Assessment and
Intervention
Strategies for Behaviors:
Part 2
Behavioral Intervention/Teaching Strategies
THE HOW!
January 2008 & January 2009
Revised July 2010
Bette Greer
Betsy Stanwood
Functions of Behavior
Target
Behavior
Pos Reinf
Attention
From:
Peers
Staff
Preferred
Adult
Power
For:
Control
Intimidation
Vengeance
Escape/
Avoidance
Neg Reinf
Self
Stimulation
Of:
To reduce:
Person
Activity
Classroom
Anxiety
Fear
Functions of Behavior
Pos Reinf
Attention
From:
Peers
Staff
Preferred
Adult
Target
Behavior
Neg Reinf
Hypothesis Statement for John
Sample from FBA:
When John is in a whole group instructional
classroom setting and is not recognized by the
adult he typically responds by talking out to
gain attention
What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:
Talking out
Function of John Sample’s Behavior from FBA:
Attention
Now define the Target (Inappropriate)
behavior for John in observable terms!
Describe John’s Target
(Inappropriate) Behavior
What Does It
Look Like?
What Does It
Sound Like?
•Frantic hand waving
•Calling out without
teacher recognition
•Pouting when not
called on by teacher or
staff
•Talking to neighbor
•Rolling around on the
carpet after being
reprimanded
•Making negative
comments following
another student’s
response
•Wandering from
assigned area
•Making noises that all
can hear during lesson
Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors
for John Sample
What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?
•Raising hand without waving arm
•Waiting without pouting for teacher recognition
•Responding by correcting behavior after being
reprimanded
•Remaining in assigned area
•Waiting without calling out for teacher attention
•Listening without talking to neighbor
•Listening to another student’s response without
commenting
•Listening without making noises that all can hear
during lesson
What Replacement Behavior Do We
Need to Teach John?
How to gain “Attention” appropriately
Teaching Strategies:
1.
Talk Ticket
2.
Breaking the Attention-Seeking Habit: The Power of Random
Positive Teacher Attention
http://www.interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/talkticket.php
http://www.interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/ncrft.php
3.
Verbal Outbursts
http://dpi.wi.gov/sped/doc/ebdveroutb.doc
4.
Student Help Signal
http://www.interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/interventions/study/helpsignal.php
5.
Rubber Band Intervention
http://www.interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/ rubberband.php
Teaching Strategies Continued
1.
1.
Photos of student
presenting target
behavior and
replacement
behavior
Visual cue card to
prompt student to
use replacement
behavior
Stop
Wait a minute
VISUAL
CUES
Finish work Tyler
Quiet Tyler
Use your calm space
Good Work Tyler
draw
read
Functions of Behavior
Target
Behavior
Pos Reinf
Power
For:
Control
Intimidation
Vengeance
Neg Reinf
Hypothesis Statement for Sally
Solution from FBA:
When Sally is in a classroom setting and is
asked to complete a task she typically responds
by refusing to engage to gain power and
control.
What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:
Refusal to Engage in Tasks
Function of Sally Solution’s Behavior from FBA:
Power
Now define the Target (Inappropriate)
behavior for Sally in observable terms!
Sally Solution Activity
Step 1:
In Teams, define Sally’s Inappropriate
Behavior
Step 2:
In Teams, define Sally’s Target/Desired
Replacement behaviors that will
taught.
Describe Sally’s Target
(Inappropriate) Behavior
What Does It
Look Like?
•Head down
•Pushing away materials
•Ripping worksheets
•Breaking pencils
What Does It Sound
Like?
•Saying “NO!”
•Saying threatening things like
“I’m going to hit you!”, “You can’t
make me do this!”, etc.
•Screaming
•Slamming materials to the floor
Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors
for Sally Solution
What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?
•Head up & looking at teacher
•Using materials correctly (i.e.
without ripping, or throwing,
without breaking pencils)
•Requesting assistance instead of
saying “no”, threatening or
screaming.
•Requesting use of an alternate
or modified task
What Replacement Behavior Do We
Need to Teach Sally?
How to gain “power/control” appropriately
Teaching Strategies
1.
Passive Resistance
http://dpi.wi.gov/sped/doc/ebdnoncomp.doc
2.
School-Wide Strategies for Managing... DEFIANCE / NONCOMPLIANCE
http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/interventionista/interventionista_intv_list.php?prob
_type=defiancenon_compliance
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Allow the Student a 'Cool-Down' Break
Ask Open-Ended Questions
Do Not Get Entangled in Arguments
Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests
Increase 'Reinforcement' Quality of the Classroom
Keep Responses Calm, Brief, and Businesslike
Offer the Student a Face-Saving Out
Listen Actively
Functions of Behavior
Pos Reinf
Target
Behavior
Escape/
Avoidance
Of:
Person
Activity
Classroom
Neg Reinf
Hypothesis Statement for Fred
Refusal from FBA:
When Fred is in the regular classroom setting
and is asked to complete an assignment he
typically responds by tearing or destroying
materials to gain escape/avoidance.
What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:
Tearing or destroying materials
Function of Fred Refusal’s Behavior from FBA:
Escape/Avoidance
Now define the Target (Inappropriate)
behavior for Fred in observable terms!
Fred Refusal’s Activity
Step 1:
In Teams, define Fred’s
Inappropriate Behavior
Step 2:
In Teams, define Fred’s
Target/Desired Replacement
behaviors that will taught.
Describe Fred’s Target
(Inappropriate) Behavior
What Does It Look
Like?
•Tearing up worksheets
•Marking/scribbling on paper
•Breaking pencils
What Does It Sound
Like?
•Making inappropriate comments to
other students
•Slamming books on the floor
•Knocking over desks
Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors
for Fred Refusal
What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?
•Raising hand without waving arm
•Asking teacher for help with difficult work
either verbally or with the use of a visual
•Asking for a calm break either verbally or
with the use of a visual
•Asking teacher to show him an example
verbally or with the use of a visual
•Tearing up non-school related paper as a
release
•Asking teacher for alternate work using a
script card
•Utilizing a wait card and “I’m Waiting”
folder
What Replacement Behavior Do We
Need to Teach Fred?
How to gain “Escape/Avoidance” appropriately
Teaching Strategies:
1. Accommodating All Students: 'Classic' Ideas That Teachers
Can Use to Diversify Classroom Instruction
http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/genAcademic/classic.php
•
•
•
•
•
Write assignments or complex directions on the board in addition to saying them Create
easy-to-follow 'strategy' sheet that lays out academic problem-solving steps in a clear
manner for student to refer to as needed. Give copies of this model to each student, and
mount poster-size versions on classroom walls.
Teach students acceptable, unobtrusive ways to get academic assistance from peers.
Put together 'help-signal' program: when a student gets 'stuck' on seatwork, he or she
displays help-signal (e.g., brightly colored index card) on desk, switches to other work until
teacher is freed up to approach and provide assistance.
Train classmates (or even older students from another classroom) to serve as floating 'peertutors' during seatwork, circulating around classroom to help students in difficulty.
Keep instructions brief. Break multi-step directions into smaller subsets-and have the
student complete one subset before advancing to another. Use simple, clear language.
2. Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management: 10 Strategies
http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/edtchng.php
Functions of Behavior
Pos Reinf
Target
Behavior
Neg Reinf
Self
Stimulation
To reduce:
Anxiety
Fear
Hypothesis Statement for
Sammy Stem Refusal from FBA:
“I'm happier 'n a
tornado in a trailer
park! “
When Sammy is in an instructional classroom
setting and is asked to participate or listen to
the group discussion he typically responds by
scripting out loud a cartoon episode to gain
self-stimulation.
What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:
Scripting
Function of Sammy Stem’s Behavior from FBA:
Self Stimulation
Now define the Target (Inappropriate)
behavior for Sammy in observable terms!
Sammy Stem’s Activity
Step 1:
In Teams, define Sammy’s
Inappropriate Behavior
Step 2:
In Teams, define Sammy’s
Target/Desired Replacement
behaviors that will taught.
“I'm happier 'n a
tornado in a trailer
park! “
Describe
Sammy’s Target
(Inappropriate) Behavior
What Does It Look
Like?
What Does It Sound
Like?
•Staring ahead and smiling
•Making noises such as car sounds
•Rocking back and forth
•Verbalizing words with character
intonations
•Lips moving
•Hands in motion
•Making loud responses
Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors
for Sammy Stem
What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?
•Raising hand to request a
sensory break
•Moving to the back of the
room to the “calm space”
area to listen to a tape or
engage in a prescribed
activity
•Presenting a cue card
requesting removal from the
class
•Drawing perseverative
thoughts rather than
speaking them
What Replacement Behavior Do We Need
to Teach Sammy?
How to gain “self stimulation” appropriately
Teaching Strategies:
1. Redirect self stim behavior
• Use the directive, "no movie talk"
• Used both auditory and written
cues to redirect scripting by
stating, "we are not talking about
the “The Godfather” right now, we
are talking about school“
• If the stim is "movie talk" and is
some how relative to school I may
follow the child's lead and say,
"Oh, you watched “The Godfather”
last night?“
“I made him
an offer he
couldn’t
refuse!”
Teaching Strategies Continued
2.
Present a Social Story on why
scripting bothers others
3.
Teach student appropriate way to
seek help
4.
Increase use of language
5.
Define a process to take a break
6.
Create a method to allow student
to define needs
7.
Use a diet of sensory input.
8.
Determine the reason for the stim
– define what the student should
be doing instead of stimming
Other Examples of
Teaching Strategies
Target
Behavior
Pos Reinf
Neg Reinf
“Reduce Frustration When Coming in Late”
1. Role play what student needs to do when coming in late
2. Utilize student/teacher agreement for minimizing
frustration
• Sharpen pencil at the end of the day in preparation
for the next day
• Keep lunch ticket in designated place so he can fill it
out quietly when coming in late
• Say to teacher, “I missed that part, can you explain
it to me?” when having missed the initial instruction
3. Teach the use of calming strategies
• Identify behaviors related to escalating frustration
• Utilize appropriate de-escalating tools or strategies
“Interact with Peers Appropriately”
1.
2.
3.
4.
Role play acceptable and unacceptable ways to attain
peer attention
Utilize a preferred peer to give visual feedback
(thumbs up/thumbs down) to indicate student’s use of
acceptable or unacceptable attention seeking behavior
Participate in structured game play with peers
Pre-teaching of role when participating in cooperative
learning groups in the general ed classroom
“Interact with Peers Appropriately”
Continued
3. Engage in problem solving discussion using a Problem
Solving Worksheet
“Communicate Need for
Academic Assistance”
1.
2.
3.
4.
Role play how to ask for help before getting upset
Use visual strategies and tools to request assistance
Create a “Secret Signal” with teacher to request help
Utilize a “Questions for Teacher” folder to be used at a
scheduled time to talk to teacher for clarification
HELP
?
Resources
NHCS Positive Behavioral Interventions
and Supports Training Modules
 NHCS Student Support & Intervention
System Manual
 Why Johnny Doesn’t Behave by Barbara
Bateman & Annemieke Golly
 Web Resources

-
http://dpi.wi.gov/sped/ebdbluepri.html
http://www.interventioncentral.com/
http://www.pbis.org/main.htm
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