Introduction to the
Globally
Harmonised System
of Classification
and Labelling of
Chemicals (GHS)
August 2011
Course Objectives
Understand how and why the GHS was developed
Understand the purpose, objectives and benefits
of the GHS
Understand the scope and application of the GHS
Become familiar with the basic elements of the
GHS
Understand the GHS in relation to other
international agreements and standards
2
Chapter 1
Background, Context, and Scope and
Application of the GHS
Lesson 1: Background on the GHS
Lesson 2: Scope and Application of the GHS
Chapter 1: Objectives
Learn what the GHS is, and who is responsible
for it
Understand why the GHS was developed, and
how it relates to other international agreements
and standards
Learn how the GHS was developed
4
Lesson 1: Background on the GHS
This lesson will show:
What is the GHS
What is the “Purple Book”
Why and how the GHS was developed
What the role of the GHS is in chemical safety
management
Who is responsible for the GHS
How GHS relates to other international agreements
and standards on chemicals
5
The GHS
The Globally Harmonised System of Classification
and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is:
An international system that harmonises the
classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals
A logical and comprehensive approach for:
Defining health, physical, and environmental hazards
of chemicals
Applying agreed hazard criteria to classify chemicals
based on their hazardous effects
Communicating hazard information on labels and
safety data sheets
6
The Purple Book
United Nations (UN) publication of the GHS
Outlines the provisions in four parts:
Introduction (scope, definitions, hazard
communication)
Classification criteria for physical hazards
Classification criteria for health hazards
Classification of environmental hazards
7
Annexes
Annex 1
Allocation of label elements
Annex 2
Classification and labeling summary table
Annex 3
Codification of hazard statements, codification and use of
precautionary statements and examples of precautionary
pictograms
Annex 4
Guidance on the preparation of Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
Annex 5
Consumer product labeling based on the likelihood of injury
Annex 6
Comprehensibility testing methodology
Annex 7
Examples of arrangements of the GHS label elements
Annex 8
An example of Classification in the Globally Harmonized System
Annex 9
Guidance on hazards to the aquatic environment
Annex 10
Guidance on transformation/dissolution of metals and
metal compounds in aqueous media
8
9
Need for the GHS
Why was the GHS developed
Chemicals contribute to improving the standard
of living around the world:
Purifying water
Promoting growth of food
Improving hygiene
Producing essential goods
Use of these chemicals involves
risks to safety and health
10
How extensive is chemical use?
The world’s largest substance data base is the
Chemical Abstracts Service Registry:
Currently has over 60 million organic and inorganic
substances recorded
Not all are produced on a regular basis
Potential for harm to people is great:
Chemicals cause a broad range of health effects and
adverse effects on the environment
The International Labor Organization (ILO)
estimates that 25% of workplace deaths worldwide
are due to chemical exposures
11
Availability of chemical information
Many countries have tried to address protection
from chemicals through laws that require
dissemination of information about their hazards:
These laws are similar, but vary in definitions of
hazards covered, information required on labels,
and provisions for safety data sheets
The result is a disparity in the extent of information
provided, the form it is provided in, and the
coverage of chemicals and people
Other countries have no coverage
12
Results of conflicting requirements
Extensive international trade in chemicals results
in exposed people seeing a wide variety of labels
and safety data sheets
Differences in communication practices lead to
differences in effectiveness
The broad range of provisions also leads to
technical barriers to trade
Small companies in particular are effectively left
out of international trade by the difficulties of
complying with all these requirements
13
14
The GHS addresses these issues
Provides a chemical classification and labelling
system that is updated and maintained
internationally
Includes provisions for a common and coherent
approach to classifying hazards and preparing
labels and safety data sheets
Results in more effective communication
worldwide
Facilitates trade in chemicals
15
Benefits of the GHS
Provides global benefits, as well as benefits to
governments, industry, and chemical users
(workers and consumers):
Enhances the protection of human health and the
environment through the provision of harmonised
chemical safety and health information
Reduces the need for duplicative testing of
chemicals
Provides the informational infrastructure for
chemical safety and health management programs
Increases efficiencies; reduces costs of compliance;
lowers health care costs, etc.
16
How was the GHS developed?
International mandate was adopted in the 1992
United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development:
“A globally harmonised hazard
classification and compatible labelling
system, including material safety data
sheets and easily understandable
symbols, should be available, if feasible,
by the year 2000.”
17
Development of the GHS
Agenda 21 of the UNCED agreements included the
mandate, and instructed the developers to build
on existing systems
The process ultimately included numerous
countries, multiple international organizations, and
many stakeholder representatives
The GHS was developed based on consensus
among the participants
18
What is the GHS based on?
A meeting of experts convened by the ILO
identified the following existing systems as the
primary basis for the GHS:
Requirements of systems in the United States for
the workplace, consumers and pesticides
Requirements of Canada for the workplace,
consumers and pesticides
European Union directives for classification and
labelling of substances and preparations
The United Nations Recommendations on the
Transport of Dangerous Goods
19
Basis Principles of Harmonisation
In order to guide the discussions, the participants
agreed to a set of basic principles
Key among these was an agreement that the level
of protection offered by existing systems would
not be reduced as a result of harmonising the
provisions
This allowed countries to participate in
negotiations on the basis that the protection of
their current systems would be maintained or
enhanced as a result of harmonisation
20
Other principles
The GHS would be based on the classification of
hazards (i.e., intrinsic properties)
Sectors would be able to choose those parts of the
GHS relevant to them
Hazard communication would be addressed in
addition to classification
Comprehensibility (communicating information in
an understandable manner) is key
Validated data can continue to be used
Confidential business information needs to be
addressed
21
Who developed the GHS?
The Interorganization Programme for the Sound
Management of Chemicals’ Coordinating Group for
the Harmonisation of Chemical Classification
Systems managed the process of harmonisation
The Coordinating Group included representatives of
interested countries, international organizations,
and stakeholders
The technical work was completed by technical focal
points with expertise in the area involved
22
International organization responsibilities
International Labor Organization (ILO):
Secretariat for the Coordinating Group and the
hazard communication work group
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD): Secretariat for health
and environmental hazard criteria, including
mixtures
United Nations’ Subcommittee of Experts on
the Transport of Dangerous Goods:
Secretariat for physical hazard criteria
23
Who is responsible for implementing the GHS?
The type of international legal instrument the GHS
is considered to be is a “non-mandatory
recommendation”
The GHS provisions become mandatory in
countries or regions that adopt the GHS
Overseeing national or regional implementation is
the responsibility of the competent authorities that
adopt the GHS provisions. There is no
international body that monitors implementation
for compliance
24
Who is responsible
Internationally, the UN Subcommittee of Experts
on the GHS is responsible for the maintenance,
updating and promotion of the GHS:
Over 30 countries have jointed the S/C
Observer countries and stakeholders also
participate
25
26
S a fe U s e o f
C h e m ic a ls
R is k
M anagem ent
S ystem s
(ris k c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
e x p o s u re m o n ito rin g /c o n tr o l)
H a z a r d C o m m u n ic a t io n
( G H S L a b e ls a n d S D S )
G H S C la s s ific a tio n
GHS as the Basis for National Chemicals Management
Programmes
GHS/Other international instruments
27
Strategic Approach to International Chemicals
Management (SAICM)
Rotterdam Convention/Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
Stockholm Convention/Persistent Organic Pollutants
(POPs)
Basel Convention/Hazardous Waste
ILO Instruments re: chemicals
International Chemical Control Toolkit (Control Banding)
Lesson 2: Scope and application of the GHS
This lesson will show:
What chemicals are covered in the GHS
Sectors affected by the GHS
How the hazard communication components are
applied
The Building Block approach
Principles of hazard vs. risk
Principles of consumer product labelling based on
likelihood of injury
28
What chemicals are covered?
All hazardous chemicals are covered:
Includes substances, products, mixtures,
preparations, formulations, and solutions.
29
Chemical product life cycle
30
Application of the hazard communication components
The need for labels and safety data sheets varies
by the product and the stage of the life cycle:
Pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics, and
pesticide residues in food will not be covered at the
point of consumption (e.g., where a patient is taking
a pharmaceutical), but will be covered in the
workplace and in transport
These types of products are generally regulated
based on risk where the consumer is exposed so are
not subject to hazard communication
31
Sectors affected by the GHS
The GHS is intended to cover any place where
people are exposed to hazardous chemicals
Considering coverage of chemicals by sector is a
convenient way to indicate different ways they
may be covered due to differing exposures
However, countries may identify the sectors in any
way that is appropriate to their regulatory system,
as long as they consider all types of exposures
32
Sectors that may be considered
Industrial workplace: Workers are a key sector to
be considered. Chemicals are often present in all
types of workplaces, from manufacturing facilities
to construction, retail services to health care.
Agriculture (pesticides): Involves both workplace
and consumer exposures, and is often regulated
separately by countries.
33
Sectors, cont.
Transport (emergency response): Another subset
of occupational exposures that is often regulated
separately. Involves many provisions beyond
classification and labelling (e.g., packaging).
These are addressed in the UN Recommendations
on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Also
impacts public exposures.
Consumer Products (public): Involves products
sold to the general public, and exposures of
vulnerable populations (e.g., children).
34
Building block approach
The GHS includes all of the regulatory tools
needed to cover any of the sectors, hazards, or
chemicals present:
Competent authorities can choose their own scope of
coverage from the comprehensive choices presented in
the GHS
Coverage may vary among sectors in the same country
The GHS provides the building blocks to construct an
appropriate regulatory system
35
Expected sector application
Transport: similar to current transport system
covering physical hazards, acute toxicity,
corrosivity, and aquatic toxicity; pictograms used
to convey hazards
Workplace: all types of health and physical
hazards; labels and safety data sheets,
supplemented by training
Consumers: labels primary focus
36
Differentiating hazard vs. risk
GHS is based primarily on the identification of the
intrinsic properties of chemicals (hazards) that
may cause harm
Risk is the likelihood of the harm, and is
characterized by relating the expected exposure to
the hazard identified
Hazard x Exposure = Risk
37
GHS Hazard Classification

The purpose of the GHS is to provide information
about the hazards of a chemical in order to help
people determine the appropriate protections. This
involves identifying the hazard; assessing the severity
of the effect; and communicating the information to
users.

When chemical users have information about the
hazards, they can relate it to the exposure where it is
used, and thus determine the risk. This is referred to
as risk assessment. Determining the way to protect
people is risk mitigation. Risk assessment and risk
mitigation are uses of the GHS hazard classifications.
38
Hazard Assessment Process
39
Risk Assessment
40
Optional consumer product labels
Some systems provide information on consumer
labels regarding chronic health hazards only after
considering risk (not based on hazards alone)
Since labels are the only means to provide
information to consumers, these systems consider it
important to consider the likelihood of injury before
providing information on chronic effects
Annex 5 of the GHS outlines general principles for
this process while not addressing harmonisation of
risk-based labelling for consumer products
41
Chapter 2
Technical Overview of the GHS
Lesson 1 Classification
Lesson 2 Hazard Communication
Chapter 2 Objectives
Be familiar with the main elements of the GHS
Understand who is responsible for development of
the elements
Learn what hazards are covered by the GHS
Learn what the GHS hazard communication tools
include and how the information is obtained by
users
43
Lesson 1: Classification
This lesson will show:
How classification is done under the GHS, and who
is responsible for it
What physical, health, and environmental hazards
are covered under the GHS
44
What is hazard classification?
The GHS describes the process as follows:
Identification of relevant data regarding the specific
hazard of the substance or mixture.
Subsequent review and quality check of those data
to ascertain the hazards associated with the
substance or mixture.
A decision on whether the substance or mixture will
be classified as a hazardous substance or mixture
and the degree of hazard, where appropriate, by
comparison of the data with agreed hazard
classification criteria.
45
Key definitions
“Hazard class” means the nature of the physical,
health or environmental hazard, e.g., flammable
solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity
“Hazard category” means the division of criteria
within each hazard class, e.g. oral acute toxicity
includes five hazard categories and flammable
liquids include four hazard categories
46
Acute Toxicity
Exposure route
Oral (mg/kg bodyweight)
see:
Note (a)
Dermal (mg/kg bodyweight)
see:
Note (a)
Gases (ppmV)
see:
Note (a)
Note (b)
Vapours (mg/l)
see:
Note (a)
Note (b)
Note (c)
Note (d)
Dusts and Mists (mg/l)
see:
Note (a)
Note (b)
Note (e)
Category 1 Category 2
47
Category 3
Category 4
Category 5
5000
5
50
300
2000
50
200
1000
2000
100
500
2500
20000
0.5
2.0
10
20
0.05
0.5
1.0
5
See detailed
criteria in
Note (f)
Who classifies hazards?
The GHS is designed to be a “self” classification
system, i.e., chemical manufacturers classify their
products based on evaluation of data and expert
judgment
Some competent authorities may choose to
classify chemicals, and provide lists of
classifications
Chemical users do not have to undertake the
classification process, but can rely on the
information provided by their suppliers with the
products when they purchase them
48
How were the criteria developed?
Physical hazard criteria were based on the existing
definitions in the UN transport system, revised to
address other sectors
Health and environmental hazard criteria in
existing systems were compared and analyzed
The most current scientific information was
reviewed (and will be updated as necessary by the
Subcommittee)
Negotiators agreed to harmonised approaches
based on the information assembled
49
50
Physical Hazards
Hazard Class
Explosives
Flammable Gases (including
chemically unstable gases)
Aerosols
Oxidising Gases
Gases Under Pressure
Compressed Gases
Liquefied Gases
Refrigerated Liquefied
Gases
Dissolved Gases
Flammable Liquids
Flammable Solids
Self-reactive Substances
Pyrophoric Liquids
Pyrophoric Solids
Self-heating Substances and
Mixtures
Hazard Category
Unstable
Explosives
Div 1.1
1
1A
1B
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
2
Type
B
Type A
Div
1.2
Div
1.3
Div
1.4
Div
1.5
Div
1.6
2
2A
2B
3
4
Type
C
Type
D
Type
E
Type
F
Type
G
Type
D
Type
E
Type
F
Type
G
1
1
1
2
Substances and mixtures
which, in contact with water,
emit flammable gases
1
2
3
Oxidising Liquids
Oxidising Solids
1
1
2
2
Type
B
3
3
Type
C
Organic Peroxides
Type A
Corrosive to Metals
1
51
Health Hazards
Hazard Class
Acute Toxicity
Hazard Category
1
2
3
4
5
1A
1B
1C
2
3
1
2A
2B
1
1A
1B
1A
1B
2
1A
1B
2
1A
1B
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
Acute Toxicity: Oral
Acute Toxicity: Dermal
Acute Toxicity: Inhalation
Skin Corrosion/Irritation
Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation
Respiratory or Skin Sensitisation
Germ Cell Mutagenicity
Carcinogenicity
Reproductive Toxicity - Fertility
Specific Target Organ Toxicity - Single Exposure
Specific Target Organ Toxicity - Repeated Exposure
Aspiration hazard
Lactation
52
Environmental Hazards
Hazard Class
Hazard Category
Aquatic toxicity, acute
1
2
3
Aquatic toxicity, chronic
1
2
3
Hazardous to the ozone layer
1
4
Mixture Classification

Where test data are available for the complete
mixture, the classification will generally be based on
that data.

Where test data are not available for the mixture
itself, then bridging principles included and explained
in each specific chapter should be considered to see
whether they permit classification of the mixture.
Bridging principles allow extrapolation of data from
similar mixtures to perform classifications of untested
mixtures.
53
Mixture Classification, cont.
In addition, for health and environmental hazards:
If (i) test data are not available for the mixture itself,
and (ii) the available information is not sufficient to
allow application of the above mentioned bridging
principles, then the agreed method(s) described in
each chapter for estimating the hazards based on the
information known will be applied to classify the
mixture.
54
Lesson 2: Hazard communication
This lesson will show:
The purpose of hazard communication in the GHS
The core label elements on a GHS label
How to read a label and find the GHS information
How to identify the elements of a safety data sheet
(SDS) in the GHS
How to find information in a GHS SDS
How confidential business information is addressed
in the GHS
55
Hazard communication tools
Once the hazards are identified in the classification
process, the information must be provided to:
Downstream users and handlers
Professionals providing services or designing
protective measures for those exposed
Information provided must be accurate,
comprehensive, and provided in an
understandable manner
Information tools and needs may vary by sector
56
Comprehensibility principles
Information should be conveyed in more than one
way.
Comprehensibility should consider the findings of
existing studies and data.
Phrases indicating degree of hazard should be
consistent across different hazard types.
Words and phrases should retain comprehensibility
when translated into other languages.
Format and color of the label elements and SDS
format should be standardized.
57
Tools available
Labelling/Placards
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs)/Transport Documents
Training
58
Tools available by sector
Workplace/industrial sector: labels, SDSs, specific
training
Agriculture/pesticides: labels, specific training,
SDSs in some situations
Consumers: labels
Emergency responders: labels, placards, specific
training, transport documents
Transport: labels, placards, transport documents,
specific training
59
Hazard vs. risk communication
GHS is a hazard communication system—the
information is provided on the basis of the intrinsic
properties of the chemical
It is difficult for suppliers to fully understand the
exposures that may be generated by their users
The information provided should lead to risk
mitigation—having hazard information allows
users to choose appropriate protective measures
60
Confidential business information
The GHS recognizes that there is legitimate
confidential business information regarding
chemicals, and that there is a legitimate safety
and health need for disclosure of that information
in some situations
The GHS provides principles regarding CBI that
countries should follow when addressing this issue
61
CBI Principles
Limit to chemical names/concentrations
Indicate information has been withheld
Disclose CBI to competent authority on request
Disclose to medical professionals in emergencies
Non-emergency disclosure should be done where
there is a need and a means to protect
confidentiality
Process for challenges to disclosure
62
Understand and read GHS labels
Harmonised label elements:
Symbol/pictogram
Signal word
Hazard statement(s)
Other core information to be provided
Product identifier
Supplier identification
Precautionary statement(s)
63
Allocation of label elements
Product Identifier
Identity of Hazardous Ingredients
Pictogram (Symbol in Red Frame)
Signal Word (Warning)
Hazard Statement(s) (Harmful if inhaled)
Precautionary Statement(s) (Use only outdoors or in a wellventilated area)
Name and Address of Company
Phone Number
64
65
GHS Pictograms and Hazard Classes
•
Oxidizers
•
•
•
•
•
•
Flammables
Self-reactives
Pyrophorics
Self-heating
Emits flammable gas
Organic peroxides
•
•
•
Explosives (1.1-1.4)
Self-reactives
Organic peroxides
•
Acute toxicity
(severe)
•
•
•
Corrosive to metals
Skin corrosion
Serious eye damage
•
Gases under pressure
•
•
Carcinogenicity
Respiratory
sensitization
Toxic to reproduction
Specific target organ
toxicity (repeated)
Germ cell
mutagenicity
Aspiration hazard
•
Aquatic toxicity
(acute)
Aquatic toxicity
(chronic)
•
Acute toxicity
(harmful)
Skin/eye irritation
Skin sensitization
Specific target organ
toxicity (single)
Hazardous to the
ozone layer
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
66
Signal words
Signal words serve two purposes in the GHS:
Get the attention of the label reader
Indicate the severity of the hazard
There are two signal words in the GHS
Danger
Warning
67
Hazard statements
Describe the hazards covered by the GHS
Indicate the degree of severity of the hazard
Text of the statements has been harmonised
Harmonised statements are assigned to each
hazard class and category, and have been codified
(a numbering system has been applied to them for
ease of reference)
Example: H318 Causes serious eye damage.
68
Allocation of harmonised label elements
The GHS includes an appendix which specifies the
harmonised label elements for each hazard class
and category:
Pictogram
Signal word
Hazard statement
69
70
Other required information
Precautionary statements are required. The GHS
includes possible statements, but they have not
yet been harmonised
There are 5 types of statements: General,
Prevention, Response, Storage, and Disposal
These have been assigned to hazard classes and
categories, and codified (numbered).
Example: P280 Wear eye protection/face
protection.
71
Precautionary pictograms
Some systems may choose to illustrate
precautionary information using pictograms.
These are not harmonised in the GHS.
72
Product and supplier identification
Chemical identity required for substances
For mixtures either:
All the ingredients contributing to the hazard of the
mixture/alloy, or
All the ingredients contributing to any health
hazards presented by the product other than
irritation and aspiration
Supplier identification required on all labels,
including name, address, and phone number
73
Other label provisions
Supplementary information may also be required
or permitted by competent authorities to provide
other items such as directions for use
Competent authorities should also specify how
often labels are to be updated
74
GHS Label
75
ToxiFlam
(Contains XYZ Hazardous
Ingredients)
Toxic if Swallowed
Highly Flammable Liquid and
Vapour
IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a
Poison Control Center or physician.
Rinse mouth.
Do not eat, drink, or use tobacco when
using this product. Wash hands
thoroughly after handling. Wear
protective gloves and eye/face
protection.
In case of fire, use water fog, dry
chemical, carbon dioxide or “alcohol”
foam.
Keep container tightly closed. Keep
away from heat/sparks/open flame. No
smoking. Ground containers and
receiving equipment. Use explosionproof electrical equipment. Take
precautionary measures against static
discharge. Use only non-sparking tools.
Store in cool/well-ventilated place.
ToxiFlam Manufacturing Company
Route 66, MyTown, TX 00000
1 555 666 8888
Combination GHS/transport label
ToxiFlam
Contains XYZ
FLAMMABLE LIQUID, TOXIC, N.O.S.
UN 1992
Danger
Toxic if Swallowed
Highly Flammable Liquid and Vapour
Do not eat, drink, or use tobacco when using this
product.
Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
Wear protective gloves and eye/face protection.
Keep container tightly closed. Keep away from heat,
sparks and open flames. No smoking. Ground
container and receiving equipment. Use explosionproof electrical equipment. Take precautionary
measures against static discharge.
Use only non-sparking tools. Store in cool/wellventilated place.
IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a Poison Control
Center or physician. Rinse mouth.
See Safety Data Sheet for further details regarding safe
use of this product.
ToxiFlam Manufacturing Company, Route 66,
MyTown, TX 00000
Phone: 1 555 666 8888
76
Workplace labeling
77
GHS safety data sheet
Comprehensive sources of information about
substances and mixtures
Provides information about the hazards, but also
information to establish risk management
programs
Audiences for the 16 sections vary, but include
workers, safety engineers, physicians, and other
professionals providing protection to exposed
people
78
SDS
16 sections specified in a given order of
information
Information in the beginning sections have a
broad audience
More detailed, technical information included in
following sections
Required for substances/mixtures meeting criteria;
mixtures containing chronic hazards above cutoffs; and unclassified substances or mixtures as
required by competent authorities
79
Minimum SDS Information by Section
1. Identification of the substance 
or mixture and of the supplier 



2. Hazards identification



3. Composition/information on
ingredients
GHS product identifier.
Other means of identification.
Recommended use of the chemical and
restrictions on use.
Supplier’s details (including name,
address, phone number, etc.).
Emergency phone number.
GHS classification of the substance/mixture
and any national or regional information.
GHS label elements, including
precautionary statements. (Hazard symbols
may be provided as a graphical reproduction
of the symbols in black and white or the
name of the symbol, e.g., flame, skull and
crossbones.).
Other hazards which do not result in
classification (e.g., dust explosion hazard) or
are not covered by the GHS.
Substance




Chemical identity.
Common name, synonyms, etc.
CAS number and other unique identifiers.
Impurities and stabilizing additives which
are themselves classified and which
contribute to the classification of the
substance.
Mixture

The chemical identity and concentration or
concentration ranges of all ingredients
which are hazardous within the meaning of
the GHS and are present above their cut-off
levels.
NOTE: For information on ingredients,
competent authority rules for CBI, if applicable,
take priority over the rules for product
identification.
4. First aid measures


Description of necessary measures,
subdivided according to the different routes
of exposure, i.e., inhalation, skin and eye
contact, and ingestion.
Most important symptoms/effects, acute and
80
Minimum SDS Information by Section cont.
5. Fire fighting measures




6. Accidental release measures


Suitable (and unsuitable) extinguishing
media.
Specific hazards arising from the chemical
(e.g., nature of any hazardous combustion
products).
Special protective equipment and
precautions for fire-fighters.
Personal precautions, protective equipment
and emergency procedures.
Environmental precautions.
Methods and materials for containment and
cleaning up.
7. Handling and storage


Precautions for safe handling.
Conditions for safe storage, including any
incompatibilities.
Exposure controls/ personal
8. protection.

Control parameters, e.g., occupational
exposure limit values or biological limit
values.
Appropriate engineering controls.
Individual protection measures, such as
personal protective equipment.


9. Physical and chemical
properties


















Appearance (physical state, colour, etc.).
Odour.
Odour threshold.
pH.
Melting point/freezing point.
Initial boiling point and boiling range.
Flash point.
Evaporation rate.
Flammability (solid, gas).
Upper/lower flammability or explosive
limits.
Vapour pressure.
Vapour density.
Relative density.
Solubility(ies).
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water.
Auto-ignition temperature.
Decomposition temperature.
Viscosity.
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Minimum SDS Information by Section cont.
10. Stability and reactivity




11. Toxicological information
Concise but complete and comprehensible
description of the various toxicological (health)
effects and the available data used to identify
those effects, including:
Reactivity.
Chemical stability.
Possibility of hazardous reactions.
Conditions to avoid (e.g., static discharge,
shock or vibration).
 Incompatible materials.
 Hazardous decomposition products.
 Information on the likely routes of exposure
(inhalation, ingestion, skin and eye contact).
 Symptoms related to the physical, chemical
and toxicological characteristics.
 Delayed and immediate effects and also
chronic effects from short- and long-term
exposure.
 Numerical measures of toxicity (such as
acute toxicity estimates).
12. Ecological information
 Ecotoxicity (aquatic and terrestrial, where
available).
 Persistence and degradability.
 Bioaccumulative potential.
 Mobility in soil.
 Other adverse effects.
13. Disposal considerations
 Description of waste residues and
information on their safe handling and
methods of disposal, including the disposal
of any contaminated packaging.
82
Minimum SDS Information by Section cont.
14. Transport information







15. Regulatory information
16. Other information including
information on preparation
and revision of the SDS

UN Number.
UN Proper shipping name.
Transport Hazard class(es).
Packing group, if applicable.
Environmental hazards (e.g., Marine
pollutant (Yes/No)).
Transport in bulk (according to Annex II of
MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code).
Special precautions which a user needs to be
aware of or needs to comply with in
connection with transport or conveyance
either within or outside their premises.
Safety, health and environmental regulations
specific for the product in question.
83
84
Chapter 3
Other Issues Related to
Implementation
UNITAR Steps to Implementation
UNITAR has identified the following outcomes as leading to a
successful implementation process:

Multi-stakeholder engagement and collaboration

Situation and gap analysis

Awareness raising and training

National GHS-implementing legislation

Sectoral implementation plans

High-level endorsement of a National GHS Implementation
Strategy (“road map” for future activities)
85
UNITAR/ILO Approach for GHS Implementation
86
Participatory Process
Questions to consider re: stakeholder
involvement:
What types of groups are relevant?
What is the nature of participation by business and
industry, and civil society”
What types of resources are available to support
involvement?
How will lead organizations/points of contact be
identified?
87
Types of Activities to Involve Stakeholders

Information and awareness raising meetings

Industry or civil society-specific workshops

Training and information-sharing

Committees

Review/comment on draft policies/legislation

Develop networking and alliances

Involvement in the UN Subcommittee of Experts on
GHS
88
Legislative options
Depends on a number of factors:
Existing industrial infrastructure
Legal frameworks
Implementation capacity
UNITAR Guidance Document: Developing a
National GHS Implementation Strategy (2010)
89
Common Implementation Issues

GHS Building Block approach and its application
vs. international harmonisation for each sector

Need to improve “harmonisation” of
implementation as an on-going process (e.g.
consultation with trading partners, transition
times, regional coordination, sharing experience,
etc.)

Countries need to recognize that to be
harmonised, they must give up some of their
existing requirements while maintaining overall
protections
90
Contacts
Training and Capacity Building Programmes in
Chemicals and Waste Management
UNITAR
Palais des Nations
CH-1211 Geneva 10
Switzerland
Fax:
+ 41 22 917 8047
Email: [email protected]
Website:www2.unitar.org/cwg
91
Contacts
Orange House Partnership npo/VZW
Postal address: Kampendaal 83, 1653 Dworp
(Brussels), Belgium
Visiting address: Rond Point Schuman 9, 6th floor,
1040 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: +32 23045903
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.orangeOhouse.eu
92
Photo Credits
UNITAR (Zambian chemical worker)
US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation
Board (chemical incidents)
US Environmental Protection Agency (heavy
equipment operation)
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Title of the presentation - UNITAR | Knowledge to lead