Surviving (and Thriving) in a
“Perfect Storm” Environment
Ray T. Clifford
22 February 2007
The Perfect Storm
• Too little time.
• Limited funding.
• Not enough qualified teachers.
• Rising expectations.
Some Recent Headlines
• Court Creates Demand for Translators
• Home Invasions Show Need for Translators
• On the Table: A Cure for Medicare
Language Gap
• Built to be Bilingual: Researchers Pinpoint
How the Brain Switches Between
Languages
Some Recent Headlines
• Untying U.S. Tongues
• FBI Agents Still Lacking Arabic Skills
• U.S. has a Strategic Need for Multilingual
Citizens
• Learning Second Language Changes the
Brain: Bilingual People have More Grey
Matter in Key Region
Some Recent Headlines
• Iraq Panel: Put Forward Officials who
Speak to Arabs in Arabic
• First Ears, Then Hearts and Minds: Facing
Shortage of Arabic Interpreters, Pentagon
Seeks a Technological Solution
High Demand, Low Supply
• More than 80 federal agencies employ
individuals with skills in more than 100
languages.
• Degrees granted in 2002:
– 2, 396 French
–
13 Arabic
• Only one certified Arabic teacher in U.S.
public schools.
And Yet…
• Our nation suffers from delusions of
linguistic adequacy!
Overview
• What do Americans “know” about
languages?
• Why aren’t foreign languages required
subjects in U.S. schools?
• How can the U.S. respond to changing
national language needs?
Limited Experience Leads to Naiveté
• The general public believes:
– Every English word has an exact match
in the second language.
– Second language learning is simply a
re-lexification process.
– High levels of language competence can
be attained in two years of school
classes…or perhaps in a few weeks with
a computer program.
Limited Experience Leads to Naiveté
• Even teachers often believe:
– Students’ failure to attain meaningful
levels of proficiency is primarily the
result of poor teaching.
– There is a single, best teaching method.
Needs + Naiveté = Nonsense
• The Reality of FL Learning
– “Time on Task,” not teaching method, is the
best predictor of success in second language
learning.
– Of course, how that time is spent does make a
difference.
• Nothing clarifies the debate about teaching
methods like a definition of goals.
The Major ACTFL
Proficiency Levels
ILR Proficiency Level Summary
[With language “text type” highlighted in red]
LEVEL
FUNCTION/TASKS
5
All expected of an
educated NS [Books]
4
Tailor language, counsel, motivate,
persuade, negotiate [Chapters]
Wide range of
professional needs
3
Support opinions, hypothesize,
explain, deal with unfamiliar topics
[Multiple pages]
Practical, abstract,
special interests
1
Narrate, describe, give directions
[Multiple paragraphs]
Q & A, create with the language
[Multiple sentences]
0
Memorized [Words and Phrases]
2
CONTEXT/TOPICS
All subjects
Concrete, realworld, factual
ACCURACY
Accepted as an
educated NS
Extensive, precise,
and appropriate
Errors never
interfere with
communication &
rarely disturb
Intelligible even if
not used to dealing
with non-NS
Everyday survival
Intelligible with
effort or practice
Random
Unintelligible
The ACTFL and ILR Scales
Represent Significant, Substantive
Levels of Accomplishment
• Language is the most complex of human
behaviors.
• Language learning is an educational
process which slowly, but inexorably
reveals the limitations of any monolingual
view of the world.
Language Teachers are
Professional Educators.
• The study of second language acquisition is
a professional discipline.
– Graduate degrees are offered in the field.
– The discipline has professional journals,
organizations, and conferences.
– The field conducts an ever-expanding body of
research.
• Being a “native speaker” is not enough.
Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Evaluation and persuasion through refined use of
professional, literary, and rhetorical skills.
• Synthesis of concepts to produce and comprehend
abstract ideas and hypothetical situations.
• Analysis and definition of factual relationships in
paragraph length communications.
• Application of skills to create and understand new
communications.
• Comprehension and use of words and phrases.
• Memorization of facts.
Language and Cognition
• Levels 4 & 5, evaluation and persuasion through
refined use of professional rhetorical skills.
• Level 3, synthesis of ideas to produce and
comprehend abstract comments and hypothetical
situations expressed in essays, chapters, etc.
• Level 2, analysis and definition of relationships
expressed in multiple interrelated paragraphs.
• Level 1, application of skills to create and
understand sentence length communications.
• Level 0+, comprehension and use of words and
phrases.
• Level 0, memorization of facts.
Language and Perceived
Intelligence
It is good [for students] to become
acquainted with languages, for they may
have to go abroad, and should be able to
talk to people, and not look like fools. I
care not how much intelligence you have, if
you cannot exhibit it, you look like an
ignoramus.
John Taylor, 1852
A Continuing Problem
• 1975: The International Association for the
Evaluation of Educational Achievement published
the results of a study titled, The Teaching of
French as a Foreign Language in Eight Countries.
– In the U.S., the researchers could not find enough 12th
grade students with four years of language study to
complete the study as designed.
– The U.S. students ranked last in competence.
– The study found that “…the primary factor in the
attainment of proficiency in …any foreign language…
is the amount of instructional time provided.”
A Continuing Problem
• 1979: The President’s commission on
Foreign Language and International Studies
reported,
“Americans’ incompetence in Foreign
Languages is nothing short of scandalous,
and it is becoming worse.”
A Continuing Problem
• 1983: The Commission on Excellence in
Education
– Heard testimony that in the U.S., FL instruction
had yet to attain mediocrity.
– Published the report A Nation at Risk, which
recommended longer course sequences for
foreign language programs.
A Continuing Problem
• 2004: The Modern Language Association
survey of foreign language enrollments in
higher education reported:
– Total foreign language enrollments have
increased slightly.
– However, as a percentage of total enrollments,
foreign language enrollments are decreasing.
• In 1960 they were 16.1% of total enrollments.
• In 2002 they were only 8.3% of total enrollments.
And Now…
• The original 2007 federal budget figures from
the Office of Management and Budget showed
the following planned reductions:
Defense
Education
– 8.7%
– 24.4%
• The forecast: A competitive fiscal
environment.
How can language programs
become competitive?
• Assess the current status of our programs.
• Tell the real story.
• Support our story with test results.
What do tests have to do with
Teaching and Learning?
• It helps to begin with the end in mind.
• You can’t teach skills you can’t measure.
(Even if you could, how could you prove
you’ve done it?)
• Education is undergoing a paradigm shift from
instructional objectives to learner outcomes.
Changes in Accreditation
• There is an unprecedented move to replace
process reviews with outcome reviews.
• Accreditation and Student Learning Outcomes:
A proposed Point of Departure
–
–
–
–
Knowledge outcomes
Skills outcomes
Affective outcomes
Abilities (the integration of KSA outcomes)
Peter T. Ewell , Council for Higher Education Accreditation, September 2001
What will be the effect of these
accreditation requirements?
• More testing will take place.
– Some beneficial
– Some detrimental
• These tests will influence learning.
– The “Will that be on the test?” phenomenon.
– The temptation to “teach the test” instead of
teaching the skills necessary to pass the test.
– Every testing decision creates a washback effect.
“Washback” Effects
• Testing has a negative impact when:
– Educational goals are reduced to those that are
most easily measured.
– Testing procedures do not reflect course goals, for
instance…
• Giving multiple choice tests in speaking classes.
• Using grammar tests as a measure of general
proficiency.
– The test results don’t provide useful information.
The National Debate on
School Testing
• One formula for evaluating school performance
School score = (((((X23*100)*Y23) + ((X24*100)*Y24) +
((X25*100)*Y25) + ((X26*100)*Y26) +
((X27*100)*Y27) + ((X28*100)*Y28) +
((X29*100)*Y29) + ((X30*100)*Y30) / ((X23 + X24 +
X25 + X26 + X27 + X28 +X29 + X30)*100)) +
((((Z23*100)*Y23) + ((Z24*100)*Y24) +
((Z25*100)*Y25) + ((Z26*100)*Y26) + ((Z27*100)*Y27)
+ ((Z28*100)*Y28) + ((Z29*100)*Y29) +
((Z30*100)*Y30)) /((Z23 + Z24 + Z25 + Z26 + Z27 + Z28
+ Z29 + Z30)) / ((Z23 + Z 24 + Z25 + Z26 + Z27 + Z28 +
Z29 + Z30)*100))) / 2
The Wall Street Journal, May 21, 2001, page A24
The National Debate on
School Testing
• What would be the washback effect of this
evaluation formula?
– Perhaps Confusion?
– Perhaps Frustration?
– Perhaps “teaching the test” in a desperate
attempt to improve results?
Washback Effects of Tests
• Testing has a positive impact when:
– Tests reinforce course objectives.
(For students, nothing defines course
objectives like a test.)
– Tests can act as change agents for improving
teaching and learning.
Language Testing and Motivation
• Appropriate tests can motivate learners to
improve their skills.
• Appropriate tests can motivate teachers to
refine their teaching to match their students’
needs.
“Some considered projections” from
THE NATIONAL INTEREST AND
FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Eight- and ten-year sequences of foreign language study will
become common in the public schools.
The better colleges and universities will require demonstrated
proficiency (not high school “units”) in a foreign language for
entrance, and demonstrated proficiency in a second foreign
language (often non-Western) for graduation.
WILLIAM RILEY PARKER for
THE U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR UNESCO,
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 1961.
The National Debate on
School Testing
• What might have been the washback effect
if students’ language abilities had been used
to evaluate program effectiveness in 1961?
–
–
–
–
Perhaps clearer statements of objectives?
Perhaps more realistic learner expectations?
Perhaps more accurate course descriptions?
Perhaps qualitative feedback that would have
justified longer course sequences?
After four decades, why are Parker’s
projections not yet a reality?
• Lasting improvements are only sustainable if there
is a recognition of need for them.
• Norm-referenced grading gave little evidence of
real-world ability gaps.
• Accreditation was focused on process rather than
on outcomes, and provided no incentive to change.
• Administrators didn’t read the research results
showing that no improvements in teaching
methods or curricula can compensate for the
current lack of “time-on-task” in our educational
system.
International Research on
Learning French
• John B. Carroll, The Teaching of French in
Eight Countries (International Studies in
Evaluation V) John Wiley & Sons, New
York, 1975.
– “… the primary factor in the attainment of
proficiency in French (and presumably, any
foreign language) is the amount of instructional
time provided.” [Page 276]
International Research on
Learning English
• G. Bonnet, et al. The Assessment of Pupils’ skills
in English in Eight European Countries: 2002.
European Network of Policy makers for the
Evaluation of Education Systems, 2004.
– Students from those nations where there is more contact
with (and more time spent using) English have higher
levels of competence in English.
– In a language-rich environment, time spent using the
language is more important than the teaching methods
used in the classroom.
Assessing FL Learner Outcomes
• FL profession has made much progress in the
area of assessment and standards.
• Our ability to test students’ language
proficiency puts us ahead of many other
disciplines.
• But proficiency tests are not the only way to
measure learner outcomes.
• Which test is “best” will depend on:
– The purpose of the test.
– Each program’s instructional goals.
Matching Tests with Your
Instructional Purposes
• Some typical FL testing purposes.
–
–
–
–
Assigning course grades in a beginning class.
Placement of students into a sequence of courses.
Certifying a general level of ability for teachers.
Screening of job applicants.
• Some general instructional purposes.
– Achievement – knowledge of contributing language
elements found in a specific curriculum.
– Performance – ability to communicate in specific
settings.
– Proficiency – demonstration of unrehearsed ability.
If Tests Are to be
Positive Motivators
• We have to select the right
type of test for each testing
purpose.
The 3 Major Types of Tests
• Achievement = Memorized responses
using the content of a specific textbook or
curriculum.
• Performance = Rehearsed ability to
communicate in specific, familiar settings.
• Proficiency = Unrehearsed general ability
to accomplish communication tasks across a
wide range of topics and settings.
Some Common
Testing Purposes
• Assigning grades in a class.
• Placing students into a sequence of courses.
• Selecting an applicant for a job with
limited, static language requirements.
• Screening employees for future jobs with
broad, general language requirements.
Aligning testing programs with our
testing purposes requires knowing
what makes proficiency tests
different from
performance tests
and achievement tests.
The ILR/ACTFL Proficiency Scales are
Different, Because They:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Represent a geometric progression.
Use threshold rating criteria.
Do not use compensatory rating procedures.
Are a multidimensional measure of ability.
Apply Guttmann scaling criteria.
Are based on a wide range of “real world”
communication needs.
7. Assess unrehearsed language abilities.
1. The ILR/ACTFL scales represent a
geometric progression.
• Advancing from one level to the next
becomes increasingly difficult as one moves
up the scale.
• For instance, moving from 0 to 1 requires
less time and effort than moving from 2 to 3.
What are the Major Levels?
How are They Defined?
2. The ILR/ACTFL scales use
“threshold” rating criteria.
• Candidates must meet all of the stated
criteria for a given level.
• If they meet most, but not all of the criteria,
some award a “plus” designation to the next
lower level.
• For example, someone who meets the criteria
for Level 2 almost all of the time, could be
rated 1+.
3. The ILR/ACTFL Ratings Are
Not Based On Total, Average, or
Other “Compensatory” Scores.
• Ratings may be limited by one or more of the
task, context, and accuracy requirements.
• For example, a large vocabulary does not
compensate for inaccurate usage.
Implications of Points 2 and 3:
Assessment Criteria-Speaking
4. The ILR/ACTFL scales represent
a complex set of abilities.
• The ILR/ACTFL scale is a multi-dimensional
scale.
– The scale is not uni-dimensional like a rope that has been
cut into segments.
– It is multi-dimensional, because each level of the scale
represents a different constellation of supporting and
enabling skills.
• The ILR/ACTFL scale (and other complex
scales) cannot be represented by a onedimensional statistical model.
Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy
• Evaluation and persuasion through refined use of
professional, literary, and rhetorical skills.
• Synthesis of concepts to produce and comprehend abstract
ideas and hypothetical situations.
• Analysis and comparisons of factual relationships in
complex situations.
• Application of skills to apply facts and understand new
applications of those facts.
• Comprehension and facts learned.
• Memorization of facts.
Cognition and Language Taxonomy
• Levels 4 & 5, evaluation and persuasion through
•
•
•
•
•
refined use of professional rhetorical skills.
Level 3, synthesis of concepts to produce and
comprehend abstract ideas and hypothetical situations.
Level 2, analysis and description of factual relationships
in paragraph length communications.
Level 1, application of skills to create and understand
new communications. (Performance)
Level 0+, comprehension and use of words and
phrases. (Achievement / Performance)
Level 0, memorization of facts. (Achievement)
5. ILR/ACTFL Scale Ratings Apply
Guttmann Scaling Criteria.
• To qualify for any given rating, a person must
meet the criteria for that level and also satisfy
the criteria for all lower ratings.
• For instance, a Level 2 (Advanced) speaker
must also be able to satisfy Level 1
(Intermediate) task, topical, and accuracy
communication requirements.
6. The ILR/ACTFL ratings are
based on a range of “real world”
communication needs.
• The candidate must demonstrate sustained
ability across a wide range of topics and
real world settings.
• For instance, proficiency ratings can not be
assigned based on one’s:
– knowledge of a textbook.
– performance of a specific job task or set of tasks.
7. The ILR/ACTFL scales
assess unrehearsed abilities.
• Broad elicitation techniques are used to verify
sustainable ability versus limited performance.
• For instance,
– At level 1 (Intermediate), test takers must create new utterances, not
just recite dialogs.
– At level 2 (Advanced), they must handle new work requirements, not
just routine communications.
– At level 3 (Superior), they must hypothesize and defend opinions in
subjects beyond their personal interests and areas of specialization.
• “Proficiency” indicates transferable skills – not just
rehearsed performance in familiar areas.
A Summary of the Contrasts
Between Proficiency And
Rehearsed Performance
Task:
Context:
Accuracy:
Unrehearsed
Rehearsed
Proficiency
Performance
A wide range of abilities
Specific Job Skills
Broad, in-depth, variable
Focused, restricted
Ascending expectations
Situation dependent
So what?
Review of Major Test Types
• Achievement = Memorized responses
using the content of a specific textbook or
curriculum.
• Performance = Rehearsed ability to
communicate in specific, familiar settings.
• Proficiency = Unrehearsed general ability
to accomplish communication tasks across a
wide range of topics and settings.
A Self Assessment Quiz
• You will be asked about 6 different testing
purposes.
• For each of those test purposes, which type of
test would you choose?
a. Achievement.
b. Performance.
c. Proficiency.
Which type of test would you choose:
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency?
1. To assess students’ language learning
after Chapter 3 of a beginning
language course?
Which type of test would you choose:
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency?
1.
To assess students’ language learning after Chapter 3 of a beginning
language course?
2. To place students into a university’s
sequence of courses?
Which type of test would you choose:
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency?
1.
2.
To assess students’ language learning after Chapter 3 of a beginning
language course?
To place students into a university’s sequence of courses?
3. To test students completing a yearlong, intensive language course?
Which type of test would you choose:
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency?
1.
2.
3.
To assess students’ language learning after Chapter 3 of a beginning
language course?
To place students into a university’s sequence of courses?
To test students completing a year-long, intensive language course?
4. To screen job applicants for a
specific job with well-defined,
repetitive tasks?
Which test type would you choose:
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency?
1.
2.
3.
4.
To assess students’ language learning after Chapter 3 of a beginning
language course?
To place students into a university’s sequence of courses?
To test students completing a year-long, intensive language course?
To screen job applicants for a specific job with well-defined,
repetitive tasks?
5. To select someone to be the NATO
spokesperson on a news show with a
“hostile” moderator?
Which test type would you choose:
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
To assess students’ language learning after Chapter 3 of a beginning
language course?
To place students into a university’s sequence of courses?
To test students completing a year-long, intensive language course?
To screen job applicants for a specific job with well-defined,
repetitive tasks?
To select someone to be the NATO spokesperson on a news show
with a “hostile” moderator?
6. To document a person’s language
ability in that person’s official
personnel file?
Achievement, Performance, or Proficiency
Which test type did you choose?
1. To assess students’ language learning after
Chapter 3 of a beginning language course?
2. To place students into a university’s sequence of
courses?
3. To test students completing a year-long,
intensive language course?
4. To screen job applicants for a specific job with
well-defined, repetitive tasks?
5. To select someone to be the NATO spokesperson
on a “hostile” news show?
6. To document a person’s language ability in that
person’s official personnel file?
Solving Testing Problems
• “The solutions to our problems should be as
simple as possible, but no simpler.”
Albert Einstein
• There is no answer for the overly simple
question of “Which test is best?”
• There is an answer to the question, “Which
type of test is best for a given purpose?”
Which test is best?
• The test that matches the purpose for which the
results will be used.
– Use achievement tests for testing mastery of
lessons in a textbook.
– Use performance tests for checking rehearsed
abilities within specific contexts.
– Use proficiency tests for determining general,
unrehearsed ability in real-world situations.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Unrehearsed abilities assessed using infrequent proficiency tests.
Testing Second Language Skills
Superior
1600+ hours
Advanced
800+ hours
Intermediate
400+ hours
Novice
100+ hrs
Incremental skill development moving from achievement to rehearsed performance and
building a foundation for increased proficiency by using purposefully designed curricula to:
1. Learn relevant topical content.
2. Master level-appropriate communication tasks.
3. Document progress using ability profiles, test results, portfolios, etc.
Why are programs not assessed?
• It would be too much work.
• It is not “my thing.”
• We’d rather not know the results.
Why assess our programs?
• In today’s environment – if you don’t
measure it, you can’t get money for it.
• Assessment will help us articulate our
objectives.
– For ourselves.
– For the students.
– For program sponsors.
• Formative assessment allows informed
decision making.
The Improvement Process
• Set goals.
• Decide how to measure progress toward
those goals.
• Collect data.
• Analyze the results.
• Make informed changes.
• Repeat.
It won’t be easy, but if we are
willing to work together and
learn from the past…
then William Riley Parker’s
vision of second language
programs in the U.S. might
yet become a reality!
In the field of second language
teaching, the U.S. has a long history
of missed opportunities.
• Only if we are willing to document the
status of our programs, can we hope to
improve them.
• With limited resources, collaboration will
be more productive than competition.
Conclusion
• The past has not been perfect,
• and the future is conditional
• on whether the present is progressive.
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Priority Tasks for DOD - Northern Illinois University