Learning Outcomes
LOs
Dr. Gregory J. Maffet
NCAAA Consultant
Dr. Naser M. Sarhan
NCAAA Consultant
KFUPM
29-30 January 2014
Workshop’s Learning Outcomes (LOs)
Attendees at the end of this workshop will be able to:
1. Comprehend the nature and role of Program and
Course learning outcomes in instruction.
2. Align an understanding relationships between
Teaching Methods, Assessments Methods and LOs,
3. Write learning outcomes using the correct format
Workshop’s LOs
4. Summarize the role of learning outcomes in
instruction and assessment.
• Why we are writing learning outcomes?
• The role of learning outcomes in assessment?
(including Rubrics and KPIs)
5. Use the five domains of learning specified in
National Qualification Framework; including
the selection of verbs that map to measurable
instructional objectives, learning outcomes and
assessment.
Workshop’s Los
6. Construct learning outcomes from learning
objectives, in order to develop learning outcomes for
Programs and Courses.
7. Mapping learning outcomes
1st Day Sessions
First session
• KPIs for Profile Data,
NCAAA KPIs
Second session
• Importance & Benefits of
LOs
• Introduction to Learning
Outcomes (LOs)
• Where do LOs come
from?
• The difference between
Learning Outcomes
• and Learning
Objectives
• Characteristics of LOs
• LO Process and Levels
• NQF Learning Domains
and LO – Verbs
Third Session
• General Guidelines
• Recommendations and
Suggestions
Example from your SSR
SSRP – Profile, p.12
3. Key Performance Indicators
The following KPI’s are adopted to monitor the achievement in accomplishing the
Program objectives.
1. Graduation with a GPA acceptable by Industry
2. satisfaction at alumni/employer surveys
3. To build up an instrument park, corresponding to most world class
universities
4. Field training of students must be continuously updated with latest
techniques.
5. Industry-standard computer modeling and interpretation packages must be
included in the curriculum
6. Average time for procuring equipment and instruments.
Example from your SSR
SSRP. p.9
KPI’s
Current
Target
0.2
5
Number of graduating students in the math Program
2
15
Percentage of students completing the Program in 4 years
0
100
Percentage of students with Cumulative GPA 2.5 and above
100
100
Percentage of courses being evaluated online by students
100
100
Percentage of faculty earning 8.5 or above in online course
evaluation
Percentage of students being employed within one year of
graduation
Percentage of our BS graduates admitted in the graduate
Programs
Number of ISI publications per faculty
80
90
100
100
0
50
1.5
2
Student / Faculty ratio
Example from your SSR
SSRP – Standard 4, p.36
The learning outcomes taken together become the overall
strategy for the degree plan. The department is currently
looking into the possibility of setting a standard end-ofProgram examination (exit exam) that will assess specific
learning outcomes. Verification of learning outcomes comes in
the form of feedback from potential employers from work
placement
SSRP – Standard 3, p.34
Periodically, feedback is sought from alumni and employers. In
many occasions, the feedback is used for Program quality
improvement almost immediately. The grades of graduating
students are reviewed as a way to measure performance.
Example from your SSR
• The assessment of Program outcomes is done on continuous
basis. SSRP, p.22
• Since the Program outcomes are intrinsically related to
Program objectives, achievement of Program outcomes is an
essential prerequisite of student qualification at graduation. ....
Level of achievement of the Program outcomes is periodically
measured to examine the extent to which they are met. SSRP,
p.24
Example from your SSR
The intended student learning outcomes are periodically evaluated
through various means like public presentations, exams,
assignments, projects, etc.
Appropriate Program evaluation mechanisms including graduating
student surveys, employment outcome data, employer feedback
and subsequent performance of graduates are used to provide
evidence about the usefulness of intended learning outcomes
and the extent to which they are achieved.
SSRP – Standard 4., p.38
Example from your SSR
• Students learning outcomes are evaluated based on HW,
quizzes, and exams, and in some cases reports and
presentations, are used to measure the student learning
outcomes. SSRP, p.31
• Faculty members make sure that students are tested in a
manner that allows them to assess the extent to which learning
outcomes are met. They maintain a check on their testing
procedures. SSRP, p.35.
KPIs for Profile Data,
NCAAA KPIs
Key Performance Indicators: Why?
Performance of a higher education institution & its
Programs is complex (teaching, research,
community…)
KPIs summarize performance in key areas 
scientifically, rationally, and meaningfully for
different stakeholders:
1. Faculty & Staff
2. Students
3. External agencies (NCAAA, employers,…)
What are KPIs???
… KPIs = Key Performance Indicators
…a measure of performance or achievement
…a Key Success Indicator (KSI)
…a measure of results and efficiency
Quantifiable performance measures used to define
success and measure progress toward the
achievement of goals.
(maybe qualitative via rubrics)
KPI
KEY is fundamentally important to gain
advantage; a make-or-break component for
success.
Performance when outcomes can be clearly
measured, quantified, and easily influenced by
the institution or Program.
Indicator provides leading information on future
performance.
(ie., when the gas gauge is on “E” then the leading information tells us
that the car’s future performance will be to stop; so the action plan is
to get gas immediately)
NCAAA Learning & Teaching KPIs
5. Ratio of students to teaching staff (Based on full time equivalents)
6. Students overall rating on the quality of their courses. (Average
rating of students on a five point scale on overall evaluation of
courses.)
7. Proportion of teaching staff with verified doctoral qualifications.
8. Percentage of students entering Programs who successfully
complete first year.
9. Proportion of students entering undergraduate Programs who
complete those Programs in minimum time.
10. Proportion of students entering post graduate Programs who
complete those Programs in specified time.
11. Proportion of graduates from undergraduate Programs who
within six months of graduation are: employed, enrolled in
further study, not seeking employment or further study
Goals and Objectives
Strategic Goal 1: To
enhance and expand
Program facilities and
infrastructure for
research activities.
Objective 1: (70 %) of
the Program faculty
conducting research or
are involve in related by
the end of 2014.
Objective 2: ???
Strategic Goal 2:
Objective 1:
Objective 2:
Strategic Goal 3:
Objective 1:
Objective 2:
Quality Goal 1:
Objective:
Objective 2:
Major Strategies
S1. Establish infrastructure
for research.
S2. Encourage
collaborative research
among faculty.
S3. Provide appropriate
funding for research and
creative activities
S4. Expand facilities for
research
Measurable Indicators
KPI 1: Percentage of
established research quality
standards
KPI 2: Number of
publications (#/yr) in
international reviewed
journals
KPI 3: Number of organized
scientific/Research events
(workshops / seminars &
conferences)
Analysis
What do the
findings mean?
How are they
applied?
HOW?
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
KPI for Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff
KPI 
KPI TEMPLATE
Target Benchmark 
KPI Actual (finding or value) Benchmark 
Internal Benchmarks 
HOW?
External Benchmarks 
New Target Benchmark 
Analysis: How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
Analysis:
Internal Benchmark
We looked previously at the internal KPIs
We now think consistently about benchmarks for the same areas
“year by year”  to establish data trends and trend-analysis
What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the internal
average as a benchmark?
(e.g. improve to 90% or improve by 10%)
Standard 4, KPI for Actual Benchmarks
KPI finding in
2007
KPI findings
80%
KPI finding in
2008
75%
KPI finding in
2009
79%
KPI finding in
2010
77%
KPI finding
in2011
82%
KPI finding
in2012
82%
KPI finding in
2013
86%
Quantitative KPI 
Ratio of students to teaching staff
Actual Benchmark
Target Benchmark
Internal Benchmark
External Benchmark
(International)




25 to 1 (current)
20 to 1 (goal)
24 to 1 (past, 2012)
26 to 1 (KSA)
16 to 1
Interpret this statistical data? (Meaning)
Analyze the results? (SWOT? / other)
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
KPI for Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff
KPI  Ratio of students to teaching staff (NCAAA KPI)
Target Benchmark
 1 to 15
1 FTE teacher to every 15 students
KPI Actual Benchmark  1 to 22
Based on 2014 data
 1 to 28
Based on 2010 data
Internal Benchmark
External Benchmark
 1 to 12
New Target Benchmark  1 to 18
CAEP data requirement
Revised for 2015
Analysis: How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
Analysis:
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
KPIs For Percentage Of Students’ Completion Rates
KPI  Percentage of students entering undergraduate Programs who
complete those Programs in minimum time; 4 years. (NCAAA KPI)
Target Benchmark (2014)  85 %
100 students entered/ 85 graduated
KPI Actual Benchmark
 28%
100 students entered/ 28 graduated
Internal Benchmark
 36%
2009 actual finding
External Benchmark
New Target Benchmark
 88%
 50%
Yale University 2012
Revised for 2016
Analysis: How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
Analysis:
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
Student Satisfaction Survey
KPI  Using the Student Survey Form # 2231 (a 4 point scale
system), student satisfaction survey results for Program courses will
average 3.00 out of 4.00.
Target Benchmark
 3.00
Goal for 2014
KPI Actual Benchmark
 2.98
Actual finding score for 2014
Internal Benchmark
 2.55
Actual finding score for 2012
External Benchmark
New Target Benchmark
 3.12
 3.25
Actual findings from MIT
Target benchmark for 2015
Analysis: Describe and evaluate the data.
How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
Faculty Satisfaction Survey
KPI 
Target Benchmark 
KPI Finding Benchmark 
Internal Benchmark 
External Benchmark 
New Target Benchmark 
Complete
KPI
Template
Analysis: Describe and evaluate the data.
How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
KPI Trend Report
KPI  Percentage of students entering undergraduate Programs who
complete those Programs in minimum time; 4 years. (NCAAA KPI)
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
100%
90%
80%
70%
78%
77%
60%
50%
40%
30%
49%
36%
28%
20%
10%
Analysis: discussion and evaluation: strengths, recommendations,
predictions
Profile Trend Report
Enrollment Trends and Predictions (Prediction/Actual)
Students
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
800
700
600
500
400
250/403
300
90/288
200
100
50
75/90
75/90
50/62
Analysis: Descriptions and Evaluation (What? and Why?)
Strengths, Recommendations, & Predictions
2017
Profile Trend Report
Enrollment Trends and Predictions (Prediction/Actual)
Students
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
2017
800
700
701
600
500
450
400
Make predications
&
analyze data
388
300
300
200
200/
100
90
200/
200/
200/
200/
50
Analysis: Descriptions and Evaluation (What? and Why?)
Strengths, Recommendations, & Predictions
Quantitative KPI 
Ratio of students to teaching staff
Actual Benchmark
Target Benchmark
Internal Benchmark
External Benchmark
(International)




25 to 1 (current)
20 to 1 (goal)
24 to 1 (past)
26 to 1 (KSA)
16 to 1
Interpret this statistical data? (Meaning)
Analyze the results? (SWOT? / other)
KPI
#
List of Program KPIs
Approved by the
Institution/ Program
KPI
Target
Benchmark
KPI
Actual
Benchmark
KPI
Internal
Benchmarks
KPI
External
Benchmarks
KPI
Analysis
KPI New
Target
Benchmark
1
2
3
4
5
6
Analysis of KPIs and Benchmarks: (list strengths and recommendations)
Program Specifications
Program KPI and Assessment Table
NOTE The following definitions are provided to guide the completion of the above table for Program KPI and Assessment.
KPI refers to the key performance indicators the Programs used in the SSRP and are approved by the institution (if applicable at
this time). This includes both the NCAAA suggested KPIs chosen and all additional KPIs determined by the Program (including
50% of the NCAAA suggested KPIs and all others).
Target Benchmark refers to the anticipated or desired outcome (goal or aim) for each KPI.
Actual Benchmark refers to the actual outcome determined when the KPI is measured or calculated.
Internal Benchmarks refer to comparable benchmarks (actual benchmarks) from inside the Program (like data results from
previous years or data results from other departments within the same college).
External Benchmarks refer to comparable benchmarks (actual benchmarks) from similar Programs that are outside the Program
(like from similar Programs that are national or international).
KPI Analysis refers to a comparison and contrast of the benchmarks to determine strengths and recommendations for
improvement.
New Target Benchmark refers to the establishment of a new anticipated or desired outcome for the KPI that is based on the KPI
analysis.
KPI
#
1
2
List of Program KPIs
Approved by the
Institution/ Program
KPI
Target
Benchmark
KPI
Actual
Benchmark
Student: Faculty 5 Stars
S4.2
Code number
3 Stars
(20:1)
2 Stars
(28:1)
KPI
Internal
Benchmarks
3
4
5
6
Analysis of KPIs and Benchmarks: (list strengths and recommendations)
KPI
External
Benchmarks
KPI
Analysis
KPI New
Target
Benchmark
1 Star
(MIT)
0 Stars
4 Stars
(16:1)
0 stars
0 stars
0 stars
University Comparison Matrix
Institution
Max scores
Services
&
Student
Research
Entry
Student- facilities
Good Graduate
satisfaction quality standards staff ratio spend Completion honours prospects
Score
100
3
n/a
n/a
n/a
100
100
100
1000
Oxford
87
1.3
574
11.1
£3,298
98.1
90.9
79.8
1000
Cambridge
87
1.4
596
11.8
£2,994
98.8
87.4
84.4
990
London School of
Economics
79
1.2
527
11.8
£2,625
96.5
80.9
87.8
911
Imperial College
78
1.0
556
11.6
£3,588
95.9
81.7
87.1
835
Durham
83
0.9
503
15.3
£2,281
96.2
81.8
78.5
834
St Andrews
83
0.8
519
13.6
£2,308
97.4
82.9
74.1
814
University College
London
79
1.0
498
10.1
£2,197
93.9
81.0
79.9
811
Warwick
81
0.9
496
14.5
£2,053
96.5
80.8
77.6
789
Bath
84
0.7
461
17.1
£1,742
96.4
81.1
79.1
767
Exeter
82
0.8
459
18.5
£2,017
96.1
82.8
73.0
764
Analysis (Strengths and Recommendations)
Introduction
• The Design phase of a typical curriculum
development process (Analysis, Design,
Development, Implementation, Evaluation) is
largely concerned with developing clear learning
objectives and learning outcomes.
• It is important to recognize during this phase that
there is a direct relationship between objectives,
learning outcomes, teaching strategy / methods &
students assessments (Rubrics – KPIs with
benchmarking and analysis).
Theory Into Practice
5 Questions for Instructional Design
1. What do you want the student to be able to
do? (Outcome)
2. What does the student need to know in order
to do this well? (Curriculum)
3. What activity will facilitate the learning?
(Pedagogy—learning & teaching)
4. How will the student demonstrate the
learning? (Assessment)
5. How will the teacher know the student has
done this well? (Criteria)
Learning Outcome are:
• Learning outcomes: describe what learners are
supposed to know, understand, or are able to do
at the end of the Program or course.
• LOs are based upon:
• the needs of the learner (individual & personal).
• the needs of society (mission statements).
• what the learner should know about a particular
subject in order to perform successfully (career
and personal lifestyle).
LOs are:
• What a STUDENT should learn as a result of a
period of specified and supported study.
• The ACHIEVEMENTS of the learner rather
then the intentions of the teacher.
• Focus is directly on Student Performance.
LOs are:
Formal statements that articulate:
• What students know and are able to
do after instruction
• Why students need to do this -relevancy
LOs are:
Are concerned with the learning of the student:
STUDENT…
PERFORMANCE and ACHIEVEMENT




What the student CAN DO
What the student KNOWS AND CAN DO
What the student UNDERSTANDS OR
COMPREHENDS and CAN DO
Must be measurable or observable
Objectives vs. LOs
• The distinction between learning outcomes and
learning objectives is not universally recognized.
• Many instructors may find that the term
“learning outcomes” describes what they have
already understood by the term “learning
objectives.”
What is the difference?
For NCAAA the difference between
course LOs and objectives…
• Learning objectives are statements of what the
teacher intends for the students to learn and are
generally part of a teacher-centered approach [are
Mission, traditional, teacher or content driven].
• Learning outcomes are statements of what the
student will KNOW and be able to DO or
demonstrate as a result of their learning and are part
of a student-centered approach.
Objectives vs. LOs
• Learning objectives, for example, may outline the
material the INSTRUCTOR intends to cover in the
course / Program or the disciplinary questions the
class will address. Known as IN-PUTS.
• By contrast, learning outcomes focus on what the
STUDENTS know, comprehend and realistically are
able to do… [skill performance] by the end of an
assignment, activity, class, or course [achievement].
Known as OUT-PUTS.
Objectives vs. LOs
• learning outcomes, mean focusing on the
application and integration of the course
content from the perspective of the student.
• learning outcomes can more explicitly and
directly address expectations for student
learning.
Objectives ------- Outcomes
Teacher-Centered
Inputs
Student-Centered
Outputs 
Results
Assessments
Measurable
Observable
Content-Centered
Traditional
Performance &
Achievement
What else overlaps?
Writing  Objectives & LOs
Learning objectives can be written as teacher or
curriculum centered content or they can be rewritten as student-centered learning outcomes.
The teacher will... OR
the student will….
Both learning objectives and outcomes must be
measurable or observable.
One assessment is for teaching and another
assessment is for a student’s learning.
Examples
• Example of a Learning Objective: Students
will be taught the basic principles of
database searching. [teacher will teach basic
principles … ]
• Example of a Learning Outcome: Students
will be able to apply the principles of
database searching in a review of literature.
[student will KNOW and APPLY…]
Objectives or Outcomes?
Which Dentist do you want working on your teeth?
Student A:
The teacher will instruct the student to
know how to successfully drill cavities and repair
teeth…
Student B: The student earns 100% on the exam
for drilling cavities and repairing teeth….
Student C:
The student knows how and
successfully drills out cavities and repairs teeth…
Student D:
The teacher successfully taught the
student to drill out cavities and repair teeth.
Objectives or Outcomes?
Which Pharmacist do you want filling your meds?
Student A:
The teacher will instruct the students
to know how to successfully fill medical
prescriptions…
Student B: The student earns 100% on the exam
for filling medical prescriptions….
Student C:
The student knows how and
successfully fills medical prescriptions…
Student D:
The teacher successfully taught the
student to fill medical prescriptions….
Exercise
• Please work as group in writing three
learning objectives for your Program.
• Now, re-write these objectives as LOs
• Be prepared to share them and analyze the
difference – they will be collected in order to
be used latter.
NCAAA
10 Minute Break
Session 2
Importance & Benefits of LOs
Where do LOs come from?
Characteristics of LOs
LO Process and Levels
NQF Learning Domains & LO – Verbs
The Importance of LOs
1. LOs build evidence for accountability,
accreditation, and for continuous
improvement.
 Show evidence of how well students learn.
 Use evidence for continuous improvement and
strategic plans.
The Importance of LOs
2. Know what you are doing…
3. Know why you are doing it…
4. Know what students are learning as a result;
(key for assessment).
5. Make improvement changes based on
results (research based improvements)
The Importance of LOs
Shifting from:
• Teachers teaching…. to students learning
• Teaching effectiveness…. to learning results
Course learning outcomes serve
the following purposes…
• To inform students of what is expected of them.
• To guide the teacher in his/her approach to
delivery of content and assessment that focuses on
what the student will be able to do as a result of the
learning.
• To influence the domain and level of learning
required of the delivery and assessment.
• To fulfill the requirements of one or more Program
outcomes.
Learning Outcomes help…
1. Select learning content objectives and skills
(What to teach? Teaching content priorities?)
2. Development of instructional strategies that align
with specific learning outcomes.
3. Develop and select instructional and Program
materials that align with specific learning outcomes.
4. Construct evaluation instruments for assessing
student performance based on the learning.
outcomes.
5. Improve overall Program and as a faculty.
Benefits of Learning Outcomes
1. Learning outcomes measure & characterize the
values that an institution, Program, or course have
articulated for student development & performance.
2. A set of student learning outcomes define what
students will know and be able to do when they
have completed any degree, regardless of his/her
major.
Benefits for Learning Outcomes
3. Student learning outcomes will help guide
faculty across the university to develop
curricula, plan courses, determine financial
needs, design syllabi, construct learning
activities, and assess student learning.
4. LOs provide a framework for learners and
advisers in order to discuss the goals of the
curriculum and the personal career goals for
individual students.
Framework for L.O.
Employment
Needs
Student
Needs
Assessment Methods
Teaching Strategy
Student
Learning
Outcomes
Teacher
Objectives
Course
Outcomes
Institutional
Mission
Program
Outcomes
Benefit: OBE 
“Outcome-Based Education”
• Outcome-based education is a method of teaching that
focuses on what students know and can actually do after
they are taught.
• All curriculum and teaching decisions are made based on
how best to facilitate the desired outcome.
• The desired outcome is selected first and the curriculum is
created to support the intended outcome.
• This leads to a planning process in reverse of traditional
educational planning.
Where do L.O. come from?
Learning Outcomes flows out
from……
…the Mission Statement
What must students do to demonstrate that the
Institution and Program Mission Statements are
accomplished?
Effects
Program and Course
Learning Outcomes
Cause
Mission
Needs
What will the
student know
and do in
order to
demonstrate
the Mission is
successfully
achieved?
Where do L.O. come from?
In addition to Knowledge & Cognitive Skills Domains,
Learning Outcomes flows out
from……
…student needs assessment
… and employers needs
(cause and effect chart)
Effects
Learning Outcomes
Cause
Student
Needs
What will the
student know
and do in
order to
demonstrate
student needs
are
successfully
achieved?
Characteristics of a Graduate Are:
Holders of a bachelor degree in any Program should have demonstrated:
1.
Knowledge of a comprehensive, coherent and systematic body of
knowledge in a field of inquiry;
2.
The ability to investigate complex problems and develop creative
solutions with limited guidance;
3.
The ability to use appropriate statistical techniques in the analysis and
resolution of complex issues, and select and use the most appropriate
mechanisms for communicating the results to a variety of audiences;
4.
Capacity to provide leadership and willingness to cooperate fully with
others in joint projects and initiatives;
5.
In the case of a professional Program the full range of knowledge and
skill required for effective practice in the profession concerned.
Are these LOs?
Start at the End
LO performance drives
learning objectives,
assessment methods
&
assessment methods
drive teaching methods
All
Students
Know &
Do
Teaching Assessment Objectives
Methods Methods (Content)
Picture an ideal graduate:
1. Knowledge & skills
2. Performance
3. Career & Life
4. Worldview & Values
Learning
Outcomes
Mission
Needs
Student
Needs
Graduate
Characteristics
(needs)
Learning and
Teaching Strategies
Differentiated
Instruction
Assessment
Empirical
or
Observable
Learning
Outcomes
&
Learning
Objectives
(Content )
Practice racecar driving,
acceleration & clutch
speed drills, light foot gas
peddle practice, observe
wife’s color choices
You want to buy a car. What
are the quality objectives?
Automobile Speed, family capacity,
Characteristics economic, attractive color,
(Needs)
Learning and
Teaching Strategies
Learning
Outcomes
&
Differentiated
Instruction
Learning
Objectives
Assessment
Empirical
or
Observable
Race track testing
Count seats (8)
Road test (40mph)
Wife likes color
250 kph top speed
0 to 100 in 4.2 sec
Seats 8 passengers
40 mpg.
Wife likes color
Learning Outcome Process
Elements of the Program
Specification
Aims of the Program
Process informed by:
What’s the
purpose of the
Program?
Characteristics
of a Graduate
Start
NCAAA NQF (domains of learning)
Level Descriptors
Learning Outcomes
of the Program
Subject Benchmarks
What should
students know
and be able to do
on completion?
Professional Body Requirements
including:
Knowledge & understanding
Cognitive Skills
Interpersonal Skills and
Responsibility
Communication, IT & Numerical
Skills
Psychomotor Skills
Program learning outcomes broken
down by level to ensure incremental
attainment over duration of course
Outcomes for level
attained through:
Attainment
verified by:
Grades awarded
according to:
Course learning
outcomes
Course
assessment
Assessment
criteria
Alignment & Mapping
University
At ALL Levels
College
Mission &
Programs
Student Needs
DEPARTMENTS
Flow to Highly
CLASS
Specified
COURSES
Knowledge &
Skill Performance
STUDENTS
ASSESSMENT
Learning
Outcomes
Learning Outcome Alignment
Systemic Thinking for LOs
(including assessment)
Students
Students
Classroom
Classroom
Classroom
Classroom
Students
Classroom
Program
Program
Program
University - Institution
Classroom
LOs Quality System for Systems
(including assessment)
NQF Level Descriptors
• Level descriptors are generic statements describing
the characteristics and context of learning expected
at each level (year).
• These help guide faculty expectations of students
and they are designed to ensure equivalence and
consistency of standards across subject areas.
• They are set out in the University’s Academic
Regulations and Policies and are based on those
recommended by the National Qualification
Framework (NQF).
RPR Quotes
The Panel also examined a number of student projects for a
number of courses. While some of the topics were
appropriate …. the work presented often falls below what
would be expected at this level.
Some projects were essentially descriptions that did not
involve any analysis or practical activity. Others, which
involve practical work, were written up without any
material that demonstrated the design and implementation
of the systems described.
The Panel feels that many of the projects do not meet the
CLOs (course learning outcomes).
Characteristics of Good
Learning Outcomes
1. Measurable or Observable
2. Clear to the student & instructor
3. Integrated, developmental, and transferable
4. Use discipline-specific competencies or
standards as a basis, not an end
5. Similar scope & scale
6. “In order to..” do ….. gets to the purpose,
uniqueness, and real world application of learning
and teaching.
7. Use a variety of learning domains
Good LOs are…




Usually written in the future tense
Identify important learning requirements
Are achievable
Use clear language easily understandable to student
When writing outcomes, it may be useful to use the
following expression:
“At the end of this Program or course the student
should be able to…….”
Then follow with a verb. Useful verbs are: ?????
Suggested Verbs
Establish
Provide
Tabulate
Schedule
Audit
Align
Construct
List
Compile
Demonstrate
Draft
Prepare
Write
Update
Articulate
Collect
Generate
Produce
Document
Develop
Helpful?
Need much
more!!
Verbs Not To Use
Consider
Maintain
Continue
Ensure
Understand
Strengthen
Encourage
Maximize
Reflect
Review
Enlarge
Examine
Explore
Deepen
Better?
Yes… BUT!!
Some of these verbs can be used if tied
to specific actions or quantification
NQF Learning Outcome Verbs
NQF Learning Domains
Knowledge
Cognitive Skills
Interpersonal Skills &
Responsibility
Communication,
Information
Technology, Numerical
Psychomotor
Suggested Verbs
list, name, record, define, label, outline, state, describe,
recall, memorize, reproduce, recognize, record, tell, write
estimate, explain, summarize, write, compare, contrast,
diagram, subdivide, differentiate, criticize, calculate,
analyze, compose, develop, create, prepare, reconstruct,
reorganize, summarize, explain, predict, justify, rate,
evaluate, plan, design, measure, judge, justify, interpret,
appraise
demonstrate, judge, choose, illustrate, modify, show, use,
appraise, evaluate, justify, analyze, question, and write
demonstrate, calculate, illustrate, interpret, research,
question, operate, appraise, evaluate, assess, and criticize
demonstrate, show, illustrate, perform, dramatize, employ,
manipulate, operate, prepare, produce, draw, diagram,
examine, construct, assemble, experiment, and reconstruct
KEY POINT  Learning Domain
is based on the verbs used
NQF Learning Domains
Knowledge
Cognitive Skills
Interpersonal Skills &
Responsibility
Communication,
Information
Technology, Numerical
Psychomotor
Suggested Verbs
list, name, record, define, label, outline, state, describe,
recall, memorize, reproduce, recognize, record, tell, write
estimate, explain, summarize, write, compare, contrast,
diagram, subdivide, differentiate, criticize, calculate,
analyze, compose, develop, create, prepare, reconstruct,
reorganize, summarize, explain, predict, justify, rate,
evaluate, plan, design, measure, judge, justify, interpret,
appraise
demonstrate, judge, choose, illustrate, modify, show, use,
appraise, evaluate, justify, analyze, question, and write
demonstrate, calculate, illustrate, interpret, research,
question, operate, appraise, evaluate, assess, and criticize
demonstrate, show, illustrate, perform, dramatize, employ,
manipulate, operate, prepare, produce, draw, diagram,
examine, construct, assemble, experiment, and reconstruct
Generic Example
At the time of receiving a bachelor’s
degree, students:
Are
these
LOs?
 Can identify, define, and solve problems
 Can locate and critically evaluate information
 Have mastered a body of knowledge and a mode of
inquiry
 Can understand diverse philosophies and cultures
within and across societies
 Can communicate effectively
 Can understand the role of creativity, innovation,
discovery, and expression across disciplines
 Have acquired skills for effective citizenship and life-long
learning.
Example of Program LOs
At the time of receiving a BSN Degree, students:
 Can identify, define, and solve problems;
 Can locate and critically evaluate information;
 Have mastered a body of knowledge and a mode of inquiry;
 Can understand diverse philosophies and cultures within
and across societies;
 Can communicate effectively;
 Can understand the role of creativity, innovation, discovery,
and expression across disciplines; and
 Have acquired skills for effective citizenship and life-long
learning.
What is the major problem with this list??
Specific Program LOs
(Dentistry Examples)
1.
2.
Graduates should demonstrate sound knowledge of the following
areas as they relate to the practice of dentistry (includes a list of
over 20 specific dentistry content areas).
Graduates must have the ability to apply their knowledge and
understanding of relevant principles and theories in carrying out
the following types of responsibilities (e.g. problem recognition for
disease identification and diagnosis, problem solving in dental care,
critical thinking of dental research, patient investigation—biopsy
techniques, radiography, treatment plans).
Write 3 specific Program LOs for your Program by
using the generic Program LOs shown on the
previous slide.
(present to group using flip chart + Analyze)
30 Minute Break
Prayer
NCAAA
Session 3
General Guidelines
Recommendations & Suggestions
NQF Learning Domains & LOs
Writing LOs
Difference between course learning
outcomes & Program learning outcomes?
LOs at Program level are broad for all students in
the Program.
Course LOs are content or skill specific:
Describing what the student will be able to do.
They determine: 1. Content, 2. Delivery and 3.
Assessment of each course, and, along with other
courses, meet the Program outcomes.
Example:
Program Learning Outcome
 Upon successful completion of the Program…. a
student will be able to critically evaluate
problems and alternative solutions in a wide
variety of business and organizational contexts
in different socio-cultural and political
environments.
How is this clear? Measurable? Observable?
What NQF domain of learning?
How will you assess this?
Example:
Course Learning Outcome
 On successful completion of the course students…
will be able to discuss 7 different ways how
information technology can be used to help
business organizations to succeed in their
objectives.
How is this clear? Measurable? Observable?
What NQF domain of learning?
How will you assess this?
Well written L.O. are….
Use a verb that indicates what the learner is expected
to be able to do at the end of the period of learning;
measurable or observable.
Word(s) that indicate on what or with what the learner
is acting. If the outcome is about skills then the
word(s) may describe the way the skill is performed
or the tool to be used.
Word(s) that indicate the nature (in context or in
terms of standard) of the performance required as
evidence that the learning was achieved.
Learning Outcome
Magar’s 3 Parts for Successful LOs
1. A measurable verb
2. The important condition (if any) under
which the performance is to occur and
3. The criterion of acceptable performance.
When Magar’s 3 parts of a LO are used correctly a
LO may also be a KPI
Student needs  Learning outcomes
Student needs example: “Student needs to
learn how to fish in the ocean to survive on
the island.”
What are some learning outcomes that fit this
student’s needs?
1. (Knowledge)__________________________
___________________________________
2. (Cognitive)___________________________
____________________________________
3. (Skill) _______________________________
____________________________________
Write a Learning Outcome
(whole group activity 1/2)
We’re taking a friend desert camping for the first
time. What does a graduate of desert camping
school need to know or what skills are required?
Like, “What to do if a sand storm comes up?”
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
3. ______________________________
Re-write as Learning Outcomes
Using Megar’s 3 Parts
(whole group activity 2/2)
1. What to do if a sand storm comes up?
2. What to do if he runs out of water?
3. He needs compass reading and mapping skills?
Re-write the content objectives as LOs.
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
3. ______________________________
How do the LOs utilize Magar’s 3 Parts?
Recommendations & Suggestions
1. Aim for between four and eight learning
outcomes for each course, and up to twenty-five
for an entire Program.
2. Start Program outcomes with the phrase:
“A successful learner from this Program will be
able to …..”
3. Start course outcomes with the phrase:
“On successful completion of the course, you
will be able to …..”
Recommendations & Suggestions
4. These phrases lead to action verbs so that students
are able to demonstrate that they have learned or
achieved the outcome.
5. “to demonstrate” leads to objective assessment or
evaluation or measurement of student performance
and achievements.
6. Use one verb per learning outcome, and keep the
sentence structure simple.
7. Avoid unnecessary language; if absolutely
necessary, use more than one sentence to ensure
clarity.
Recommendations & Suggestions
8. Verbs relating to knowledge outcomes – ‘know,’
‘understand,’ ‘appreciate’ – tend to be vague, or
to focus on the process students have gone through
(e.g. understand research [process]) rather than
the final outcome of that process (e.g. create & list
[do] strategies appropriate to the research topic).
9. Use action verbs, such as: ‘solve,’ ‘write,’
‘evaluate,’ ‘analyse’ to indicate how students can
demonstrate acquisition of that knowledge.
National Qualification Framework
The principal elements in the NQF are:
• Levels: numbered and linked to qualification titles
to describe the increasing intellectual demand and
complexity of learning expected as students
progress to higher academic awards.
• Credits Points: allocated to describe the amount of
work or volume of learning expected for an
academic award or units or other components of a
Program.
• Domains of Learning: The broad categories of
types of learning outcomes that a Program is
intended to develop.
NQF Domains of Learning Outcomes
Learning Outcomes are aligned with the five
domains of learning provided in the
NQF.
Domains of learning apply to both Program
and Course learning outcomes
Always keep in mind both Program & Course L.O.s
Five Learning Domains: NQF
1.
2.
3.
4.
Knowledge
Cognitive skills
Interpersonal skills and responsibility
Communication, information technology
and numerical skills
5. Psychomotor skills
NCAAA  Use with Program, Course, and Field
Experience Specifications templates.
1. Knowledge
Knowledge: the ability to recall, understand, and
present information, including:
• Knowledge of specific facts and details
• Knowledge of concepts, principles and theories
• Answers may be memorized or closely paraphrased
from assigned material.
• Knowledge of procedures; steps in a process.
• VERBS  Define, list, name, recall basic
information
2. Cognitive Skills
Cognitive skills: the ability to….
• Apply conceptual understanding of concepts, principles, and
theories,
• Apply procedures involved in critical thinking and creative
problem solving, both when asked to do so, and when faced
with unanticipated new situations,
• Investigate issues and problems in a field of study using a
range of sources and draw valid conclusions.
• Ability to comprehend the meaning of material.
• Answers must be in the student’s own words while still using
terminology appropriate to the course material.
• VERBS  Explain, summarize, distinguish between, restate
3. Interpersonal Skills and Responsibility
Including the ability to:
• Take responsibility for their own learning and
continuing personal and professional development,
• Work effectively in groups and exercise leadership
when appropriate,
• Act responsibly in personal and professional
relationships,
• Act ethically and consistently with high moral
standards in personal and public forums.
4. Communication, Information
Technology and Numerical Skills
Including the ability to:
• Communicate effectively in oral and written
form,
• Use information and communications
technology, and
• Use basic mathematical and statistical
techniques.
5. Psychomotor Skills
Psychomotor skills: manual dexterity
• Extremely important in some fields of study. For
example, very high levels of psychomotor skills are
required for a surgeon, an artist, or a musician.
• Psychomotor skills apply only to certain fields, and
their nature varies widely.
Example 1
Poor Learning Outcome:
• Students will name the three types of rock
in order to differentiate among the three
(knowledge domain for cognitive skill).
Good Learning Outcome:
• Students will compare and contrast the
characteristics of the three types of rocks
in order to differentiate among the three.
Student needs  LOs
(small groups)
1. Identify a student need for your specialized
course (center circle).
2. List 5 learning outcomes that are directly
based on this need (connecting circles).
3. Explain how each LO meets Magar’s 3 part
requirements (connecting lines).
Bubble Map - 2
2nd Day Sessions
First Session
Second Session
Review Key Components
Intro LO Attitudes
Relationships between
Teaching Methods and
Assessments Methods and
LOs
LO Qualitative
Assessment Rubrics
Assessment of Learning
Outcomes
Mapping
LO Quantitative KPIs
Third Session
Addressing Common
Problems Associated with
Writing LOs &
Assessment
LO Review
1. What is the difference between a learning
objective and learning outcome?
2. Where do LOs come from?
3. How are LOs used or applied (benefits)?
4. What are the characteristics of a good LO?
5. What kind of verbs are required for LOs?
6. What are the 3 parts to Megar’s LOs?
Learning Outcomes Formula
Verb
or
Action Phrase
+
“In order
to…”
Why?
Or
What students
need to know?
“Student identifies,
consults and evaluates
reference books
appropriate to the topic”
In order to
=
Great
Learning
Outcomes
Why do they
need to know
this?
“locate background
information and
statistics.”
Writing Learning Outcomes
• Learning outcomes should specify the minimum
acceptable standard for a student to be successful
(pass a course) “threshold level”.
• This means that it is important to express learning
outcomes in terms of the essential learning for a
course, so there should be a small number of
learning outcomes which are of central importance,
not a large number of superficial outcomes.
Review: A good L.O. is….
 Active  it describes what students can do
 Attractive  students want to achieve it
 Comprehensible  students know exactly
what it means
 Appropriate  to the student’s current
goals and career plans
 Attainable  most students will meet it,
with appropriate effort
 MEASURABLE  essential for assessment
Things to avoid…
Avoid learning outcomes which are too broad in scope, such as
‘Recall the fundamental concepts of Structural, Mechanical and
Electrical Engineering.’
Avoid learning outcomes which are too narrow in scope, such as
‘State the six categories in Bloom’s Taxonomy.’
Avoid overloading your course with too much ‘content’; knowledge
and understanding outcomes emphasize what your students will be
able to comprehend and explain, but this isn’t as important as being
able to use the information through:
application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
LOs & Quality of Teaching
NCAAA Standard 4, paragraph 4.6
• Teaching must be of high quality with
appropriate strategies used for different
categories of learning outcomes and
student learning styles.
• Differentiated Instruction
LO Alignment
LOs determine student assessment…
… student assessment determines
BOTH… teaching strategy and teaching
methods.
Together they form a FAMILY
LO alignment with NQF, teaching strategies,
& assessment methods.
Template is designed for alignment
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.0
3.1
3.2
4.0
4.1
4.2
5.0
5.1
5.2
NQF Learning Domains
and Learning Outcomes
Knowledge
Teaching
Strategies
Cognitive Skills
Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility
Communication, Information Technology, Numerical
Psychomotor
Assessment
Methods
RPR Quote
The Panel examined the Course Specifications for a
significant number of courses. It had some
concerns about the level of the assessment
instruments (Tools) that were used in the delivery
of some of the courses, the coverage of learning
outcomes that these assessment instruments
addressed, and the soundness of the assessment.
Teaching Methods and LOs
1. Focus is on learning outcomes in debates on
teaching strategies or methods in higher education
2. “Teaching methods” are not an end in themselves,
they are a means to an end  student performance
3. They are the vehicle(s) teachers use to lead
students towards particular learning outcomes.
4. Evaluate teaching methods against the learning
outcomes that we are seeking for our students to
know and demonstrate.
Teaching Methods and LOs
5. First step in operationalizing it is to clarify the
learning outcomes at which we are aiming
(measurable or observable).
6. Second step involves developing a contingency
approach (differentiated instruction) to the choice
of teaching methods; whereby there is “fitness
for purpose” (alignment of each LO with
teaching strategy-methods).
Teaching Methods & LOs
7. When selecting any teaching and learning
method it is important to ensure that the
method will enable the students to achieve
and demonstrate what are intended as learning
outcomes.
8. There are different kinds of methods available
(differentiated instruction):
1. effective in building up subject knowledge
2. contribution to developing generic skills
Teaching Methods Mapping
Courses Codes
Teaching
Methods
Lecture
Small Groups
Discussion
Project
Activity
Debate
Research
Lab
Guest Expert
Demonstration
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
LO Alignment
Student needs to learn how to fish in the ocean to
survive on the island.
Learning outcomes that fit this need?
1. Student is able to catch one fish per day.
2. Student catches fish by demonstrating 3 different
fishing methods.
What assessment methods will align with them?
______________________________________
What teaching methods will the teacher use to enable
students to successfully demonstrate LO
achievement? _______________________
RPR Quotes
The course CS320 Programming Languages: Concepts and
Paradigms covers procedural, object-oriented, functional
and logic paradigms. However, the assessment instruments
covered only procedural Programming. [incomplete
assessment]
Some were incomplete, lacking for example some assessment
instruments. For example a course portfolio for CS371 Web
Development contained only one of the three quizzes. In
course specifications for CS330 Introduction to Operating
Systems, only the final examination was provided.
Some course specifications are inconsistent.
LO Alignment
(small groups)
1. Put one of your course LOs in the center
circle.
2. Indentify LO student assessments that will
determine the level of student performance
in the 5 outer circles.
3. List teaching methods that align with the
LO and the student assessment on the lines
attached to the outer circles.
(bubble map 2)
Learning OUTCOMES
….are “performance of knowledge,
skills, and attitudes embedded within
them.” Attitudes may include ethics.
Attitudes???
ATTITUDES
Why do we teach ATTITUDES?
What are the ATTITUDES that student
performance outcomes expect?
How do you teach attitudes?
How to assess attitudes?
Quantitative Assessments
Qualitative Assessments
Qualitative KPI + Rubric
Goal  Give traffic ticket to speeder without conflict
KPI  Scores 4.00 out of 5.00 on the “No Conflict Rubric”
Speech Tone
Covered all
Material
Emotional
Control
Stops in a
Save Zone
Closure
5
100 % Calm
and Peaceful
100%
Covered
100% Calm &
in Control
100% Safe
Speeder says
Thanxs
4
Peaceful
Mostly
Covered
Mostly Calm
& in Control
Mostly Safe
Accepts
ticket
Nervous
Generally
Clear
Tense
Marginally
Safe
Speeder is
Silent
Anointing
Vague
Frightening
Dangerous
Speeder
Argues
Loud &
Demanding
Confusing &
Unclear.
High
Emotions
Major
Safety
Hazard
Speeder
curses
2
1
0
Qualitative KPI + Rubric
Goal  To enroll the nicest students in KSA
KPI  Rank higher then all other KSA Programs ??
according to I-Rubric points below:
Smile
Dress
Attitude
Ethics
Friendly
6
Always
smiles
Always
Immaculate
Always
Positive
Never miss
prayers
Always
Engaging
4
Frequently
Smiles
Always
Presentable
Mostly
Positive
Prays most
days
Many
Friends
Usually
Nice
Okay
Prays all
Fridays
Friendly
2
Seldom
Smiles
Laughs at
Jokes
Rarely
Nice
Mostly
Negative
Sometimes
prays
Few
Friends
Never
Smiles
Always
Sloppy
Always
Negative
Always
Skips prayer
Has No
Friends
1
0
Bubble Map +
In the center circle write an attitude; a
student need for a course or a
Program.
In the connected circles write learning
outcomes you want performed.
On the lines outside each learning
outcome circle write how to teach and
asess this attitude for each learning
outcome
Session 5
Relationship between teaching methods and
assessment methods….
with learning outcomes.
Start at the End
Teaching strategy and methods depend on the assessment
methods utilized. The assessments utilized depends on the
learning outcome VERB that guides the assessment process
to validate student learning and direct teaching methods.
Teaching Assessment Objectives
Methods Methods (Content)
Learning
Outcomes
Mission
Needs
Student
Needs
Key for Learning Outcomes
Key is  ASSESSMENT
Learning outcomes must be…. measurable
and meaningful to be assessed accurately.
Who will know?  Student? Faculty?
How will I know?  Evidence?
What evidence is needed?  Demonstration:
statistical, observable, or quantifiable data… or
rubrics?
NCAAA: L.O. + Assessment
NCAAA Standard 4, paragraph 4.4:
Student assessment processes must be
appropriate for the intended learning
outcomes and effectively and fairly
administered with independent
verification of standards achieved.
Assessment of Learning Outcomes
1. Indirect Assessment
2. Direct Assessment
Quality Assurance of Assessment of
Learning Outcomes….
May be achieved:
1. By direct observation – inspection of assessment
indicators with benchmarks with analysis;
(imbedded KPIs with benchmarking for LOs or
rubrics)
2. By indirect measurement– by examining the
specifications of assessment processes.
3. By indirect feedback – from students, from
employers, from external examiner, from
professional bodies (surveys).
Align Assessment with LOs
Assessments should provide instructors and students with evidence of how well
the students have learned what is intend them to learn.
What educators, practitioners, & students want students to learn and be able
to do should guide the choice and design of the assessment.
There are two major reasons for aligning assessments with LOs.
First, alignment increases the probability that educators will provide students
with the opportunities to learn and practice or demonstrate the knowledge and
skills that are required.
Second, when assessments and LOs are aligned, “good grades” are more likely
to translate into “good learning” performance.
When LOs and assessments are misaligned, many students will focus their
efforts on activities that may lead to good grades on assessments, rather than
focusing their efforts on learning what is important to do or achieve in the
real world.
LOs and Assessment
 State clearly each outcome you are seeking: How would
you recognize it? What does it look like? What precisely
will the student be able to do or demonstrate?
 Selecting and Implementing Assessment Methods
 Not every LO can always be directly assessed; identify
those that you prize most highly and that can be
meaningfully measured.
 Select strategic methods or instruments for gathering
evidence to show whether students have achieved the
expected learning outcomes (for example; KPIs with
multiple benchmarks or rubrics).
LOs and Assessment
Using Evidence Gathered in Assessment:
1. Specify procedures for analyzing and interpreting the
evidence gathered in assessment.
2. Prior to scoring assessments, determine any performance
expectations (target benchmarks—external and internal).
3. What is the relationship between the findings (actual and
target benchmarks)? Are scores or performance
demonstrations consistent, inconsistent, or at opposite
ends of the spectrum?
4. Use the data to pinpoint the areas in your Program that
are achieving Program goals and also areas of your
Program that warrant change for improvement.
LOs and Assessment
The following table presents examples of the
kinds of assessment activities that can be used
to assess different types of learning outcomes,
and the ways that we can analyze or measure
performance to produce useful feedback for
teaching and learning.
Type of Learning
Examples of Types of Assessment
How to Measure
Objective Test items that require students to recall or
recognize information:
Fill-in the Blank•
Multiple Choice items with question such as, “what is •
a…”, or “which of the following is the definition of)
Labeling diagrams•
Reciting (orally, musically, or in writing)•
Accuracy – correct vs number of
errors
Item Analysis (at the class level, are •
there items that had higher error
rates?
Did some items result in the same •
errors?)
Papers, oral/written exam questions, problems, class
discussions, concept maps, homework assignments
that require (oral or written).
Summarizing readings, films, speeches, etc.
Comparing and/or contrasting two or more •
theories, events, processes, etc.
Classifying or categorizing cases, elements, events, •
etc., using established criteria
Paraphrasing documents or speeches•
Finding or identifying examples or illustrations of a •
concept, principle
Scoring or performance rubrics that
identify critical components of the work
and discriminates between differing
levels of proficiency in addressing the
components
Activities that require students to discriminate or select
relevant from irrelevant parts, determine how elements
function together, or determine bias, values or
underlying intent in presented materials. These might
include:
Case studies, Critiques, Labs, Papers, Projects,
Debates, Concept Maps,
Rubrics, scored by instructor/clinical
staff, external clients, employers,
internship supervisor, etc.
Outcome
Knowledge—Remember
Students will be able to:
recall
recognize
Cognitive—Understand
Students will be able to:
interpret
exemplify
classify
summarize
infer
compare
explain
Analyze
Students will be able to:
differentiate
organize
attribute
KPI & LO in SSRP
KPI:
Actual
Benchmark
NCAAA KPI Reference Number: _____________
Institutional KPI Reference Number: _________
Target
Benchmark
Internal
Benchmark*
Analysis (list strengths and recommendations):
* Explain:
1. Why this internal benchmark provider was chosen?
2. How was the benchmark calculated?
3. Name of the internal benchmark provider.
** Explain:
1. Why this external benchmark provider was chosen?
2. How was the benchmark calculated?
3. Name of the external benchmark provider.
External
Benchmark**
New Target
Benchmark
General Example
Objective
To attract high-calibre students – defined as the
top 25% in the national exams.
Strategy
Market Program to top 25%
KPI and Outcome Data or Evidence
Percentage of enrolled students from the top 25%
Target Benchmark
40% of students enrolled next year to be in this
high-calibre category
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
Knowledge / Cognitive Domain
(for an Engineering Program)
Learning Outcome: The student is able to list and describe the mechanical
prosperities and durability of construction materials.
KPI  Students name and define 10 mechanical properties commonly found
in steel construction materials.
Target Benchmark 
90% Goal (9 out of 10)
KPI Finding Benchmark 
75% Assessment finding (2012)
Internal Benchmark 
79% Past benchmark (2010)
External Benchmark 
New Target Benchmark 
75% Cairo University
80% New Goal
Analysis: How is this data interpreted?
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
KPI Analysis???
Know what you are looking for…
(direct or indirect)
KPI  Student teacher ratio
Target benchmark 10:1 (Standard 3)
Target benchmark 6.1 (Standard 4)
Actual Benchmark 6:1 (current reality)
Standard 4 application – Teachers happy, small class size
indirectly indicates quality LO.
Standard 3 application – Administration sad, small class size
directly indicates high cost per student.
Now Evaluate with KPI
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning
Knowledge / Cognitive Domain
Learning Outcome  Deliver lessons that support active student learning.
(NCAAA LO for Teacher Preparation Program student)
KPI  Deliver lessons that support student learning at 4.50 out of 6.00 rate;
based on the active student learning rubric number Edu. 2.25.
Target Benchmark 
4.50
(faculty target goal)
KPI Finding Benchmark  2.33
(calculated in 2012)
Internal Benchmark 
(based on 2010 finding)
2.25
External Benchmark 
4.75
New Target Benchmark  3.50
(University of Finland)
(faculty target goal)
Analysis: How is this data interpreted?
What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
Analysis: How is this KPI also a learning outcome?
Grading & Performance Rubrics
What are Rubrics?
A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly represents the performance
expectations for an assignment or piece of work. A rubric divides
the assigned work into component parts and provides clear
descriptions of the characteristics of the work associated with each
component, at varying levels of mastery.
Rubrics can be used for a wide range of assignments: papers,
projects, oral presentations, artistic performances, group projects,
or qualitative assessments.
Rubrics can be used as scoring or grading guides, to provide
formative feedback to support and guide ongoing learning efforts,
or both.
Example
Oral Exam: This rubric describes a set of components and standards
for assessing performance on an oral exam
A (18-20 points)
Exemplary
B (16-17 points)
Competent
C (14-15 points)
Developing
D/R
Shows a
deep/robust
understanding of
the topic with a fully
developed
argument per the
categories below
Shows a limited
understanding of
the topic, not quite
a fully developed
argument per the
categories below
Shows a superficial
understanding of the
topic, argument not
developed enough
per the categories
below
Shows no
understanding of
the topic and no
argument per the
categories below
Clearly articulates a
position or argument
Articulates a position
or argument that is
incomplete or limited
in scope
Articulates a position
or argument that is
unfocused or
ambiguous
Does not articulate
a position or
argument
Fully discusses the
major implications of
the argument or
position
Adequately
discusses some of
the major
implications of the
position
Discusses minor
implications (missing
the major ones) OR
does not discuss
major implications
adequately
Doesn’t discuss
the implications of
the argument or
position
Dimensions:
Overall
Understanding
Argument
Implications
Qualitative KPI + Rubric
Goal  Active learning teaching methods.
LO  Teacher candidate will deliver lessons that support active student
learning (cognitive domain) at 4.75 rate using Rubric 1.42;
including not more than 3 classroom visits.
Pts
Participation
Small groups
per class
Problem
solving
Use of
technology
# of
Active
Methods
per class
6
All students
participate
All students
participate
All students
engaged
Teacher &
students
together
6
4
75%
Students
75% Students
75% Students
Teacher &
students
separately
4-5
3
50%
Students
50% Students
50% Students
Student Only
2-3
2
25%
Students
25% Students
25% Students
Teacher Only
1
0
Teacher
Only
Lecture
Whole
Group
Only
Knowledge
only level
questions
No
Technology
0
Qualitative KPI + Rubric Data
Goal  Active learning teaching methods.
LO  Deliver lessons that support active student learning.
N = 100 Students (suggested NCAAA LO)
Involving
discussions
Small groups
Problem
solving
Use of
technology
# of Active
Methods
6XN=0
6 X 3 = 18
6X4=?
6 X 10 = ?
6X0=0
4X2=8
4 X 7 = 28
4X6=?
4 X 10 = ?
5
2 X 5 = 10
2 X 10 = 20
2 X 10 = ?
20
15
1 X 12 = 12
1 X 20 = 20
1 X 30 = ?
50
60
0 X 75 = 0
20 / 100 = .20
0 X 60 = 0
86/100 = .86
50
10
20
LO for Standard 4
Interpersonal Skills and Responsibility
KPI: _________________________________________________________________
NCAAA KPI Reference Number: _____________
Institutional KPI Reference Number: _________
Learning Outcome: _Break bad news & discuss sensitive issues ________________
Learning Domain: _________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Actual Benchmark
Target Benchmark
Internal Benchmark* External
Benchmark**
New Target Benchmark
Analysis (list strengths and recommendations):
* Explain:
1. Why this internal benchmark provider was chosen?
2. How was the benchmark calculated?
3. Name of the internal benchmark provider.
** Explain:
1. Why this external benchmark provider was chosen?
2. How was the benchmark calculated?
3. Name of the external benchmark provider.
Complete
Rubric &
the KPI
templates
Qualitative KPI + Rubric
Goal 
KPI 
LO 
Pts
6
4
3
2
0
Qualitative KPI + Rubric
LO  Gastrointestinal system, medical graduates will be able to
safely demonstrate the following four procedures.
KPI  Perform each exam 9 out of 10 times successfully and earn a
Make a
rubric
rating of 5.50 out of 6.00 on the “Gastrointestinal System Rubric.”
Pts
1. Insert
Nasogastric
Tube
2. Perform
Rectal Exam
3. Perform
Proctoscopy
4. Perform a
Faecal Occult
Blood Analysis
1. Insert
Nasogastric
Tube
6
100% Perfect
100% Perfect
100% Perfect
100% Perfect
100%
Perfect
4
3
2
0
Write KPI and LO for your Program.
Write a KPI and LO for your course
KPI: _________________________________________________________________
NCAAA KPI Reference Number: _____________
Institutional KPI Reference Number: _________
Learning Outcome: _________________
Learning Domain: _____________________________________________________
Actual Benchmark
Target Benchmark
Internal Benchmark* External
Benchmark**
Analysis (list strengths and recommendations):
* Explain:
1. Why this internal benchmark provider was chosen?
2. How was the benchmark calculated?
3. Name of the internal benchmark provider.
** Explain:
1. Why this external benchmark provider was chosen?
2. How was the benchmark calculated?
3. Name of the external benchmark provider.
New Target Benchmark
Write a rubric for your Program or course LO
Goal 
KPI 
LO 
Pts
6
4
3
2
0
LO Trend Report
LO  Percentage of students scoring 4.50 for delivering lessons that support
active student learning. (NCAAA LO for Teacher Preparation Program student)
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
100%
90%
80%
70%
78%
77%
prediction
60%
(70%)
50%
40%
30%
49%
target
36%
benchmark
28%
20%
10%
Analysis: discussion and evaluation
strengths, recommendations, predictions
Introductory Assessment Map
Intermediate Assessment Map
Level Assessment Map
Assessment Strategies…
NCAAA Domains
of Learning
Knowledge
Facts
Concepts/theories
Procedures
Cognitive Skills
Apply skills when asked
Creative thinking & problem-solving
Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility
Responsibility for own learning
Group participation & leadership
Act responsibly & professional
Ethical standards of behavior
Communication IT Numerical Skills
Oral & written
Use of IT
Basic math & stats
Psychomotor Skills
Assessment Strategies
1
2
3
4
5
6
Program Learning Outcomes Mapping Matrix
Identify on the table below the courses that are required to achieve the Program learning
outcomes. Insert the Program learning outcomes, according to the level of instruction, from the
above table below and indicate the courses and levels that are required to teach each one; use
your Program’s course numbers across the top and the following level scale. Levels: I =
Introduction P = Proficient A = Advanced (see help icon)
A-112
A-111
A-110
A-109
A-108
A-107
A-106
A-105
A-104
Psychomotor
A-103
Communication, Information
Technology, Numerical
A-102
Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility
A-101
4.1
4.2
5.0
5.1
5.2
Cognitive Skills
A-100
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.0
3.1
3.2
4.0
Course Offerings
NQF Learning Domains
and Learning Outcomes
Knowledge
Session 6
Common Problems Associated with
Writing Learning Outcomes
Common Problems:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Language is too vague or too specific for course level
Use of ambiguous words and phrases
There are too many learning outcomes
There are too many verbs in one learning outcome
Overuse of the same verb
Inappropriate cognitive level
Use of progression
Learning outcomes are not realistic
Learning outcomes that are not, or cannot be, assessed
1. Language is too vague or too specific
for course level
• This is where learning outcomes are either
written at a broad level more suitable for a
Program or where the language is too
prescriptive describing actions of a student that
may be achievable at the end of a specific class
rather than an entire course.
Examples
• Example of an outcome that is too broad:
Students will be able to identify and demonstrate
the dynamic nature of the environment in which
marketing decisions are taken.
• Example of an outcome that is too specific:
Students will be able to outline the functions of
marketing within a financial institution.
2. Ambiguous words and phrases
• This refers to the use of vague terms
like: know, understand, learn, be familiar with, be
exposed to, be acquainted with, be aware of,
appreciate, etc.
• The main problem with using these verbs or
phrases is that they are not universally understood so
students or another teacher may interpret them
differently.
• Questions to consider are: how can you be sure that
the students know or understand? and how can they
demonstrate that they know or understand?
Examples
• Example of an outcome with ambiguous words:
Students will be able to understand the function,
structure and components of the musculoskeletal
system.
• Suggested alternative: Students will be able to
explain the function, structure and components of the
musculoskeletal system.
3. Too many learning outcomes
• It is recommended at course level
to have between four and six learning
outcomes.
Tips:
• If you have too many outcomes you may want to consider
whether some of the learning outcomes could be combined
(and assessed via a rubric).
• You may decide that a particular outcome is more relevant
to a specific class than the entire course in which case you
may wish to remove it.
• Use your assessment and what it is measuring to prompt
you.
4. Too many verbs in one learning outcome
• Too many action verbs in one learning outcome can
be confusing as it may not be clear which action is
the most important for the student to be required to
demonstrate.
• In the example: consider if the focus for this
outcome is on whether students can work in groups
or whether they can apply basic principles and how
this outcome is, or should be, assessed.
Example
• Example of outcome with too many verbs:
Students will have worked in small groups and
considered the application of basic principles to
different industrial processes.
• There may be instances, where two verbs are codependent and consequently relevant to one learning
outcome as seen in the example below:
 Students will be able to recognize and solve problems
relating to the basic concepts of chemical reactions.
5. Overuse of the same verb
• In some cases, particularly when finding an
alternative for ambiguous words/phrases such as
know, understand or be familiar with, there can be a
tendency to find a solution for one learning outcome
and repeat it for others.
• In some disciplines such as math there may be a
need for repetitive use of words such as ‘solve’ or
‘calculate’ where there is no alternative required or
possible.
6. Inappropriate cognitive level
• This is where there is an over use of verbs that
require students to demonstrate knowledge
where they may also be required to
demonstrate a deeper learning such as
analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
• Choose the verb based on the relevant
domain of learning.
7. Use of progression in learning
outcomes
• This is where a learning outcome refers to
improvement in learning or other phrases that imply
progression (series, sequence, succession, string, chain,
evolution, development).
• Progression is difficult to measure as the student would
need to demonstrate levels of learning at varying points
of time. It may be best to remove the reference to
progression.
Example
• Example of progression in a learning
outcome: Students will have an increased
proficiency in presentation skills.
• Suggested Alternative: Students will be able
to demonstrate a proficiency in presentation
skills.
8. Learning outcomes that are not practical
• This is where learning outcomes are not
realizable due to constraints of time and/or
resources.
• For example a learning outcome might
demand an assessment load too great for the
students or for the teacher.
9. Outcomes that are not, or cannot, be
assessed
• As the traditional faculty-centered approach
involved writing objectives from the point of
view of what the lecturer intended to deliver.
• Some learning outcomes can address the
delivery of content only and are not covered
anywhere in the assessment of the course.
Useful Tips
• Check that each learning outcome is
addressed in some way by assessment.
• Check that all elements of the assessment
have been included in the set of learning
outcomes.
Course Constructive Alignment
Template
Intended Learning
Outcomes
On successful completion
of the course, the student
should be
able to:
1.
2.
3.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment?
Percentage %
Final Examination –
Format? %
Pass Standard
Penalties
Total grade
Assessments types
Rubrics
Teaching & Learning
Activities
What will the students
do to learn?
Teaching methods
Class activities
Exercise
Example 1:
 To increase the student’s ability to visually identify
white cells on a differential.
 The student will identify correctly all white cells on a
differential.
Example 2:
 The student will gain knowledge of automated chemistry
tests.
 The student will state the principle for each automated
chemistry test listed
Exercise
Example 3:
 The student will be familiar with red blood cell
maturation in the bone marrow.
 The student will diagram the maturation of red blood
cells.
Example 4:
 The student will understand the interpretation of
hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns.
 Given several electrophoresis scans, the student will
correctly diagnose each normal or abnormal pattern.
Exercise
Please identify which learning domain
the following ILOs are related to:
Lecture LOs (Hemolytic Anemias)
• After attending the lecture, reading the assignment, and
performing the tests in the laboratory, the student will:
1. Define the term hemolytic anemia.
2. Classify the major hemolytic anemias by their intrinsic
or extrinsic causes.
Exercise
3. Summarize each disease discussed in lecture including
distinguishing characteristics, clinical manifestations,
laboratory findings, pathology, and treatment.
4. For each disease discussed in lecture, determine the
appropriate tests to resolve the problem. Include the
principle and mechanism of each test in the evaluation.
5. Given a set of laboratory data and patient history,
correctly diagnose the disease.
One more Exercise
Please read the listed LOs and identify what
common problems are associated with
each one and re–write it.
Conclusion
Thank you for your time and reflections
Dr. Gregory J. Maffet
Dr. Nasser M. Sarhan
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