Selected Immigration Policy
Practices
11.951
September 18, 2007
Anne Schwieger
Practice #1:
Labor Quota System
• Has been used from time to time (1993-1995, 1997-1999, and 2002)
to respond to unmet demand in labor market
• 2002 reform of system
– Requires that quotas be determined annually by National Employment
Institute
– Government only hires foreign workers directly from their countries of
origin and through bilateral agreements with sending countries
•
Criticism: Does not meet labor needs – labor unions estimated a
need for 10,000 additional workers in 2002
• Data to seek:
– Labor market demand (past, present and projected) by sector and
geographical area
http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=97
Practice #2: Regularization
• At most basic level, offers migrants who are in a country without
authorization the opportunity to legalize their status
• Most regularization programs fall into one of two categories
– De facto: grants permanent residency to migrants after they have lived
in a country for a certain number of years (UK requires continuous stay
of 14 years to attain status)
– “One-shot”: targets a finite number of migrants who have specific
residency and work requirements
• Spain has implemented at least 8 different regularization programs between
1991 and 2005. One in 2001 is named the Extraordinary Program for
Ecuadorians
• Major controversy regarding who is eligible
– Certain categories of migrants
– People who have been in the country and/or working for a certain length
of time
• Data to seek:
– Population of non-authorized migrant people by geographic area
– Categories of migrants that Spain has accepted in the past, categories
that the country is expected to accept in the future
http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/print.cfm?ID=330
Regularization Applications Submitted by Autonomous Community *
Number Submitted
Percent of Total
Andalucía
84,372
12.28
Aragón
18,186
2.65
Asturias
2,776
0.40
Castilla la Mancha
26,608
3.87
Canarias
23,211
3.38
Cantabria
1,947
0.28
Castilla y León
11,420
1.66
Cataluña
138.537
20.16
Ceuta
66
0.01
Extremadura
2,932
0.43
Galicia
6,545
0.95
Islas Baleares
21,308
3.10
La Rioja
6,579
0.96
Madrid
170,784
24.85
Melilla
215
0.03
Murcia
43,732
6.36
Navarra
8,038
1.17
País Vasco
13,171
1.92
Comunidad Valenciana
106,711
15.53
Total
687,138
100
* The 3,541 applications submitted between 9pm and 12am on May 7, 2005 are not included
Source: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Spain
http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=331
Top 10 Countries of Origin for Regularization Applications*
* The 3,541 applications submitted between 9pm and 12am on May 7, 2005 are not included
Source: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Spain
http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=331
Practice #3ish: Spain and Morocco
•
European Mediterranean Association Agreements (EMAA) signed between
EU and Morocco in 1996 to support Morocco’s “economic transition”
– Implemented primarily through MEDA program which seeks to increase
competitiveness by developing the private sector and promoting good
governance
– Significant funds target the stated goal of immigration reduction
• Annual MEDA aid is equal to only two percent of remittances
• All association agreements contain clauses dealing with political
dialogue; the free movement of goods, services and capital;
economic cooperation; social and cultural cooperation; financial
cooperation and institutional arrangements
• Data to seek:
– Current and projected rate of migration from Morocco (or entire Maghreb)
– Funds to be directed to Morocco (or entire Maghreb)
p. 10 EURO-MED ASSOCIATION AGREEMENTS
IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE
http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/euromed/asso_agree_guide_en.pdf
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