Introduction to
Nanotechnology
Alberto Quiñonez, Ph.D.
Professor
Electronics and Advanced Technologies
Austin Community College
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Objective
The purpose of this module is to introduce the emerging
nanotechnology field to novices of nanotechnology.
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Topics
• Nanotechnology Terms and Definitions
• History of Nanotechnology
• Current and Future Trends, Research and Applications
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Preface
Is nanotechnology the gateway to the
future for human beings on Earth?
Figure 1.1: Where does your imagination take you?
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Emergence
Figure 1.2: A nanocar made from a single molecule.
“…its arsenal includes
nanotechnological
transjectors…It can
control other machines.”
Figure 1.3: Arnold Schwarzenegger’s character mentions
nanotechnology in “The Terminator 3” movie.
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Nanotechnology Language
Yow!
•Nanobio
•Nanodots
•Nanowires
•Nanoelectronics
•Nanobots
•Nanomaterials
•Nanochondria
Figure 1.4: Searching for nanotechnology.
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Definition
“Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at
dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique
phenomena enable novel applications.”
“Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology,
nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and
manipulating matter at this length scale.”
National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2007
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Scale of Things—Nanometers
Figure 1.5: National Nanotechnology Initiative.
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Internships
Figure 1.6: Sematech nanoscholar interns of Texas.
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Brief History
The concepts of nanotechnology are not new to nature or to
mankind. An early example of a manmade nanoprocess is stained
glass.
Figure 1.7: Stained glass windows.
Figure 1.8: Picture of gold nano particles.
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Brief History, Continued
Birth of Nanotechnology
• Professor Taniguchi of Tokyo Science
University used the word “nanotechnology”
to describe the science and technology of
processing or building parts with nanometric
tolerances.
•A nanometer is a unit of length in the metric
system, equal to one billionth of a meter. Figure 1.9:
Tokyo Science University.
Figure 1.10: Equivalent Units
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Brief History, Continued
Dr. Richard P. Feynman
• “Why cannot we write the entire 24
volumes of the Encyclopedia
Britannica on the head of a pin?”
Dr. Richard Feynman, one of
America’s most notable physicists,
1918-1988.
Figure 1.11: Richard Feynman.
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Brief History Continued,
Dr. Feynman, Continued
• “The problems of chemistry and
biology can be greatly helped if our
ability to see what we are doing, and
to do things on an atomic level, is
ultimately developed – a
development which I think cannot be
avoided.”
Surely You’re
Joking
Mr. Feynman!
Adventures of a Curious
Character
By Richard Feynman
Figure 1.12: Collection of reminiscences by
Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
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Brief History, Continued
Atomic Scale
• A computer image of the nano
ice double helix.
• In the nano ice image, oxygen
atoms are blue in the inner
helix, purple in the outer helix.
Hydrogen atoms are white.
Figure 1.13: A nanotechnology self-assembly process.
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More History
Eric Drexler
• Coined the term “Grey Goo”…the
potential problem of self-replicating and
autonomous artificial intelligence
machines.
Engines of Creation
The Coming Era
of Nanotechnology
By K. Eric Drexler
Figure 1.14: Drexler’s book.
Figure 1.15: DNA damage.
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More History, Continued
Eric Drexler, Continued
Cell Repair Machines
• “By working along molecule by
molecule and structure by
structure, repair machines will be
able to repair whole cells. By
working along cell by cell and
tissue by tissue, they…will be
able to repair whole organs…they
will restore health.” - Drexler, 1986
X
Figure 1.16: Stylized example of
targeted cell repair.
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More History, Continued
Metrology
• Measurement of equipment is the cornerstone of
nanotechnology.
Figure 1.17: Scanning probe microscope
systems from nanoscience instruments.
Figure 1.18: Scanning tunneling microscope
image.
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More History, Continued
Buckyballs
• Three gentlemen—Harold Kroto from the
University of Sussex, Robert Curl and
Richard Smalley from Rice University—were
awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in
1996 for their discovery of a new composition
of carbon, Carbon 60.
Figure 1.19: Carbon-60 buckyball is
shaped like a soccer ball.
Figure 1.20: Example of Nobel prize
diploma.
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More History, Continued
Fullerenes
• Carbon 60 was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, who
went by the nickname “Bucky.”
Figure 1.21: A “Buckyball.”
Figure 1.22: Dome over biosphere in Montreal.
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More History, Continued
Top-Down Approach
• Two approaches used in producing nanotechnology systems.
Top-down method is used by computer chip manufacturers.
Figure 1.23: Moore’s Law.
Figure 1.24: Photolithography.
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More History, Continued
Bottom-Up Approach
•Bottom-up approach to manufacturing is analogous to the way
biological systems are made.
Figure 1.25: An example of a molecular self assembly through hydrogen bonds.
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Summary
Nanotechnology is ubiquitous and pervasive. It is an emerging
field in all areas of science, engineering and technology.
Welcome to
NanoWorld!
Figure 1.26: Robot image.
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References
• American Ceramic Society (2006, March). Overview of Safety, Risks.
American Ceramic Society Bulletin. Vol. 85 Issue 3, p6, 1/6 p.
• Booker, Richard & Boysen, Earl (2005). Nanotechnology for Dummies. NJ:
Wiley Publishing Inc.
• Diott, D.D. (2006, April). Thinking big (and small) about energetic materials.
Material Science and Technology. Vol. 22 Issue 4. p. 463, 11p.
• Drexler, K. Eric (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of
Nanotechnology. New York: Anchor Books.
• Henderson, Donald (2006). Bioterrorism: Interview with Donald Henderson.
Asia Pacific Biotech News. Vol. 10, Issue 1, p.18, 9p.
• Intel (2007). Moore’s Law. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from
http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm
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References, Continued
• Lane, Neal & Kalil, Thomas (2005). The National Nanotechnology Initiative:
Present at the creation. Issues in Science & Technology; Summer 2005. Vol
21, p49, 6p.
• Lieberman, Marya (2007). Self-assembled monolayers and multilayers of
phthalocyanines. University of Notre Dame: Department of Chemistry and
Biochemistry. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.nd.edu/~mlieberm/
• Mandal, Deendayal; Bolander, Mark E.; Mukhopadhyay, Debrabrata;
Sarkar, Gobinda;
• Mukherjee, Priyabrata (2006, January). The use of Microorganisms for the
formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Applied Microbiology
and Biotechnology. Vol. 69 Issue 5, p. 485, 8p.
• Mostow, Jonathan (Director). (2003). Terminator 3: Rise Of The Machines
[Motion Picture]. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.
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References, Continued
• Murday, James F. (2005). Nanotechnology: Hype and Hope in Aerospace
Applications. Advanced Materials and Processes. Vol. 163, Issue 12, P. 21,
2p.
• Nanotechnology at UT Austin (2007). Graduate Portfolio Program.
Retrieved 6/27/2007 from http://www.cnm.utexas.edu/graduateportfolio.html
• Nanotechnology Now (2006, March). Nanotechnology documentary to be
filmed at nanoTX'06. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from http://www.nanotechnow.com/news.cgi?story_id=14281
• National Nanotechnology Initiative - NNI (2007). What is Nanotechnology?
Retrieved 6/25/2007 from http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html
• Rappaport, Tatiana Gabriela (2006). Semiconductors: Nanostructures and
applications in spintronics and quantum computation. Vol. 809 issue 1, p.326,
17p.
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References, Continued
• Ratner, Mark & Ratner, Daniel (2003). Nanotechnology: A Gentle
Introduction to the Next Big Idea. New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR.
• Rouekes, M. L., Fritz, S., Stix, G., Whiteside, G.M., Love, J.C., Alivisatos,
A.P. et al. (2002). Understanding Nanotechnology: Scientific American. New
York: Warner Books.
• Terra, Richard P. (2000, March). National Nanotechnology Initiative in
FY2001 Budget: Clinton Administration Requests $497 million for NT-Related
R&D Funding. Foresight Nanotech Institute. Retrieved 4/02/2007 from
http://www.foresight.org/Updates/Update40/Update40.1.html
• UNL News Releases (2006, December). Self-assembling nano-ice
discovered at UNL; structure resembles DNA. Retrieved 6/28/2007 from
http://ucommxsrv1.unl.edu/unlnews/public/fmpro?-db=unlnews.fp5&format=newsrelease.shtml&-lay=unlnews&-recid=33994&-find=
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References, Continued
• Wikipedia (2007). Moore’s Law. Retrieved 7/02/2007 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law
• Wikipedia (2007). Nature. Retrieved 7/05/2007 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Nature
• Wong, H.S. Philip (2006, March). Nanoelectronics – Opportunities and
Challenges. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems.
Vol. 16, Issue 1, p. 83, 12p.
• Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Epstein, Irving; Shimomura, Masatsugu; &
Kunitake, Toyoki (2005, December). Vol. 15, Issue 4, p. N, 3 p.
• Zyvex: Nanotechnology Website: There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.
Retrieved 6/27/2007 from http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html.
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Introduction to Nanotechnology