Smart Packet for Active
Networks
Presented by
Anand P Santhanam
Nilesh J Gada
10/7/2015
1
Introduction
Active Networks is a framework users
inject programs contained in messages into
a network capable of performing
computations and manipulations on behalf
of the user.
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Moore’s Law
There is an exponential growth of
computing power in the network.
This law didn’t work due to the following
reasons :Growth rate of traffic
Number of Users
Number of connected sites
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Active Network Management
 Reasons Behind :
The average device is not generating processing
and receiving drastically more network
management traffic that it was , an year ago.
More Per- Device Processing Power
Problems with Traditional Management System
Implosion of Packets
Multiple state changes in less than one round trip
time.
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Advantages With Smart Packets
Information required can be selected
properly
Management rules can be embodied and
sent to nodes, which can correct problems.
Shortens the monitoring and control loop.
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Smart Packets
It consists of four parts
A Specification of smart packet formats
Specification of High level language, its
assembly language and compressed
encoding representing that portion fo smart
packet that gets executed.
A Virtual Machine in the node
A Security Architecture
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High-Level Entity Management
Query Language, tuned to monitoring and
control of network entities.
Does not allow general Programming
No control to the Packet , over where it is
sent
No limits on the size of a Query
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System Architecture
A rich and flexible environment
Computing power should not be
overloaded.
Environment should not be hard to secure.
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Design Decision
There would be no new persistent state in
routers across packets
Fragmentation of smart packet is not
permitted
Operating environment must provide safety
and surety.
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ANEP Daemon Process
Injection and Reception point for smart
packets
For executing the programs received.
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Transmission of Smart Packets
Transmission Issues
How does the router know, whether the
packet is a smart packet or not
Router should analyse the program, only if
it supports smart packets
IP Option : Router Alert, Higher layer
Headers are used to check whether the
packet is a smart packet or not
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Packet Format
Program Packet
Data Packet
Error Packet
Message Packet
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ANEP Header
Source Identifier
Destination Identifier
Integrity Checksum
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Programming Languages
Language Issues
Packet needs to be compact with the code
The code needs to be safe – No File system
Access, No General System Calls
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Survey
With Fibonacci numbers Calculation
Language
Schema48
Emacs
Java
OCAML
Sprocket
Spanner
10/7/2015
Size(bytes)
1M
617
370
294
91
51
15
Sprocket
Removal of Enumerations, typedef, structures and union.
C++ style comments & declarations everywhere
Int , short , char removed and replaced with types that explicitly define the size
Floating point values 32 to 64 bits wide
Built-in types for arrays strings and lists
New complex types – Packet Type, Address Type smart packet Identifier type
and MIB Context type
Address type and Packet type are abstract types
Operations of complex types similar to C++ member function syntax.
C’s Grammer and Keywords
Self Referential Operations
Retrieving Node MIB information through General Querries and Short cut
primitives
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Spanner
Similar to Assembly language programming
Stack based CISC architecture
It differs from traditional assembly language as it has Declared
Variables, and no access to memory, storage is in stack or variable
Virtual Machine needs to the type of variables
Operations are done based on stack, and the final result may also
pushed into the stack
Stack Operations – push() and pop() are also defined
Branch Operations
Send Data and Message Packets back to the source
Syntax : starts with an operation and followed by arguments
Difference between Spanner and most assembly languages is that type
information is embedded in the operations.
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