CSE 5331/7331
Fall 2011
DATA MINING
Introductory and Related Topics
Margaret H. Dunham
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Southern Methodist University
Slides extracted from Data Mining, Introductory and Advanced Topics, Prentice Hall, 2002.
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Data Mining Outline



PART I
– Introduction
– Techniques
PART II – Core Topics
PART III – Related Topics
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Introduction Outline
Goal: Provide an overview of data mining.
Define data mining
 Data mining vs. databases
 Basic data mining tasks
 Data mining development
 Data mining issues

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Introduction
Data is growing at a phenomenal rate
 Users expect more sophisticated
information
 How?

UNCOVER HIDDEN INFORMATION
DATA MINING
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Data Mining Definition
Finding hidden information in a
database
 Fit data to a model
 Similar terms

– Exploratory data analysis
– Data driven discovery
– Deductive learning
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Data Mining Algorithm

Objective: Fit Data to a Model
– Descriptive
– Predictive
Preference – Technique to choose the
best model
 Search – Technique to search the data

– “Query”
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Database Processing vs. Data
Mining Processing

Query

– Well defined
– SQL

Data
– Poorly defined
– No precise query language

– Operational data

Output
– Precise
– Subset of database
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Query
Data
– Not operational data

Output
– Fuzzy
– Not a subset of database
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Query Examples

Database
– Find all credit applicants with last name of Smith.
– Identify customers who have purchased more
than $10,000 in the last month.
– Find all customers who have purchased milk

Data Mining
– Find all credit applicants who are poor credit
risks. (classification)
– Identify customers with similar buying habits.
(Clustering)
– Find all items which are frequently purchased
with milk. (association rules)
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Data Mining Models and Tasks
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Basic Data Mining Tasks

Classification maps data into predefined
groups or classes
– Supervised learning
– Pattern recognition
– Prediction


Regression is used to map a data item to a
real valued prediction variable.
Clustering groups similar data together into
clusters.
– Unsupervised learning
– Segmentation
– Partitioning
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Basic Data Mining Tasks
(cont’d)

Summarization maps data into subsets with
associated simple descriptions.
– Characterization
– Generalization

Link Analysis uncovers relationships among
data.
– Affinity Analysis
– Association Rules
– Sequential Analysis determines sequential
patterns.
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Ex: Time Series Analysis




Example: Stock Market
Predict future values
Determine similar patterns over time
Classify behavior
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Data Mining vs. KDD
Knowledge Discovery in Databases
(KDD): process of finding useful
information and patterns in data.
 Data Mining: Use of algorithms to
extract the information and patterns
derived by the KDD process.

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KDD Process
Modified from [FPSS96C]





Selection: Obtain data from various sources.
Preprocessing: Cleanse data.
Transformation: Convert to common format.
Transform to new format.
Data Mining: Obtain desired results.
Interpretation/Evaluation: Present results
to user in meaningful manner.
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KDD Process Ex: Web Log

Selection:
– Select log data (dates and locations) to use

Preprocessing:
– Remove identifying URLs
– Remove error logs

Transformation:
– Sessionize (sort and group)

Data Mining:
– Identify and count patterns
– Construct data structure

Interpretation/Evaluation:
– Identify and display frequently accessed sequences.

Potential User Applications:
– Cache prediction
– Personalization
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Data Mining Development
•Relational Data Model
•SQL
•Association Rule Algorithms
•Data Warehousing
•Scalability Techniques
•Similarity Measures
•Hierarchical Clustering
•IR Systems
•Imprecise Queries
•Textual Data
•Web Search Engines
•Bayes Theorem
•Regression Analysis
•EM Algorithm
•K-Means Clustering
•Time Series Analysis
•Algorithm Design Techniques
•Algorithm Analysis
•Data Structures
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•Neural Networks
•Decision Tree Algorithms
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KDD Issues
Human Interaction
 Overfitting
 Outliers
 Interpretation
 Visualization
 Large Datasets
 High Dimensionality

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KDD Issues (cont’d)
Multimedia Data
 Missing Data
 Irrelevant Data
 Noisy Data
 Changing Data
 Integration
 Application

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Social Implications of DM
Privacy
 Profiling
 Unauthorized use

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Data Mining Metrics
Usefulness
 Return on Investment (ROI)
 Accuracy
 Space/Time

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Visualization Techniques
Graphical
 Geometric
 Icon-based
 Pixel-based
 Hierarchical
 Hybrid

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Models Based on Summarization


Visualization: Frequency distribution, mean, variance,
median, mode, etc.
Box Plot:
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Scatter Diagram
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Data Mining Techniques Outline
Goal: Provide an overview of basic data
mining techniques

Statistical
–
–
–
–
–



Point Estimation
Models Based on Summarization
Bayes Theorem
Hypothesis Testing
Regression and Correlation
Similarity Measures
Decision Trees
Neural Networks
– Activation Functions

Genetic Algorithms
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Point Estimation




Point Estimate: estimate a population
parameter.
May be made by calculating the parameter for a
sample.
May be used to predict value for missing data.
Ex:
–
–
–
–
R contains 100 employees
99 have salary information
Mean salary of these is $50,000
Use $50,000 as value of remaining employee’s
salary.
Is this a good idea?
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Estimation Error

Bias: Difference between expected value and
actual value.

Mean Squared Error (MSE): expected value
of the squared difference between the
estimate and the actual value:

Why square?
Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)

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Jackknife Estimate


Jackknife Estimate: estimate of parameter
is obtained by omitting one value from the set
of observed values.
Ex: estimate of mean for X={x1, … , xn}
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Maximum Likelihood
Estimate (MLE)



Obtain parameter estimates that maximize
the probability that the sample data occurs for
the specific model.
Joint probability for observing the sample
data by multiplying the individual probabilities.
Likelihood function:
Maximize L.
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MLE Example

Coin toss five times: {H,H,H,H,T}

Assuming a perfect coin with H and T equally
likely, the likelihood of this sequence is:

However if the probability of a H is 0.8 then:
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MLE Example (cont’d)

General likelihood formula:

Estimate for p is then 4/5 = 0.8
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Expectation-Maximization
(EM)
Solves estimation with incomplete data.
 Obtain initial estimates for parameters.
 Iteratively use estimates for missing
data and continue until convergence.

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EM Example
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EM Algorithm
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Bayes Theorem




Posterior Probability: P(h1|xi)
Prior Probability: P(h1)
Bayes Theorem:
Assign probabilities of hypotheses given a
data value.
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Bayes Theorem Example


Credit authorizations (hypotheses):
h1=authorize purchase, h2 = authorize after
further identification, h3=do not authorize,
h4= do not authorize but contact police
Assign twelve data values for all
combinations of credit and income:
1
Excellent
Good
Bad

x1
x5
x9
2
3
4
x2
x6
x 10
x3
x7
x 11
x4
x8
x 12
From training data: P(h1) = 60%; P(h2)=20%;
P(h3)=10%; P(h4)=10%.
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Bayes Example(cont’d)

Training Data:
ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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In c o m e
4
3
2
3
4
2
3
2
3
1
C re d it
E xc e lle n t
G ood
E xc e lle n t
G ood
G ood
E xc e lle n t
Bad
Bad
Bad
Bad
C la s s
h1
h1
h1
h1
h1
h1
h2
h2
h3
h4
xi
x4
x7
x2
x7
x8
x2
x 11
x 10
x 11
x9
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Bayes Example(cont’d)



Calculate P(xi|hj) and P(xi)
Ex: P(x7|h1)=2/6; P(x4|h1)=1/6; P(x2|h1)=2/6;
P(x8|h1)=1/6; P(xi|h1)=0 for all other xi.
Predict the class for x4:
– Calculate P(hj|x4) for all hj.
– Place x4 in class with largest value.
– Ex:
»P(h1|x4)=(P(x4|h1)(P(h1))/P(x4)
=(1/6)(0.6)/0.1=1.
»x4 in class h1.
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Regression
Predict future values based on past
values
 Linear Regression assumes linear
relationship exists.
y = c 0 + c1 x 1 + … + c n x n
 Find values to best fit the data

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Linear Regression
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Correlation
Examine the degree to which the values
for two variables behave similarly.
 Correlation coefficient r:

• 1 = perfect correlation
• -1 = perfect but opposite correlation
• 0 = no correlation
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Similarity Measures



Determine similarity between two objects.
Similarity characteristics:
Alternatively, distance measure measure how
unlike or dissimilar objects are.
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Similarity Measures
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Distance Measures

Measure dissimilarity between objects
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Twenty Questions Game
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Decision Trees

Decision Tree (DT):
– Tree where the root and each internal node is
labeled with a question.
– The arcs represent each possible answer to
the associated question.
– Each leaf node represents a prediction of a
solution to the problem.

Popular technique for classification; Leaf
node indicates class to which the
corresponding tuple belongs.
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Decision Tree Example
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Decision Trees

A Decision Tree Model is a computational
model consisting of three parts:
– Decision Tree
– Algorithm to create the tree
– Algorithm that applies the tree to data


Creation of the tree is the most difficult part.
Processing is basically a search similar to
that in a binary search tree (although DT may
not be binary).
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Decision Tree Algorithm
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DT
Advantages/Disadvantages

Advantages:
– Easy to understand.
– Easy to generate rules

Disadvantages:
– May suffer from overfitting.
– Classifies by rectangular partitioning.
– Does not easily handle nonnumeric data.
– Can be quite large – pruning is necessary.
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Neural Networks
Based on observed functioning of human
brain.
 (Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
 Our view of neural networks is very
simplistic.
 We view a neural network (NN) from a
graphical viewpoint.
 Alternatively, a NN may be viewed from
the perspective of matrices.
 Used in pattern recognition, speech
recognition, computer vision, and
classification.

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Neural Networks

Neural Network (NN) is a directed graph
F=<V,A> with vertices V={1,2,…,n} and arcs
A={<i,j>|1<=i,j<=n}, with the following
restrictions:
– V is partitioned into a set of input nodes, VI,
hidden nodes, VH, and output nodes, VO.
– The vertices are also partitioned into layers
– Any arc <i,j> must have node i in layer h-1
and node j in layer h.
– Arc <i,j> is labeled with a numeric value wij.
– Node i is labeled with a function fi.
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Neural Network Example
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NN Node
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NN Activation Functions
Functions associated with nodes in
graph.
 Output may be in range [-1,1] or [0,1]

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NN Activation Functions
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NN Learning
Propagate input values through graph.
 Compare output to desired output.
 Adjust weights in graph accordingly.

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Neural Networks


A Neural Network Model is a computational
model consisting of three parts:
– Neural Network graph
– Learning algorithm that indicates how
learning takes place.
– Recall techniques that determine hew
information is obtained from the network.
We will look at propagation as the recall
technique.
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NN Advantages
Learning
 Can continue learning even after
training set has been applied.
 Easy parallelization
 Solves many problems

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NN Disadvantages
Difficult to understand
 May suffer from overfitting
 Structure of graph must be determined
a priori.
 Input values must be numeric.
 Verification difficult.

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Genetic Algorithms







Optimization search type algorithms.
Creates an initial feasible solution and
iteratively creates new “better” solutions.
Based on human evolution and survival of the
fittest.
Must represent a solution as an individual.
Individual: string I=I1,I2,…,In where Ij is in
given alphabet A.
Each character Ij is called a gene.
Population: set of individuals.
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Genetic Algorithms

A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a
computational model consisting of five parts:
– A starting set of individuals, P.
– Crossover: technique to combine two
parents to create offspring.
– Mutation: randomly change an individual.
– Fitness: determine the best individuals.
– Algorithm which applies the crossover and
mutation techniques to P iteratively using
the fitness function to determine the best
individuals in P to keep.
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Crossover Examples
000 000
000 111
000 000 00
000 111 00
111 111
111 000
111 111 11
111 000 11
Parents
Children
Parents
Children
a) Single Crossover
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a) Multiple Crossover
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Genetic Algorithm
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GA Advantages/Disadvantages

Advantages
– Easily parallelized

Disadvantages
– Difficult to understand and explain to end
users.
– Abstraction of the problem and method to
represent individuals is quite difficult.
– Determining fitness function is difficult.
– Determining how to perform crossover and
mutation is difficult.
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Data Mining Outline


PART I - Introduction
PART II – Core Topics
– Classification
– Clustering
– Association Rules

PART III – Related Topics
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Classification Outline
Goal: Provide an overview of the classification
problem and introduce some of the basic
algorithms


Classification Problem Overview
Classification Techniques
– Regression
– Distance
– Decision Trees
– Rules
– Neural Networks
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Classification Problem
Given a database D={t1,t2,…,tn} and a set
of classes C={C1,…,Cm}, the
Classification Problem is to define a
mapping f:DgC where each ti is assigned
to one class.
 Actually divides D into equivalence
classes.
 Prediction is similar, but may be viewed
as having infinite number of classes.

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Classification Examples
Teachers classify students’ grades as
A, B, C, D, or F.
 Identify mushrooms as poisonous or
edible.
 Predict when a river will flood.
 Identify individuals with credit risks.
 Speech recognition
 Pattern recognition

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Classification Ex: Grading





If x >= 90 then grade
=A.
If 80<=x<90 then
grade =B.
If 70<=x<80 then
grade =C.
If 60<=x<70 then
grade =D.
If x<50 then grade =F.
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x
<90
>=90
x
<80
x
<70
x
<50
F
A
>=80
B
>=70
C
>=60
D
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Classification Ex: Letter
Recognition
View letters as constructed from 5 components:
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Letter A
Letter B
Letter C
Letter D
Letter E
Letter F
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Classification Techniques



Approach:
1. Create specific model by evaluating
training data (or using domain
experts’ knowledge).
2. Apply model developed to new data.
Classes must be predefined
Most common techniques use DTs,
NNs, or are based on distances or
statistical methods.
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Defining Classes
Distance Based
Partitioning Based
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Issues in Classification

Missing Data
– Ignore
– Replace with assumed value

Measuring Performance
– Classification accuracy on test data
– Confusion matrix
– OC Curve
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Height Example Data
N am e
K ris tin a
J im
M a g g ie
M a rth a
S te p h a n ie
Bob
K a th y
D ave
W o rth
S te v e n
D e b b ie
Todd
K im
Amy
W y n e tte
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G ender
F
M
F
F
F
M
F
M
M
M
F
M
F
F
F
H e ig h t
1 .6 m
2m
1 .9 m
1 .8 8 m
1 .7 m
1 .8 5 m
1 .6 m
1 .7 m
2 .2 m
2 .1 m
1 .8 m
1 .9 5 m
1 .9 m
1 .8 m
1 .7 5 m
O u tp u t1
S h o rt
T a ll
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
S h o rt
M e d iu m
S h o rt
S h o rt
T a ll
T a ll
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
O u tp u t2
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
T a ll
T a ll
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
T a ll
T a ll
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
T a ll
M e d iu m
M e d iu m
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Classification Performance
True Positive
False Negative
False Positive
True Negative
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Confusion Matrix Example
Using height data example with Output1
correct and Output2 actual assignment
A c tu a l
M e m b e rs h ip
S h o rt
M e d iu m
T a ll
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A s s ig n m e n t
S h o rt
M e d iu m
0
0
0
4
5
1
T a ll
0
3
2
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Operating Characteristic Curve
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RegressionTopics
Linear Regression
 Nonlinear Regression
 Logistic Regression
 Metrics

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Remember High School?
Y= mx + b
 You need two points to determine a
straight line.
 You need two points to find values for m
and b.

THIS IS REGRESSION
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Regression




Assume data fits a predefined function
Determine best values for regression
coefficients c0,c1,…,cn.
Assume an error: y = c0+c1x1+…+cnxn+e
Estimate error using mean squared error for
training set:
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Linear Regression




Assume data fits a predefined function
Determine best values for regression
coefficients c0,c1,…,cn.
Assume an error: y = c0+c1x1+…+cnxn+e
Estimate error using mean squared error for
training set:
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Classification Using Linear
Regression
Division: Use regression function to
divide area into regions.
 Prediction: Use regression function to
predict a class membership function.
Input includes desired class.

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Division
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Prediction
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Linear Regression Poor Fit
Why
use sum of least squares?
http://curvefit.com/sum_of_squares.htm
Linear
doesn’t always work well
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Nonlinear Regression
Data does not nicely fit a straight line
 Fit data to a curve
 Many possible functions
 Not as easy and straightforward as
linear regression
 How nonlinear regression works:

http://curvefit.com/how_nonlin_works.htm
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P-value

The probability that a variable has a
value greater than the observed value

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-value
http://sportsci.org/resource/stats/pvalues.html

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Covariance
Degree to which two variables vary in the
same manner
 Correlation is normalized and covariance
is not


http://www.ds.unifi.it/VL/VL_EN/expect/expect3.
html
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Residual
Error
 Difference between desired output and
predicted output
 May actually use sum of squares

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Classification Using Distance
Place items in class to which they are
“closest”.
 Must determine distance between an
item and a class.
 Classes represented by
– Centroid: Central value.
– Medoid: Representative point.
– Individual points

 Algorithm:
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KNN
90
K Nearest Neighbor (KNN):
Training set includes classes.
 Examine K items near item to be
classified.
 New item placed in class with the most
number of close items.
 O(q) for each tuple to be classified.
(Here q is the size of the training set.)

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KNN
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KNN Algorithm
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Classification Using Decision
Trees
Partitioning based: Divide search
space into rectangular regions.
 Tuple placed into class based on the
region within which it falls.
 DT approaches differ in how the tree is
built: DT Induction
 Internal nodes associated with attribute
and arcs with values for that attribute.
 Algorithms: ID3, C4.5, CART

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Decision Tree
Given:
– D = {t1, …, tn} where ti=<ti1, …, tih>
– Database schema contains {A1, A2, …, Ah}
– Classes C={C1, …., Cm}
Decision or Classification Tree is a tree
associated with D such that
– Each internal node is labeled with attribute, Ai
– Each arc is labeled with predicate which can
be applied to attribute at parent
– Each leaf node is labeled with a class, Cj
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DT Induction
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DT Splits Area
Gender
M
F
Height
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Comparing DTs
Balanced
Deep
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DT Issues
Choosing Splitting Attributes
 Ordering of Splitting Attributes
 Splits
 Tree Structure
 Stopping Criteria
 Training Data
 Pruning

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Decision Tree Induction is often based on
Information Theory
So
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Information
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DT Induction
When all the marbles in the bowl are
mixed up, little information is given.
 When the marbles in the bowl are all
from one class and those in the other
two classes are on either side, more
information is given.

Use this approach with DT Induction !
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Information/Entropy

Given probabilitites p1, p2, .., ps whose sum is
1, Entropy is defined as:

Entropy measures the amount of randomness
or surprise or uncertainty.
Goal in classification

– no surprise
– entropy = 0
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Entropy
log (1/p)
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ID3


Creates tree using information theory
concepts and tries to reduce expected
number of comparison..
ID3 chooses split attribute with the highest
information gain:
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ID3 Example (Output1)
Starting state entropy:
4/15 log(15/4) + 8/15 log(15/8) + 3/15 log(15/3) = 0.4384
 Gain using gender:
– Female: 3/9 log(9/3)+6/9 log(9/6)=0.2764
– Male: 1/6 (log 6/1) + 2/6 log(6/2) + 3/6 log(6/3) =
0.4392
– Weighted sum: (9/15)(0.2764) + (6/15)(0.4392) =
0.34152
– Gain: 0.4384 – 0.34152 = 0.09688
 Gain using height:
0.4384 – (2/15)(0.301) = 0.3983
 Choose height as first splitting attribute

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C4.5

ID3 favors attributes with large number of
divisions

Improved version of ID3:
– Missing Data
– Continuous Data
– Pruning
– Rules
– GainRatio:
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CART




Create Binary Tree
Uses entropy
Formula to choose split point, s, for node t:
PL,PR probability that a tuple in the training
set will be on the left or right side of the tree.
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CART Example
 At
the start, there are six choices for
split point (right branch on equality):
– P(Gender)=2(6/15)(9/15)(2/15 + 4/15 + 3/15)=0.224
– P(1.6) = 0
– P(1.7) = 2(2/15)(13/15)(0 + 8/15 + 3/15) = 0.169
– P(1.8) = 2(5/15)(10/15)(4/15 + 6/15 + 3/15) = 0.385
– P(1.9) = 2(9/15)(6/15)(4/15 + 2/15 + 3/15) = 0.256
– P(2.0) = 2(12/15)(3/15)(4/15 + 8/15 + 3/15) = 0.32

Split at 1.8
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Classification Using Neural
Networks

Typical NN structure for classification:
– One output node per class
– Output value is class membership function value



Supervised learning
For each tuple in training set, propagate it
through NN. Adjust weights on edges to
improve future classification.
Algorithms: Propagation, Backpropagation,
Gradient Descent
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NN Issues









Number of source nodes
Number of hidden layers
Training data
Number of sinks
Interconnections
Weights
Activation Functions
Learning Technique
When to stop learning
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Decision Tree vs. Neural
Network
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Propagation
Tuple Input
Output
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NN Propagation Algorithm
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Example Propagation
© Prentie Hall
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NN Learning
Adjust weights to perform better with the
associated test data.
 Supervised: Use feedback from
knowledge of correct classification.
 Unsupervised: No knowledge of
correct classification needed.

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NN Supervised Learning
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Supervised Learning

Possible error values assuming output from
node i is yi but should be di:

Change weights on arcs based on estimated
error
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NN Backpropagation
Propagate changes to weights
backward from output layer to input
layer.
 Delta Rule: r wij= c xij (dj – yj)
 Gradient Descent: technique to modify
the weights in the graph.

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Backpropagation
Error
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Backpropagation Algorithm
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Gradient Descent
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Gradient Descent Algorithm
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Output Layer Learning
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Hidden Layer Learning
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Types of NNs
Different NN structures used for
different problems.
 Perceptron
 Self Organizing Feature Map
 Radial Basis Function Network

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Perceptron


Perceptron is one of the simplest NNs.
No hidden layers.
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Perceptron Example

Suppose:
– Summation: S=3x1+2x2-6
– Activation: if S>0 then 1 else 0
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Self Organizing Feature Map
(SOFM)
Competitive Unsupervised Learning
 Observe how neurons work in brain:

– Firing impacts firing of those near
– Neurons far apart inhibit each other
– Neurons have specific nonoverlapping
tasks

Ex: Kohonen Network
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Kohonen Network
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Kohonen Network


Competitive Layer – viewed as 2D grid
Similarity between competitive nodes and
input nodes:
– Input: X = <x1, …, xh>
– Weights: <w1i, … , whi>
– Similarity defined based on dot product


Competitive node most similar to input “wins”
Winning node weights (as well as
surrounding node weights) increased.
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Radial Basis Function Network
RBF function has Gaussian shape
 RBF Networks

– Three Layers
– Hidden layer – Gaussian activation
function
– Output layer – Linear activation function
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Radial Basis Function Network
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Classification Using Rules
Perform classification using If-Then
rules
 Classification Rule: r = <a,c>

Antecedent, Consequent
May generate from from other
techniques (DT, NN) or generate
directly.
 Algorithms: Gen, RX, 1R, PRISM

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Generating Rules from DTs
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Generating Rules Example
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Generating Rules from NNs
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1R Algorithm
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1R Example
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PRISM Algorithm
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PRISM Example
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Decision Tree vs. Rules


Tree has implied
order in which
splitting is
performed.
Tree created based
on looking at all
classes.
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Rules have no
ordering of
predicates.

Only need to look at
one class to
generate its rules.
142
Clustering Outline
Goal: Provide an overview of the clustering
problem and introduce some of the basic
algorithms


Clustering Problem Overview
Clustering Techniques
– Hierarchical Algorithms
– Partitional Algorithms
– Genetic Algorithm
– Clustering Large Databases
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Clustering Examples
Segment customer database based on
similar buying patterns.
 Group houses in a town into
neighborhoods based on similar
features.
 Identify new plant species
 Identify similar Web usage patterns

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Clustering Example
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Clustering Houses
Geographic
Size
Distance
Based Based
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Clustering vs. Classification

No prior knowledge
– Number of clusters
– Meaning of clusters

Unsupervised learning
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Clustering Issues
Outlier handling
 Dynamic data
 Interpreting results
 Evaluating results
 Number of clusters
 Data to be used
 Scalability

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Impact of Outliers on
Clustering
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Clustering Problem
Given a database D={t1,t2,…,tn} of
tuples and an integer value k, the
Clustering Problem is to define a
mapping f:Dg{1,..,k} where each ti is
assigned to one cluster Kj, 1<=j<=k.
 A Cluster, Kj, contains precisely those
tuples mapped to it.
 Unlike classification problem, clusters
are not known a priori.

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Types of Clustering
Hierarchical – Nested set of clusters
created.
 Partitional – One set of clusters
created.
 Incremental – Each element handled
one at a time.
 Simultaneous – All elements handled
together.
 Overlapping/Non-overlapping

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Cluster Parameters
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Distance Between Clusters




Single Link: smallest distance between
points
Complete Link: largest distance between
points
Average Link: average distance between
points
Centroid: distance between centroids
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Hierarchical Clustering


Clusters are created in levels actually
creating sets of clusters at each level.
Agglomerative
– Initially each item in its own cluster
– Iteratively clusters are merged together
– Bottom Up

Divisive
– Initially all items in one cluster
– Large clusters are successively divided
– Top Down
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Hierarchical Algorithms
Single Link
 MST Single Link
 Complete Link
 Average Link

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Dendrogram


Dendrogram: a tree data
structure which illustrates
hierarchical clustering
techniques.
Each level shows clusters
for that level.
– Leaf – individual clusters
– Root – one cluster

A cluster at level i is the
union of its children clusters
at level i+1.
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Levels of Clustering
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Agglomerative Example
A B C D E
A
0
1
2
2
3
B
1
0
2
4
3
C
2
2
0
1
5
D
2
4
1
0
3
E
3
3
5
3
0
A
B
E
C
D
Threshold of
1 2 34 5
A B C D E
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MST Example
A
B
A B C D E
A
0
1
2
2
3
B
1
0
2
4
3
C
2
2
0
1
5
D
2
4
1
0
3
E
3
3
5
3
0
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C
D
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Agglomerative Algorithm
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Single Link
View all items with links (distances)
between them.
 Finds maximal connected components
in this graph.
 Two clusters are merged if there is at
least one edge which connects them.
 Uses threshold distances at each level.
 Could be agglomerative or divisive.

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MST Single Link Algorithm
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Single Link Clustering
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Partitional Clustering
Nonhierarchical
 Creates clusters in one step as opposed
to several steps.
 Since only one set of clusters is output,
the user normally has to input the
desired number of clusters, k.
 Usually deals with static sets.

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Partitional Algorithms
MST
 Squared Error
 K-Means
 Nearest Neighbor
 PAM
 BEA
 GA

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MST Algorithm
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Squared Error

Minimized squared error
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Squared Error Algorithm
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K-Means
Initial set of clusters randomly chosen.
 Iteratively, items are moved among sets
of clusters until the desired set is
reached.
 High degree of similarity among
elements in a cluster is obtained.
 Given a cluster Ki={ti1,ti2,…,tim}, the
cluster mean is mi = (1/m)(ti1 + … + tim)

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K-Means Example







Given: {2,4,10,12,3,20,30,11,25}, k=2
Randomly assign means: m1=3,m2=4
K1={2,3}, K2={4,10,12,20,30,11,25},
m1=2.5,m2=16
K1={2,3,4},K2={10,12,20,30,11,25},
m1=3,m2=18
K1={2,3,4,10},K2={12,20,30,11,25},
m1=4.75,m2=19.6
K1={2,3,4,10,11,12},K2={20,30,25},
m1=7,m2=25
Stop as the clusters with these means
are the same.
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K-Means Algorithm
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Nearest Neighbor
Items are iteratively merged into the
existing clusters that are closest.
 Incremental
 Threshold, t, used to determine if items
are added to existing clusters or a new
cluster is created.

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Nearest Neighbor Algorithm
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PAM
Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM)
(K-Medoids)
 Handles outliers well.
 Ordering of input does not impact results.
 Does not scale well.
 Each cluster represented by one item,
called the medoid.
 Initial set of k medoids randomly chosen.

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PAM
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PAM Cost Calculation


At each step in algorithm, medoids are
changed if the overall cost is improved.
Cjih – cost change for an item tj associated
with swapping medoid ti with non-medoid th.
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PAM Algorithm
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BEA





Bond Energy Algorithm
Database design (physical and logical)
Vertical fragmentation
Determine affinity (bond) between attributes
based on common usage.
Algorithm outline:
1. Create affinity matrix
2. Convert to BOND matrix
3. Create regions of close bonding
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BEA
Modified from [OV99]
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Genetic Algorithm Example

{A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H}
Randomly choose initial solution:
{A,C,E} {B,F} {D,G,H} or
10101000, 01000100, 00010011
 Suppose crossover at point four and
choose 1st and 3rd individuals:
10100011, 01000100, 00011000
 What should termination criteria be?

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GA Algorithm
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Clustering Large Databases



Most clustering algorithms assume a large
data structure which is memory resident.
Clustering may be performed first on a
sample of the database then applied to the
entire database.
Algorithms
– BIRCH
– DBSCAN
– CURE
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Desired Features for Large
Databases
One scan (or less) of DB
 Online
 Suspendable, stoppable, resumable
 Incremental
 Work with limited main memory
 Different techniques to scan (e.g.
sampling)
 Process each tuple once

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BIRCH
Balanced Iterative Reducing and
Clustering using Hierarchies
 Incremental, hierarchical, one scan
 Save clustering information in a tree
 Each entry in the tree contains
information about one cluster
 New nodes inserted in closest entry in
tree

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Clustering Feature


CT Triple: (N,LS,SS)
– N: Number of points in cluster
– LS: Sum of points in the cluster
– SS: Sum of squares of points in the cluster
CF Tree
– Balanced search tree
– Node has CF triple for each child
– Leaf node represents cluster and has CF value
for each subcluster in it.
– Subcluster has maximum diameter
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BIRCH Algorithm
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Improve Clusters
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DBSCAN
Density Based Spatial Clustering of
Applications with Noise
 Outliers will not effect creation of cluster.
 Input

– MinPts – minimum number of points in
cluster
– Eps – for each point in cluster there must
be another point in it less than this distance
away.
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DBSCAN Density Concepts




Eps-neighborhood: Points within Eps
distance of a point.
Core point: Eps-neighborhood dense enough
(MinPts)
Directly density-reachable: A point p is
directly density-reachable from a point q if the
distance is small (Eps) and q is a core point.
Density-reachable: A point si densityreachable form another point if there is a path
from one to the other consisting of only core
points.
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Density Concepts
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DBSCAN Algorithm
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CURE
Clustering Using Representatives
 Use many points to represent a cluster
instead of only one
 Points will be well scattered

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CURE Approach
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CURE Algorithm
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CURE for Large Databases
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Comparison of Clustering
Techniques
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Association Rules Outline
Goal: Provide an overview of basic
Association Rule mining techniques
 Association Rules Problem Overview
– Large itemsets

Association Rules Algorithms
– Apriori
– Sampling
– Partitioning
– Parallel Algorithms
Comparing Techniques
 Incremental Algorithms
 Advanced AR Techniques

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Example: Market Basket Data

Items frequently purchased together:
Bread PeanutButter

Uses:
– Placement
– Advertising
– Sales
– Coupons

Objective: increase sales and reduce
costs
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Association Rule Definitions
Set of items: I={I1,I2,…,Im}
 Transactions: D={t1,t2, …, tn}, tj I
 Itemset: {Ii1,Ii2, …, Iik}  I
 Support of an itemset: Percentage of
transactions which contain that itemset.
 Large (Frequent) itemset: Itemset
whose number of occurrences is above
a threshold.

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Association Rules Example
I = { Beer, Bread, Jelly, Milk, PeanutButter}
Support of {Bread,PeanutButter} is 60%
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Association Rule Definitions
Association Rule (AR): implication
X  Y where X,Y  I and X  Y = ;
 Support of AR (s) X  Y:
Percentage of transactions that
contain X Y
 Confidence of AR (a) X  Y: Ratio
of number of transactions that contain
X  Y to the number that contain X

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Association Rules Ex (cont’d)
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Association Rule Problem
Given a set of items I={I1,I2,…,Im} and a
database of transactions D={t1,t2, …, tn}
where ti={Ii1,Ii2, …, Iik} and Iij  I, the
Association Rule Problem is to
identify all association rules X  Y with
a minimum support and confidence.
 Link Analysis
 NOTE: Support of X  Y is same as
support of X  Y.

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Association Rule Techniques
1.
2.
Find Large Itemsets.
Generate rules from frequent itemsets.
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Algorithm to Generate ARs
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Apriori
Large Itemset Property:
Any subset of a large itemset is large.
 Contrapositive:
If an itemset is not large,
none of its supersets are large.

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Large Itemset Property
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Apriori Ex (cont’d)
s=30%
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208
Apriori Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
C1 = Itemsets of size one in I;
Determine all large itemsets of size 1, L1;
i = 1;
Repeat
i = i + 1;
Ci = Apriori-Gen(Li-1);
Count Ci to determine Li;
until no more large itemsets found;
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Apriori-Gen
Generate candidates of size i+1 from
large itemsets of size i.
 Approach used: join large itemsets of
size i if they agree on i-1
 May also prune candidates who have
subsets that are not large.

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Apriori-Gen Example
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Apriori-Gen Example (cont’d)
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Apriori Adv/Disadv

Advantages:
– Uses large itemset property.
– Easily parallelized
– Easy to implement.

Disadvantages:
– Assumes transaction database is memory
resident.
– Requires up to m database scans.
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Sampling




Large databases
Sample the database and apply Apriori to the
sample.
Potentially Large Itemsets (PL): Large
itemsets from sample
Negative Border (BD - ):
– Generalization of Apriori-Gen applied to
itemsets of varying sizes.
– Minimal set of itemsets which are not in PL,
but whose subsets are all in PL.
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Negative Border Example
PL
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215
Sampling Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ds = sample of Database D;
PL = Large itemsets in Ds using smalls;
C = PL  BD-(PL);
Count C in Database using s;
ML = large itemsets in BD-(PL);
If ML =  then done
else C = repeated application of BD-;
Count C in Database;
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Sampling Example







Find AR assuming s = 20%
Ds = { t1,t2}
Smalls = 10%
PL = {{Bread}, {Jelly}, {PeanutButter},
{Bread,Jelly}, {Bread,PeanutButter}, {Jelly,
PeanutButter}, {Bread,Jelly,PeanutButter}}
BD-(PL)={{Beer},{Milk}}
ML = {{Beer}, {Milk}}
Repeated application of BD- generates all
remaining itemsets
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Sampling Adv/Disadv

Advantages:
– Reduces number of database scans to one
in the best case and two in worst.
– Scales better.

Disadvantages:
– Potentially large number of candidates in
second pass
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Partitioning
Divide database into partitions
D1,D2,…,Dp
 Apply Apriori to each partition
 Any large itemset must be large in at
least one partition.

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Partitioning Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Divide D into partitions D1,D2,…,Dp;
For I = 1 to p do
Li = Apriori(Di);
C = L1  …  Lp;
Count C on D to generate L;
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Partitioning Example
L1 ={{Bread}, {Jelly},
{PeanutButter},
{Bread,Jelly},
{Bread,PeanutButter},
{Jelly, PeanutButter},
{Bread,Jelly,PeanutButter}}
D1
D2
S=10%
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L2 ={{Bread}, {Milk},
{PeanutButter}, {Bread,Milk},
{Bread,PeanutButter}, {Milk,
PeanutButter},
{Bread,Milk,PeanutButter},
{Beer}, {Beer,Bread},
{Beer,Milk}}
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Partitioning Adv/Disadv

Advantages:
– Adapts to available main memory
– Easily parallelized
– Maximum number of database scans is
two.

Disadvantages:
– May have many candidates during second
scan.
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Parallelizing AR Algorithms


Based on Apriori
Techniques differ:
– What is counted at each site
– How data (transactions) are distributed

Data Parallelism
– Data partitioned
– Count Distribution Algorithm

Task Parallelism
– Data and candidates partitioned
– Data Distribution Algorithm
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Count Distribution Algorithm(CDA)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Place data partition at each site.
In Parallel at each site do
C1 = Itemsets of size one in I;
Count C1;
Broadcast counts to all sites;
Determine global large itemsets of size 1, L1;
i = 1;
Repeat
i = i + 1;
Ci = Apriori-Gen(Li-1);
Count Ci;
Broadcast counts to all sites;
Determine global large itemsets of size i, Li;
until no more large itemsets found;
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CDA Example
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Data Distribution Algorithm(DDA)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Place data partition at each site.
In Parallel at each site do
Determine local candidates of size 1 to count;
Broadcast local transactions to other sites;
Count local candidates of size 1 on all data;
Determine large itemsets of size 1 for local
candidates;
Broadcast large itemsets to all sites;
Determine L1;
i = 1;
Repeat
i = i + 1;
Ci = Apriori-Gen(Li-1);
Determine local candidates of size i to count;
Count, broadcast, and find Li;
until no more large itemsets found;
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DDA Example
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Comparing AR Techniques










Target
Type
Data Type
Data Source
Technique
Itemset Strategy and Data Structure
Transaction Strategy and Data Structure
Optimization
Architecture
Parallelism Strategy
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Comparison of AR Techniques
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Hash Tree
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Incremental Association Rules
Generate ARs in a dynamic database.
 Problem: algorithms assume static
database
 Objective:

– Know large itemsets for D
– Find large itemsets for D  {D D}
Must be large in either D or D D
 Save Li and counts

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Note on ARs

Many applications outside market
basket data analysis
– Prediction (telecom switch failure)
– Web usage mining

Many different types of association rules
– Temporal
– Spatial
– Causal
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Advanced AR Techniques
Generalized Association Rules
 Multiple-Level Association Rules
 Quantitative Association Rules
 Using multiple minimum supports
 Correlation Rules

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Measuring Quality of Rules
Support
 Confidence
 Interest
 Conviction
 Chi Squared Test

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Data Mining Outline
PART I - Introduction
 PART II – Core Topics

– Classification
– Clustering
– Association Rules

PART III – Related Topics
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Related Topics Outline
Goal: Examine some areas which are related to
data mining.
 Database/OLTP Systems
 Fuzzy Sets and Logic
 Information Retrieval(Web Search Engines)
 Dimensional Modeling
 Data Warehousing
 OLAP/DSS
 Statistics
 Machine Learning
 Pattern Matching
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DB & OLTP Systems

Schema
– (ID,Name,Address,Salary,JobNo)

Data Model
– ER
– Relational


Transaction
Query:
SELECT Name
FROM T
WHERE Salary > 100000
DM: Only imprecise queries
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Fuzzy Sets Outline
Introduction/Overview
Material for these slides obtained from:
Data Mining Introductory and Advanced Topics by Margaret H. Dunham
http://www.engr.smu.edu/~mhd/book
Introduction to “Type-2 Fuzzy Logic” by Jenny Carter
http://www.cse.dmu.ac.uk/~jennyc/
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Fuzzy Sets and Logic




Fuzzy Set: Set membership function is a real valued
function with output in the range [0,1].
f(x): Probability x is in F.
1-f(x): Probability x is not in F.
EX:
– T = {x | x is a person and x is tall}
– Let f(x) be the probability that x is tall
– Here f is the membership function
DM: Prediction and classification are fuzzy.
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Fuzzy Sets and Logic




Fuzzy Set: Set membership function is a real
valued function with output in the range [0,1].
f(x): Probability x is in F.
1-f(x): Probability x is not in F.
EX:
– T = {x | x is a person and x is tall}
– Let f(x) be the probability that x is tall
– Here f is the membership function
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Fuzzy Sets
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IR is Fuzzy
Reject
Reject
Accept
Simple
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Fuzzy
242
Fuzzy Set Theory
A fuzzy subset A of U is characterized by a
membership function
(A,u) : U  [0,1]
which associates with each element u of U
a number (u) in the interval [0,1]
 Definition

– Let A and B be two fuzzy subsets of U. Also, let ¬A
be the complement of A. Then,
» (¬A,u) = 1 - (A,u)
» (AB,u) = max((A,u), (B,u))
» (AB,u) = min((A,u), (B,u))
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The world is imprecise.

Mathematical and Statistical techniques often
unsatisfactory.
– Experts make decisions with imprecise data in an
uncertain world.
– They work with knowledge that is rarely defined
mathematically or algorithmically but uses vague
terminology with words.

Fuzzy logic is able to use vagueness to
achieve a precise answer. By considering
shades of grey and all factors simultaneously,
you get a better answer, one that is more
suited to the situation.
244
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Fuzzy Logic then . . .



is particularly good at handling uncertainty,
vagueness and imprecision.
especially useful where a problem can be
described linguistically (using words).
Applications include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
robotics
washing machine control
nuclear reactors
focusing a camcorder
information retrieval
train scheduling
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Crisp Sets

Different heights have same ‘tallness’
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Fuzzy Sets

The shape you see is known as the
membership function
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Fuzzy Sets
Shows two membership functions: ‘tall’
and ‘short’
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Notation
For the member, x, of a discrete set with membership µ we use the
notation µ/x . In other words, x is a member of the set to degree µ. Discrete
sets are written as:
A = µ1/x1 + µ2/x2 + .......... + µn/xn
Or
where x1, x2....xn are members of the set A and µ1, µ2, ...., µn are their
degrees of membership. A continuous fuzzy set A is written as:
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Fuzzy Sets





The members of a fuzzy set are members to
some degree, known as a membership grade
or degree of membership.
The membership grade is the degree of
belonging to the fuzzy set. The larger the
number (in [0,1]) the more the degree of
belonging. (N.B. This is not a probability)
The translation from x to µA(x) is known as
fuzzification.
A fuzzy set is either continuous or discrete.
Graphical representation of membership
functions is very useful.
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Fuzzy Sets - Example
Again, notice the overlapping of the sets reflecting the real world
more accurately than if we were using a traditional approach.
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Rules

Rules often of the form:
IF x is A THEN y is B
where A and B are fuzzy sets defined on the
universes of discourse X and Y respectively.
– if pressure is high then volume is small;
– if a tomato is red then a tomato is ripe.
where high, small, red and ripe are fuzzy sets.
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Information Retrieval
Outline
Introduction/Overview
Material for these slides obtained from:
Modern Information Retrieval by Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Berthier Ribeiro-Neto
http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~hearst/irbook/
Data Mining Introductory and Advanced Topics by Margaret H. Dunham
http://www.engr.smu.edu/~mhd/book
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Information Retrieval






Information Retrieval (IR): retrieving desired
information from textual data.
Library Science
Digital Libraries
Web Search Engines
Traditionally keyword based
Sample query:
Find all documents about “data mining”.
DM: Similarity measures;
Mine text/Web data.
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Information Retrieval






Information Retrieval (IR): retrieving desired
information from textual data.
Library Science
Digital Libraries
Web Search Engines
Traditionally keyword based
Sample query:
Find all documents about “data mining”.
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DB vs IR
Records (tuples) vs. documents
 Well defined results vs. fuzzy results
 DB grew out of files and traditional
business systesm
 IR grew out of library science and need
to categorize/group/access
books/articles

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DB vs IR (cont’d)
Data retrieval
which docs contain a set of keywords?
Well defined semantics
a single erroneous object implies failure!
Information retrieval
information about a subject or topic
semantics is frequently loose
small errors are tolerated
IR system:
interpret contents of information items
generate a ranking which reflects relevance
notion of relevance is most important
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Motivation
IR in the last 20 years:
classification and categorization
systems and languages
user interfaces and visualization
Still, area was seen as of narrow interest
Advent of the Web changed this perception
once and for all
universal repository of knowledge
free (low cost) universal access
no central editorial board
many problems though: IR seen as key to finding the
solutions!
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Basic Concepts
Logical view of the documents
Accents
spacing
Docs
stopwords
Noun
groups
stemming
Manual
indexing
structure
structure
Full text
Index terms
Document representation viewed as a continuum:
logical view of docs might shift
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The Retrieval Process
Text
User
Interface
user need
Text
Text Operations
logical view
logical view
Query
Operations
Indexing
user feedback
query
Searching
DB Manager
Module
inverted file
Index
retrieved docs
Text
Database
Ranking
ranked docs
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Information Retrieval



Similarity: measure of how close a query is
to a document.
Documents which are “close enough” are
retrieved.
Metrics:
– Precision = |Relevant and Retrieved|
|Retrieved|
– Recall = |Relevant and Retrieved|
|Relevant|
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Indexing


IR systems usually adopt index terms to
process queries
Index term:
– a keyword or group of selected words
– any word (more general)

Stemming might be used:
– connect: connecting, connection, connections

An inverted file is built for the chosen index
terms
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Indexing
Docs
Index Terms
doc
match
Ranking
Information Need
query
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Inverted Files

There are two main elements:
– vocabulary – set of unique terms
– Occurrences – where those terms appear
The occurrences can be recorded as
terms or byte offsets
 Using term offset is good to retrieve
concepts such as proximity, whereas
byte offsets allow direct access

Vocabulary
…
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…
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Inverted Files



The number of indexed terms is often several
orders of magnitude smaller when compared
to the documents size (Mbs vs Gbs)
The space consumed by the occurrence list is
not trivial. Each time the term appears it must
be added to a list in the inverted file
That may lead to a quite considerable index
overhead
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Example

1
Text:
6
12 16 18
25
29
36
40
45
54 58
66 70
That house has a garden. The garden has many flowers. The flowers are beautiful

Inverted file
Vocabulary
Occurrences
beautiful
70
flowers
45, 58
garden
18, 29
house
6
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Ranking
A ranking is an ordering of the documents
retrieved that (hopefully) reflects the
relevance of the documents to the query
 A ranking is based on fundamental
premisses regarding the notion of relevance,
such as:


– common sets of index terms
– sharing of weighted terms
– likelihood of relevance
Each set of premisses leads to a distinct IR model
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Classic IR Models - Basic Concepts
Each document represented by a set of
representative keywords or index terms
 An index term is a document word useful for
remembering the document main themes
 Usually, index terms are nouns because
nouns have meaning by themselves
 However, search engines assume that all
words are index terms (full text
representation)

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Classic IR Models - Basic Concepts
The importance of the index terms is
represented by weights associated to
them
 ki- an index term
 dj - a document
 wij - a weight associated with (ki,dj)
 The weight wij quantifies the importance of
the index term for describing the document
contents

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Classic IR Models - Basic Concepts
– t is the total number of index terms
– K = {k1, k2, …, kt} is the set of all index
terms
– wij >= 0 is a weight associated with (ki,dj)
– wij = 0 indicates that term does not belong
to doc
– dj= (w1j, w2j, …, wtj) is a weighted vector
associated with the document dj
– gi(dj) = wij is a function which returns the
weight associated with pair (ki,dj)
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The Boolean Model
Simple model based on set theory
 Queries specified as boolean expressions

– precise semantics and neat formalism
Terms are either present or absent. Thus,
wij e {0,1}
 Consider

– q = ka  (kb  kc)
– qdnf = (1,1,1)  (1,1,0)  (1,0,0)
– qcc= (1,1,0) is a conjunctive component
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The Vector Model
Use of binary weights is too limiting
 Non-binary weights provide consideration for
partial matches
 These term weights are used to compute a
degree of similarity between a query and
each document
 Ranked set of documents provides for better
matching

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The Vector Model







wij > 0 whenever ki appears in dj
wiq >= 0 associated with the pair (ki,q)
dj = (w1j, w2j, ..., wtj)
q = (w1q, w2q, ..., wtq)
To each term ki is associated a unitary vector i
The unitary vectors i and j are assumed to be
orthonormal (i.e., index terms are assumed to
occur independently within the documents)
The t unitary vectors i form an orthonormal basis
for a t-dimensional space where queries and
documents are represented as weighted vectors
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Query Languages
Keyword Based
 Boolean
 Weighted Boolean
 Context Based (Phrasal & Proximity)
 Pattern Matching
 Structural Queries

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Keyword Based Queries

Basic Queries
– Single word
– Multiple words

Context Queries
– Phrase
– Proximity
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Boolean Queries

Keywords combined with Boolean operators:
– OR: (e1 OR e2)
– AND: (e1 AND e2)
– BUT: (e1 BUT e2) Satisfy e1 but not e2


Negation only allowed using BUT to allow
efficient use of inverted index by filtering
another efficiently retrievable set.
Naïve users have trouble with Boolean logic.
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Boolean Retrieval with Inverted Indices
Primitive keyword: Retrieve containing
documents using the inverted index.
 OR: Recursively retrieve e1 and e2 and
take union of results.
 AND: Recursively retrieve e1 and e2 and
take intersection of results.
 BUT: Recursively retrieve e1 and e2 and
take set difference of results.

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Phrasal Queries

Retrieve documents with a specific phrase
(ordered list of contiguous words)
– “information theory”

May allow intervening stop words and/or
stemming.
– “buy camera” matches:
“buy a camera”
“buying the cameras”
etc.
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Phrasal Retrieval with Inverted Indices



Must have an inverted index that also stores
positions of each keyword in a document.
Retrieve documents and positions for each
individual word, intersect documents, and
then finally check for ordered contiguity of
keyword positions.
Best to start contiguity check with the least
common word in the phrase.
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Proximity Queries
List of words with specific maximal
distance constraints between terms.
 Example: “dogs” and “race” within 4
words
match “…dogs will begin
the race…”
 May also perform stemming and/or not
count stop words.

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Pattern Matching
Allow queries that match strings rather
than word tokens.
 Requires more sophisticated data
structures and algorithms than inverted
indices to retrieve efficiently.

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Simple Patterns

Prefixes: Pattern that matches start of word.
– “anti” matches “antiquity”, “antibody”, etc.

Suffixes: Pattern that matches end of word:
– “ix” matches “fix”, “matrix”, etc.

Substrings: Pattern that matches arbitrary
subsequence of characters.
– “rapt” matches “enrapture”, “velociraptor” etc.

Ranges: Pair of strings that matches any
word lexicographically (alphabetically)
between them.
– “tin” to “tix” matches “tip”, “tire”, “title”, etc.
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IR Query Result Measures
and Classification
IR
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283
Dimensional Modeling





View data in a hierarchical manner more as
business executives might
Useful in decision support systems and mining
Dimension: collection of logically related
attributes; axis for modeling data.
Facts: data stored
Ex: Dimensions – products, locations, date
Facts – quantity, unit price
DM: May view data as dimensional.
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Dimensional Modeling





View data in a hierarchical manner more as
business executives might
Useful in decision support systems and mining
Dimension: collection of logically related
attributes; axis for modeling data.
Facts: data stored
Ex: Dimensions – products, locations, date
Facts – quantity, unit price
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Aggregation Hierarchies
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Multidimensional Schemas

Star Schema shows facts and dimensions
– Center of the star has facts shown in fact tables
– Outside of the facts, each diemnsion is shown
separately in dimension tables
– Access to fact table from dimension table via join
SELECT Quantity, Price
FROM Facts, Location
Where (Facts.LocationID = Location.LocationID) and
(Location.City = ‘Dallas’)
– View as relations, problem volume of data and
indexing
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Star Schema
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Flattened Star
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Normalized Star
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Snowflake Schema
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OLAP




Online Analytic Processing (OLAP): provides more
complex queries than OLTP.
OnLine Transaction Processing (OLTP): traditional
database/transaction processing.
Dimensional data; cube view
Visualization of operations:
– Slice: examine sub-cube.
– Dice: rotate cube to look at another dimension.
– Roll Up/Drill Down
DM: May use OLAP queries.
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OLAP Introduction
OLAP by Example
http://perso.orange.fr/bernard.lupin/englis
h/index.htm
 What is OLAP?
http://www.olapreport.com/fasmi.htm

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OLAP

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Online Analytic Processing (OLAP): provides more
complex queries than OLTP.
OnLine Transaction Processing (OLTP): traditional
database/transaction processing.
Dimensional data; cube view
Support ad hoc querying
Require analysis of data
Can be thought of as an extension of some of the basic
aggregation functions available in SQL
OLAP tools may be used in DSS systems
Multidimentional view is fundamental
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OLAP Implementations

MOLAP (Multidimensional OLAP)
– Multidimential Database (MDD)
– Specialized DBMS and software system capable of
supporting the multidimensional data directly
– Data stored as an n-dimensional array (cube)
– Indexes used to speed up processing

ROLAP (Relational OLAP)
– Data stored in a relational database
– ROLAP server (middleware) creates the
multidimensional view for the user
– Less Complex; Less efficient

HOLAP (Hybrid OLAP)
– Not updated frequently – MDD
– Updated frequently - RDB
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OLAP Operations
Roll Up
Drill Down
Single Cell
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Multiple Cells
Slice
Dice
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OLAP Operations

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Simple query – single cell in the cube
Slice – Look at a subcube to get more
specific information
Dice – Rotate cube to look at another
dimension
Roll Up – Dimension Reduction; Aggregation
Drill Down
Visualization: These operations allow the
OLAP users to actually “see” results of an
operation.
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Relationship Between Topcs
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Decision Support Systems
Tools and computer systems that assist
management in decision making
 What if types of questions
 High level decisions
 Data warehouse – data which supports
DSS

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Unified Dimensional Model
Microsoft Cube View
 SQL Server 2005
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/enus/library/ms345143.aspx
http://cwebbbi.spaces.live.com/Blog/cns!1pi7ET
ChsJ1un_2s41jm9Iyg!325.entry
 MDX AS2005
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/enus/library/aa216767(SQL.80).aspx

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Data Warehousing
 “Subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, nonvolatile”



William Inmon
Operational Data: Data used in day to day needs of
company.
Informational Data: Supports other functions such as
planning and forecasting.
Data mining tools often access data warehouses rather
than operational data.
DM: May access data in warehouse.
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Operational vs. Informational
Application
Use
Temporal
Modification
Orientation
Data
Size
Level
Access
Response
Data Schema
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Operational Data
Data Warehouse
OLTP
Precise Queries
Snapshot
Dynamic
Application
Operational Values
Gigabits
Detailed
Often
Few Seconds
Relational
OLAP
Ad Hoc
Historical
Static
Business
Integrated
Terabits
Summarized
Less Often
Minutes
Star/Snowflake
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Statistics

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

Simple descriptive models
Statistical inference: generalizing a model
created from a sample of the data to the entire
dataset.
Exploratory Data Analysis:
– Data can actually drive the creation of the
model
– Opposite of traditional statistical view.
Data mining targeted to business user
DM: Many data mining methods come
from statistical techniques.
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Pattern Matching
(Recognition)
Pattern Matching: finds occurrences of
a predefined pattern in the data.
 Applications include speech recognition,
information retrieval, time series
analysis.

DM: Type of classification.
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Image Mining Outline
Image Mining – What is it?
 Feature Extraction
 Shape Detection
 Color Techniques
 Video Mining
 Facial Recognition
 Bioinformatics

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The 2000 ozone hole over the antarctic seen by EPTOMS
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Image Mining – What is it?
Image Retrieval
 Image Classification
 Image Clustering
 Video Mining
 Applications

– Bioinformatics
– Geology/Earth Science
– Security
–…
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Feature Extraction




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
Identify major components of image
Color
Texture
Shape
Spatial relationships
Feature Extraction & Image Processing
http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/msn/book/

Feature Extraction Tutorial
http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/research/vc/VC_Worksh
op/presentations/pdf/daniela_tutorial2.pdf
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Shape Detection
Boundary/Edge Detection
 Time Series – Eamonn Keogh

http://www.engr.smu.edu/~mhd/8337sp07/sh
apes.ppt
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Color Techniques

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Color Representations
RGB:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rgb
HSV:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSV_color_space
Color Histogram
Color Anglogram
http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~rzhao/publications/Video
DB.pdf
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What is Similarity?
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(c) Eamonn Keogh, [email protected]
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Video Mining
Boundaries between shots
 Movement between frames
 ANSES:
http://mmir.doc.ic.ac.uk/demos/anses.html

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Facial Recognition
Based upon features in face
 Convert face to a feature vector
 Less invasive than other biometric
techniques
 http://www.face-rec.org
 http://computer.howstuffworks.com/facialrecognition.htm
 SIMS:

http://www.casinoincidentreporting.com/Products.
aspx
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Microarray Data Analysis

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
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
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Each probe location associated with gene
Measure the amount of mRNA
Color indicates degree of gene expression
Compare different samples (normal/disease)
Track same sample over time
Questions
– Which genes are related to this disease?
– Which genes behave in a similar manner?
– What is the function of a gene?

Clustering
– Hierarchical
– K-means
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®
GeneChip
Affymetrix
Array
http://www.affymetrix.com/corporate/outreach/lesson_plan/educator_resources.affx
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Microarray Data Clustering
"Gene expression
profiling identifies
clinically relevant
subtypes of prostate
cancer"
Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. USA, Vol. 101,
Issue 3, 811-816,
January 20, 2004
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Data Mining - Lyle School of Engineering