Growing sugar apple (Annona squamosa)
and atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa)
in the Home Landscape
Jonathan H. Crane
Tropical Fruit Crop Specialist
University of Florida, IFAS
Tropical Research and Education Center
Homestead
Botany
• Annonaceae
• 46 genera and 500-600 species
• Important fruit crops within the
Annonaceae include cherimoya, atemoya
(custard apple), sugar apple, guanabana
(soursop); minor annona include ilama
and pawpaw.
• Origin varies with species – South and
Central America and Mexico.
Botany and evolution of annona
Common name
Scientific name
Origin
Cherimoya
Annona cherimola
Andes of South
America (Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia)
Sugar apple
Annona squamosa
Tropical America
Atemoya
A. cherimola x A.
squamosa
Naturalized hybrids
where species
overlap; manmade
crosses
Guanabana (soursop)
A. muricata
Northern South
America, West Indies
‘Guzman’ atemoya
‘Bays’ cherimoya
Pink ilama
Guanabana (soursop)
Botany and evolution of annona
Common name
Scientific name
Origin
Custard apple
A. reticulata
West Indies
Ilama
A. diversifolia
Southwest Mexico,
Guatemala, El
Salvador
Biriba (Rollina)
Rollina deliciosa
Central and South
America, Mexico,
Caribbean
Pawpaw
Asimina triloba
Southeast and
eastern U.S.
Botany and evolution of annona
Common name
Scientific name
Origin
Mountain soursop
A. montana
South America
Pond apple
A. glabra
Southeastern U.S.
and Mexico
A. montana
(Mt. Soursop)
A. reticulata
(Bullock’s heart)
Rollinia
Pond apple
Pawpaw
Distribution of annona
Common name
Distribution
Cherimoya
Malay Archipelago, Caribbean, India,
Mediterranean, Australia, Middle East, Africa, US
(CA, HI, FL)
Sugar apple
Tropics of South and Central America, Caribbean,
Indonesia, south China, India, Africa, Asia,
Australia, Middle East, US (FL, HI, PR)
Atemoya
Australia, Israel, US (FL, HI, PR)
Guanabana
Southwestern China, Australia, southern Mexico,
Central and South America, Asia, India, US (FL,
HI, PR)
Distribution of annona
Common name
Distribution
Custard apple (A.
reticulata)
Central and South America, Mexico, Africa,
India, Asia, US (FL, HI, PR)
Ilama
Caribbean, Asia, Mexico, Central and South
America, US (FL, HI, PR)
Biriba (Rollina)
Central and South America, Caribbean, Mexico,
US (FL, HI, PR)
Pawpaw
Southeastern US
Mountain soursop
Tropical America
Pond apple
Southeastern US and Mexico
Annona fruit size comparison
Common name
Weight (oz)
Weight (g)
Cherimoya
7-71
200-2000
Sugar apple
6-20
170-557
Atemoya
11-32
300-900
Guanabana
35-141
1000-4000
Custard apple
14-35
400-1000
Annona fruit size comparison
Common name
Weight (oz)
Weight (g)
Ilama
14-28
400-800
Biriba (Rollina)
4-18
100-500?
Pawpaw
5-10
~150-285
Mountain soursop
4-11
100-300?
Pond apple
4-16
100-450?
Adaptation of annona species
Common name
Climatic adaptation
Cherimoya
Cool subtropical, mild-temperate, and highland
tropical areas
Sugar apple
Lowland tropical and warm subtropical areas
Atemoya
Lowland tropical, warm and cool subtropical
areas
Guanabana
Hot lowland tropical areas
Custard apple
Hot-lowland tropical, warm subtropical areas
Adaptation of annona species
Common name
Climatic adaptation
Ilama
Hot-lowland tropical areas
Biriba (Rollina)
Hot-lowland tropical areas
Pawpaw
Subtropical to temperate areas
Mountain
soursop
Warm tropical areas
Pond apple
Subtropical areas
Average days from flowering to maturity
Common name
Number of days
Common name
Number of days
Cherimoya
~150
Ilama
~150
Sugar apple
120-150
Biriba (Rollina)
90+
Atemoya
150-180
Pawpaw
?
Guanabana
70-120
Mountain
soursop
~120
Custard apple
200+
Pond apple
~150?
Botany of sugar apple
• Small, open, spreading to upright trees to 4.6-6.1 m tall.
• Shallow root system, most of fibrous root system within 3045 cm of soil surface.
• Semideciduous – leaf abscission occurs during late winter
and the abscission rate is influenced by cool temperature,
rainfall, and disease pressure.
• Leaves are simple, take about 40 days to mature and live
10-12 months.
• Flowers are small, singly or in clusters with 3 green, fleshy
petals, 3 inconspicuous sepals, and numerous
unicarpellate pistils upon a common receptacle, anthers
encircle the pistils at the base.
Botany of sugar apple
• Sugar apple is an
aggregate fruit
(syncarp) composed
of loosely cohering
segments. The peel is
green to light green
and leathery with
protuberances. The
flesh is white or
creamy white custardlike consistency, and
sweet. There are
numerous, small,
shiny, dark brown
seeds embedded in
the pulp.
Botany of atemoya
• Small to medium sized trees to 10 m tall.
• Shallow root system, most of the fibrous root system is
within 30-45 cm of the soil surface.
• Semideciduous – leaf abscission occurs during late winter
and the abscission rate is influenced by cool temperature,
rainfall, and disease pressure.
• Leaves are simple, take about 40 days to mature and live
10-12 months.
• Flowers are small, singly or in clusters with 3 green, fleshy
petals, 3 inconspicuous sepals, and numerous
unicarpellate pistils upon a common receptacle, anthers
encircle the pistils at the base.
Botany of atemoya
• Atemoya is an
aggregate fruit
(syncarp) composed
of loosely cohering
segments. The peel is
green to light green
and leathery with
protuberances. The
flesh is white or
creamy white custardlike consistency, and
sweet. There are
numerous, small,
shiny, dark brown
seeds embedded in
the pulp.
‘Gefner’ atemoya
Flower biology of sugar apple and atemoya
• Sugar apple and atemoya have hermaphroditic flowers.
The flowers open as functionally female first, then male.
Thus they have female and male phases.
• When sugar apple flowers first open in the early morning
the female parts are receptive to pollination (female phase),
however, by early to late afternoon the stigmatic surfaces
have dried and are no longer viable. Flowers in the female
stage are characterized by slight opening of the petals and
a glistening appearance to the stigmatic surfaces.
Flower biology of sugar apple and atemoya
• Subsequently, in the late afternoon or early evening the
male flower phase occurs and is characterized by the
anthers releasing pollen. Flowers in the male stage are
characterized by flower petals being wide open, petals may
easily fall when touched and stamens develop a brownish
color.
• Duration of anthesis of individual flowers is ~33 hours.
• In contrast to sugar apple, atemoya flowers begin opening
mid- to late afternoon.
Note the white,
glistening surface
of the numerous
female stigmas.
Sugar apple flower in female stage
Sugar apple flower in male stage
Fruit set
Note how wide open
the petals are in the
male stage.
Pollination biology
• The natural pollinators of sugar apple and atemoya are
Nitidulid beetles (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae), sometimes called
sap beetles.
• Three main species are involved, Carpophilus mutilatus, C.
fumatus, and Haptoncus luteolus.
• Research has shown: that the beetles are attracted to the
flowers by the odor emitted by female flowers and that they
feed on the nectar and pollen – effecting pollination; that as
the number of beetle visiting a flower increases (1-6+ times)
the percent fruit set increases.
Pollination biology
• Beetles remain in side flowers (at the base) up to
~22 hours until flower petals senesce and fall.
• Fruit set due to natural pollination ranges from 010% for sugar apple and 0-29% for atemoya.
• High relative humidity (>80%) weather conditions
favor longevity of the female phase and increase
pollination and percent fruit set.
• Note: Placing rotting fruit (tomatoes, apples)
under the tree several weeks prior to flowering
may increase the beetle population and improve
fruit set.
Nitidulid beetle
Nitidulid beetles
at base of flower
Artificial pollination
• Various types and combinations of gibberellic acid (GA)
applied to flowers in the female phase have been
investigated.
• Generally, fruit set has been improved with GA.
• However, this seedless fruit usually drops if multiple
applications of GA are not made, furthermore, the fruit is
small, and may split when nearing maturation.
• Hand pollination techniques have been developed for
Annona sp. which dramatically increase the percent fruit
set. This has then led to the need to thin the percent fruit
set in order to obtain commercially acceptable fruit size.
Hand pollination
Steps to hand pollination
• Hand pollination techniques have been developed
for Annona sp. which dramatically increase the
percent fruit set.
• Pollen is collected from stamens of flowers in the
male stage (late afternoon, evening, or early
morning). The stamens are placed on paper and
allowed to dehisce and the pollen stored overnight.
• Pollen may then be mixed with lycopodium dust or
talcum powder to improve handling and transfer to
flowers in the female phase.
• Hand pollination is usually most effective early to
mid-morning and may be affected by using a thin
camel-hair brush to transfer the pollen to the
slightly open flower petals to the stigmatic
surfaces at the base of the female flower.
Sugar apple and atemoya growth habit
• Sugar apple
trees tend to
have an
upright
growth habit
and atemoya
a spreading,
round
canopy.
‘Red’ sugar apple
Site selection and soils
Atemoya and sugar apple
• Sugar apple trees are more
cold sensitive than
atemoya trees. Choose a
warm location in the
landscape.
• Providing some wind
protection for young trees
will increase growth. As
trees become established
they will tolerate more
wind.
Atemoya and sugar apple
• Grow well in many well
drained soil types.
• Are not flood tolerant
unless grafted onto
soursop (A. muricata) or
pond apple (A. glabra).
• Tolerate pH 4.5-7.0.
• Grow more rapidly in
moderately fertile soil
conditions.
Florida cultivars
• Florida grows a number of
seedling selections of
green and red sugar
apples.
• Florida grows mostly
‘Gefner’ atemoya.
• Generally less than 2% of
the flowers set fruit
naturally; hand pollination
results in 50-100% set –
then thinning is needed.
• Fruit maturity is
determined by a
change from green to
light green with
yellowish-green
coloration between
areoles or segments
and a smoothing of the
peel (reduction in
prominence of the
areoles).
Sugar apple cultivars and selections
‘Thai Lessard’ (green)
‘Kampong Mauve’ (red)
‘Purple’
‘Red’
Cuban seedless
Brazilian seedless
Crimson *, Washington *,
Beni Mazar *, Abd El Razik*
* Not grown in Florida
15 cm
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atemoya cultivars
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
African pride (Kaller)
Bernitski
Bradley
Caves
Cherimata
Chiriomornon A,B,C
Gefner (Geffner)
Hette
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Island Gem
Kabri
Malali
Malamud
Page
Pink’s Mammoth
Priestly
Stermer
‘Gefner’
atemoya
‘African Pride’
atemoya
‘Guzman’ atemoya
Atemoya cultivars tested in Florida
Cultivar
Origin
Fruit production
African pride
South Africa
Poor, RHP
Bernitski
Israel
Poor, poor fruit set
Bradley
Florida
Poor, RHP
Caves
Florida
Poor
Cherimata
Egypt
Poor
RHP, does better if hand pollinated
Atemoya cultivars tested in Florida
Cultivar
Origin
Fruit production
Chiriomornon A,B,C Venezuela
Poor
Gefner
Israel
Excellent
Island Gem
Australia
Poor, small fruit
Malamud
Israel
Poor
RHP, does better if hand pollinated
Atemoya cultivars tested in Florida
Cultivar
Origin
Fruit production
Page
Florida
Poor, fruit split
Pink’s Mammoth
Australia
Poor, poor fruit set
Priestly
Australia
Poor, RHP
Stermer
Hawaii
Poor
RHP, does better if hand pollinated
Sugar apple propagation
• Seedling trees
are very
common since
there is little
variability
within a clone
or cultivar.
• Veneer and
cleft grafting or
shield budding
superior
selections is
done
occasionally.
Sugar apple germination
Atemoya propagation
• Atemoya seedling are
extremely variable.
• Commercial cultivars
are veneer or cleft
grafted or patch or
shield budded onto
suitable rootstocks.
• Atemoya may be
grafted onto 1)
atemoya (vigorous
tree), 2) sugar apple
(nonvigorous tree), 3)
pond apple with A.
reticulata hybrid
interstock (flood
tolerance), and 4)
soursop (flood
tolerance).
Plant spacing and pruning
• Plant 15 to 20 or more
feet away from
structures and other
trees.
• First two years after
planting, remove
weak, crossed, poorly
placed, and narrow
crotch-angled limbs.
Head back long
shoots to encourage
branching.
• To maintain the lower
productive canopy
and reduce potential
wind damage, limbs of
mature trees should
be periodically thinout (removed) to
reduce or maintain
trees at or below 12 ft
in height and 25 ft in
width.
Fertilizer recommendations
• Young trees:
Begin with ¼ lb of
a complete NPKMg mix (e.g., 8-3-93), every 4-8
weeks. Increase
as trees increase
in size.
• Mature trees, 3 to 5
lbs of complete
mix, 2 to 4 times
per year.
• Apply micronutrient
mix (Mg, Mn, Zn, B)
foliarly 3 to 4 times
per year.
• Mix EDDHA chelated
iron (1/4 to 3 oz rate)
in water and apply as
soil drench at base of
tree, 2 to 3 times per
year.
Fertilizer recommendations
and mulching
• For best effect,
apply NPK during
growing season,
March to
September.
• For best effect,
apply foliar
nutrients when
new leaves are ½
full size.
• For best effect,
apply iron anytime
from April through
September.
• Sugar apple and
atemoya trees
generally have
shallow roots and
mulch is beneficial.
Apply 2 to 6 inches
of clean mulch out
to 2-4 ft from the
trunk; keep mulch 2
to 4 inches from
base of trunk.
Reapply as needed.
Watering
• The most critical time to water is from flowering
through harvest. Research has shown, drought
stress reduces fruit set, fruit size, and yield.
During flowering to harvest water 1 to 2 times per
week.
• Watering during the winter is less critical and may
not be necessary as sugar apple and atemoya trees
lose their leaves slowly during the winter months.
• Excessive watering may cause root rot and tree
decline.
Sugar apple phenology
Amount of development
Shoot growth
Temperature
Root growth
 



Harvest

Fruit development



Flowering and fruit set
Leaf abscission

Fruit drop
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
N
D
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
Month
Atemoya phenology
Amount of development
Shoot growth
Temperature
Root growth
  

Flowering and fruit set

Leaf abscission




Harvest
Fruit development

Fruit drop
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
N
D
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
Month
Tree training and tree size control*
• Reasons for tree size control – maintain light levels and
lower productive canopy, improve crop production,
increase air movement-reduce disease incidence, reduce
potential hurricane damage, reduce fruit scarring.
• Suggested tree size varies with environment, plant spacing,
available technology, frequency of hurricanes, and cultivar
growth habit and harvest season.
• In general, the warmer the climate the more vigorous the
tree growth is.
• The wider the spacing the longer it takes to require regular
pruning. The closer the plant spacing the earlier a pruning
program is required and the more frequently trees are
pruned.
* Based on work with cherimoya and atemoya
Tree training and tree size control
• In general, designing a pruning program for cultivars with a
vigorous, upright regrowth habit is more difficult than for
less vigorous, spreading growth habit cultivars.
• In general, pruning of large diameter stems/wood results in
excessive/continuous vegetative flushing.
• Training of young trees is not common in Florida.
• However, training young trees to open center and/or
modified central leader and heading back to force lateral
development and removal of misplaced and V-crotched
limbs will improve tree structure, light penetration, and
reduce limb breakage problems later.
Tree training and tree size control
• The most vigorous flowers and largest fruit are produced
on shoots ~1.25-2.5 cm. dia. Annual selective pruning to
remove 1/3 to 2/3 of long shoots and weak shoots
increased the proportion of vigorous flowers and potential
higher quality fruit.
• Tree size control may be by hand pruning and/or
mechanical machinery (more common). A combination of
the two has been successfully used.
• Recommendations for Florida: prune trees to 12-16 ft.
• Selective pruning to thin-out inner canopy limbs will
increase light penetration, help maintain lower productive
canopy, and improve air movement to reduce fruit/leaf
disease problems.
Sugar apple and atemoya crop production in
Florida
• Young sugar apple and atemoya trees begin to
produce on a commercial scale after 3-5 years.
• Sugar apple. Yields from mature trees range from
10-100 lbs.
• Atemoya. Yields from mature trees range from
10-150 lbs.
Harvest indices
• Picked green mature stage
based on
• When fruit swell causing the
peel to go from bumpy with
pronounced protuberances to
less pronounce protuberances
and smoothing at the distal
end of the fruit.
• Simultaneously: 1) for green
fruit a yellowish (cream) color
developed between
protuberances; 2) for red fruit
a light pink color develops
between protuberances.
• For green fruit – the green
color lightens as fruit mature;
for red fruit – the peel changes
from green to dark purple then
to purplish-pink as fruit
mature.
‘Red’ sugar apple
‘Lessard Thai’ sugar apple
Major diseases and insects in Florida
• Anthracnose
(Colletotrichum
gloeosporoides)
• Diplodia fruit rot
(Botryodiploidia sp.)
• Purple blotch
(Phytophthora sp.)
• Rust (Phakospora sp.)
• Annona seed borer
(Braephratiloides
cubense)
• Plumose scale
(Morganella
longispina)
• Philephedra scale (P.
tuberculosa)
• Mealy bugs
Atemoya fruit rot
anthracnose
Atemoya fruit rot
Rust
(Phakospora sp.)
• Rust fungi attack
leaves during
the cool weather
(fall/winter) and
accelerates leaf
senescence
resulting in poor
fruit
development,
reduced fruit
quality, and
yields.
Annona seed borer (ASB)
• A limiting factor in fruit production.
• ASB adults oviposit in seeds of young fruit (<6
cm dia.) and larvae feed on seeds, pupates, and
emerge as adults by boring to the surface of the
fruit. There are several generations of ASB per
year.
• Control strategies
–
–
–
–
Monitor for presence of ASB and spray insecticides
Eradicate winter host Annona sp. (e.g., A. reticulata)
Isolate the planting from nearby Annona sp.
Bag the fruit
Emergence holes
of adult ASB
Annona seed borer
Storage
• Pick only mature
fruit.
• Pick very
carefully and
place bins in
shade
immediately.
• Sort, pack, and
store
immediately.
• 50-55oF.
• Postharvest life
varies from 5-15
days.
Sugar apple and atemoya environmental stress and
management
Moderate tolerance
• Drought – leaf
wilting, chlorosis,
and abscission;
reduced fruit set
and fruit size;
reduced crop
yields.
• Solutions – wide
plant spacing,
deep rooting,
mulching,
irrigation.
Rootstock dependent
generally intolerant
• Flood – leaf wilting, chlorosis,
desiccation, and abscission;
reduced growth, flowering, fruit set;
stem and limb dieback; severe crop
loss; tree death.
• A. glabra and A. muricata tolerant;
A. squamosa, atemoya, A. reticulata
not tolerant.
• Solutions – site selection, tolerant
rootstocks, mounding, bedding,
ditch/canal contour, subsurface
drainage, hardpan disruption.
Sugar apple fruit nutrient content –
value per 3.5 oz (100 grams) of fruit
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water, 70-76%
Calories, 86-114 cal
Protein, 1.2-2.4 g
Total lipid (fat), 0.3-1.1 g
Vit. C, 35-42 mg
Thaimine, 0.1 mg
Riboflavin, 0.11-0.17 mg
Niacin, 0.65-1.3 mg
•
•
•
•
•
Calcium, 17-45 mg
Phosphorus, 24-55 mg
Potassium, 275 mg
Iron, 0.3-1.8 mg
Sodium, 11 mg
Source: Leal, F., Sugar apple. 1990. In: Fruits of tropical and
subtropical origin: composition, properties, and uses. S. Nagy, P.I.
Shaw, and W.F. Wardowski, Editors. Fla. Sci. Source, Lake Alfred,
FL.
Uses
• Fresh as a dessert fruit.
• Ice cream
• Juices, fermented drinks, mixed with
milk.
For more information
• UF-IFAS publications web site:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
• UF-TREC FruitScapes web site:
http://fruitscapes.ifas.ufl.edu or
www.fruitscapes.info
• UF-TREC: http://trec.ifas.ufl.edu
• Fla. State Hort. Soc.: www.fshs.org
Credits
• Author – Dr. Jonathan H. Crane, Tropical
Fruit Crops Specialist
• Photographs – copyrighted
– Ian Maguire
– Jorge Peña/Rita Duncan
– Carl W. Campbell
– Jonathan H. Crane
• This presentation is copyrighted 2005
University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences
Descargar

Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) and atemoya (A.