with .rdf extension” &
9,000 .owl
Yet 20,000,000 rdf triples are accessible (DARPA)
5,000,000 FoaFnauts
Oracle 10.2
Every Adobe 6.0 + document
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Adobe 6.0 and up
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So, what is the Semantic Web?
How do we know what anything is?
–
–
–
–
–
By
By
By
By
By
analogy
difference
decomposition and description of the parts
subsumption & categorization
definition
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Analogy
Surfing the web
A giant disk drive
(internet)
A query engine for the internet
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By Difference
Sometimes we understand things by what they are
different from.
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Horseless carriage
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Wireless telegraph
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Paperless office
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Paperless …
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Human-less search interpretation
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Decomposition and description of the parts
Bicycle = frame + 2 wheels + gear train + brakes
+ seat + handle bars
Semantic Web = shared ontologies + tagged
content + inference engines + service
composition
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By subsumption and categorization
A badger is a nocturnal [categorization] omnivore
[prototypical] mammal [subsumption]
The Semantic Web is a federated [prototypical]
web [subsumption] with RDF tagged content
[categorization]
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By definition
W3C
The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be
shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It
is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of
researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the Resource Description
Framework (RDF), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for
syntax and URIs for naming.
Wikipedia
The Semantic Web is a project that intends to create a universal medium for
information exchange by giving meaning (semantics), in a manner
understandable by machines, to the content of documents on the Web.
Currently under the direction of its creator, Tim Berners-Lee of the World
Wide Web Consortium, the Semantic Web extends the ability of the World
Wide Web through the use of standards, markup languages and related
processing tools.
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A closer look
The power of the SW comes from a set of
standards, each of which provides just a few
capabilities.
What follows is the essence of what is added at
each level in the standards stack, starting with
those we already know and love.
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Semantic Web “Official Stack”
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Essence at each level
SWRL
OWL
RDFS
March 2004
RDF
XSD
XML
DNS/URL
TCP/IP
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Rule Execution
Inference / Reasoning
Frames / Classes
Assertions / Merging
Allowable Structure
Universal Parsing
Global Logical Addressing
Global Physical Addressing
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TCP/IP
Single model for communication
Globally unique physical addressing
216.239.37.99
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DNS and URL
Logical address need not = physical address
Allows rehosting, migration, etc.
www.google.com
DNS
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216.239.37.99
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XML
Uniform parsing rules, tools, etc.
Metadata (at least some of it) travels with the data.
XML
<book> “DaVinci Code”
<author> “Dan Brown” </author>
</book>
HTML/ XHTML
<h1> “DaVinci Code”
<p> “Dan Brown” </p>
</h1>
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XSD
Rules about allowable XML combinations
Can verify XML validity
Primarily for creating XML, not consuming it
<xs:element name="sculpture">
<xs:annotation>
<xs:documentation>Comment describing your root
element</xs:documentation>
</xs:annotation>
</xs:element>
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RDF
Resource Description Framework
Subject/Predicate/Object
“Triple” and “Triple Store”
Make assertions
Merge identities
[proto truth]
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“Triples”
Subject/Predicate/Object
wrote
Predicate
Subject
Dave
McComb
A URI (URL)
Sem
in Bus
Object
A URI (URL)
A URI (URL) or Literal
Think instances
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Te
rm
Co
de
rd
er
D
at
e
O
Cu
st
om
er
ID
RDF Triples from a Database
Order1
Miller
5/12/05
Net10
Order2
Molson
5/12/05
Net10
Order3
Coors
5/12/05
Net10
Order4
Budweiser
5/12/05
Net10
Order5
Miller
5/14/05
Net10
October 19, 2005
Miller
Miller Brewing
Molson
Molson Ale
Coors
Rocky Mountain
Budweiser
Clydesdales
Order2
CustomerID
Order2
OrderDate
Order2
TermCode
Molson
“5/12/05”
“Net10”
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RDF Triples from a Document
<Order> Order2
<Special Labeling> “for winterfest”
</Special Labeling>
</Order>
Order2
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Special Labeling
“for winterfest”
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Simple Merge
Order2
CustomerID
Order2
OrderDate
Molson
“5/12/05”
Order2
CustomerID
Molson
OrderDate
Order2
TermCode
“Net10”
TermCode
“5/12/05”
Special Labeling
“Net10”
“for winterfest”
Order2
Special Labeling
October 19, 2005
“for winterfest”
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First Principles
Are
Equal
To
To
the
Two
Each
Same
things
other
Thing
Equal
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MER1 & 2 and Spirit
October 19, 2005
MER1
has
APXS1
APXS1
has
CalibrationSet1
Spirit
is
MER1
MER2
is
Opportunity
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Reification
Each Assertion (statement) has its own URI
and can therefore be the Object of another
Assertion
Dave
thinks
Stmt
2715
Statement 2715
Sushi
October 19, 2005
sameAs
RawFish
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Reification is Useful For
Veracity
Provenance
Security
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RDFS
RDF Schema
Meta Data for RDF
Adds classes, properties, subclasses
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RDFS adds Properties
Order
hasProperty
CustomerID
hasProperty
hasProperty
OrderDate
TermCode
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RDFS Subtypes
Order
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subTypeOf
Agreement
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OWL
Web Ontology Language
Comes in three flavors
– OWL Lite
– OWL DL (Description Logics)
– OWL Full
Adds Reasoning
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OWL DL
Necessary & sufficient
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OWL DL
Ancestor
Parent
Person
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SWRL
OWL + RuleML
Adds more complex reasoning and the
ability to execute action
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SWRL
parent(?x,?y) ^ brother(?y,?z) ^ uncle(?x,?z)
If y is x’s parent, and z is y’s brother, then z is x’s
uncle.
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Tools
Discipline
October 19, 2005
Tools
Content
Infrastructure
Standards
Part 4: Demos
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Tool: Protege
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Altova SemanticWorks
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Tool: AeroText
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Infrastructure
Tools
Content
Infrastructure
Standards
Discipline
October 19, 2005
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Infrastructure: Siderean
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Unicorn
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Semantic Web
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Essence at each level
SWRL
OWL
RDFS
RDF
XSD
XML
DNS/URL
TCP/IP
October 19, 2005
Rule Execution
Inference / Reasoning
Frames / Classes
Assertions / Merging
Allowable Structure
Universal Parsing
Global Logical Addressing
Global Physical Addressing
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Questions?
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Re cap – Objective One:
There’s much more to Semantics than good
definitions
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Objective Two – Did you learn a lot of
exotic terminology?
What is/are:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Semantics
Taxonomies and Ontologies
Inference
Description Logics
Classification and Reasoning
Semantic Web
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Objective Three: to pursue further
Send an email to me at
[email protected]
For either a glossary of semantic terms or the “CIO’s Guide to
Semantics” [I have a few bound copies]
Visit our web site, many interesting free white papers
www.semanticarts.com
Semantic Wiki
www.semanticwiki.com
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Resources – Books
“Semantics in Business Systems,” print and
audio
“Semantic Web Primer” Grigoris Antoniou
“The Semantic Web” Michael Daconta et al.
“Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things”
George Lakoff
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Semantic
Technology
Conference
www.semantic-technology.com
March 6-9, 2006
San Jose, CA
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Getting Started
“Semantic Awareness Day”
Community of Practice
Training
Assessment / What do you want to solve
Examples
“Just Do It”
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One last word
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Semantic Arts, Inc.
www.semanticarts.com
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