Honors Physical Science 2011 Mrs. Artie Orgeron How old are you? How tall are you? The answers to these questions are measurements. Measurements are important in both science and everyday life. It would be difficult to imagine doing science without any measurements. Using Scientific Notation Why is scientific scientific notation useful? Why is notation useful? Using Scientific Notation Why is scientific notation useful? Scientists often work with very large or very small numbers. Astronomers estimate there are 200,000,000,000 stars in our galaxy. Using Scientific Notation Scientific notation is a way of expressing a value as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10. For example, the speed of light is about 300,000,000 meters per second. In scientific notation, that speed is 3.0 × 108 m/s. The exponent, 8, tells you that the decimal point is really 8 places to the right of the 3. Using Scientific Notation For numbers less than 1 that are written in scientific notation, the exponent is negative. For example, an average snail’s pace is 0.00086 meters per second. In scientific notation, that speed is 8.6 × 10-4 m/s. The negative exponent tells you how many decimals places there are to the left of the 8.6. SI Units of Measurement What What units units do do scientists scientists use use for for their their measurements? measurements? SI Units of Measurement Scientists use use aa set set of of measuring measuring units units Scientists called SI, SI, or or the the International International System System of of called Units. Units. SI is is an an abbreviation abbreviation for for Système Système ••SI International d’Unités. d’Unités. International SI is is aa revised revised version version of of the the metric metric system, system, ••SI originally developed developed in in France France in in 1791. 1791. originally Scientists around around the the world world use use the the same same ••Scientists system of of measurements measurements so so that that they they can can system readily interpret interpret one one another’s another’s readily measurements. measurements. SI Units of Measurement If you told one of your friends that you had finished an assignment “in five,” it could mean five minutes or five hours. Always express measurements in numbers and units so that their meaning is clear. These students’ temperature measurement will include a number and the unit, °C. SI Units of Measurement Base Units and Derived Units SI is built upon seven metric units, known as base units. • In SI, the base unit for length, or the straight-line distance between two points, is the meter (m). • The base unit for mass, or the quantity of matter in an object or sample, is the kilogram (kg). SI Units of Measurement Seven metric base units make up the foundation of SI. SI Units of Measurement Additional SI units, called derived units, are made from combinations of base units. • Volume is the amount of space taken up by an object. • Density is the ratio of an object’s mass to its volume: SI Units of Measurement Specific combinations of SI base units yield derived units. SI Units of Measurement To derive the SI unit for density, you can divide the base unit for mass by the derived unit for volume. Dividing kilograms by cubic meters yields the SI unit for density, kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). A bar of gold has more mass per unit volume than a feather, so gold has a greater density than a feather. SI Units of Measurement Metric Prefixes The metric unit is not always a convenient one to use. A metric prefix indicates how many times a unit should be multiplied or divided by 10. SI Units of Measurement For example, the time it takes for a computer hard drive to read or write data is in the range of thousandths of a second, such as 0.009 second. Using the prefix milli- (m), you can write 0.009 second as 9 milliseconds, or 9 ms. SI Units of Measurement Metric prefixes can also make a unit larger. For example, a distance of 12,000 meters can also be written as 12 kilometers. Metric prefixes turn up in nonmetric units as well. If you work with computers, you probably know that a gigabyte of data refers to 1,000,000,000 bytes. A megapixel is 1,000,000 pixels. SI Units of Measurement A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity expressed in one unit to another unit. To convert the height of Mount Everest, 8848 meters, into kilometers, multiply by the conversion factor on the left. SI Units of Measurement To convert 8.848 kilometers back into meters, multiply by the conversion factor on the right. Since you are converting from kilometers to meters, the number should get larger. In this case, the kilometer units cancel, leaving you with meters. Limits of Measurement How How does does the the precision precision of of measurements measurements affect affect the the precision precision of of scientific scientific calculations? calculations? Limits of Measurement Precision Precision is a gauge of how exact a measurement is. Significant figures are all the digits that are known in a measurement, plus the last digit that is estimated. Limits of Measurement The The precision precision of of aa calculated calculated answer answer is is limited limited by by the the least least precise precise measurement measurement used used in in the the calculation. calculation. Limits of Measurement A more precise time can be read from the digital clock than can be read from the analog clock. The digital clock is precise to the nearest second, while the analog clock is precise to the nearest minute. Limits of Measurement If the least precise measurement in a calculation has three significant figures, then the calculated answer can have at most three significant figures. • Mass = 34.73 grams • Volume = 4.42 cubic centimeters. • Rounding to three significant figures, the density is 7.86 grams per cubic centimeter. Limits of Measurement Accuracy Another important quality in a measurement is its accuracy. Accuracy is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured. For example, suppose a digital clock is running 15 minutes slow. Although the clock would remain precise to the nearest second, the time displayed would not be accurate. Measuring Temperature thermometer is is an an instrument instrument that that AA thermometer measures temperature, temperature, or or how how hot hot an an measures object is. is. object Measuring Temperature Scale The scale indicates Celsius (centigrade) temperature scale Fahrenheit scale Capillary tube Colored liquid The liquid moves up and down the capillary tube as the temperature changes. Bulb The bulb contains the reservoir of liquid. the temperature according to how far up or down the capillary tube the liquid has moved. Measuring Temperature Compressed scale Liquid rises less in a wide tube for the same temperature change. Liquid rises more in a narrow tube for the same temperature change. Expanded, easy-to-read scale Measuring Temperature The two temperature scales that you are probably most familiar with are the Fahrenheit scale and the Celsius scale. • A degree Celsius is almost twice as large as a degree Fahrenheit. • You can convert from one scale to the other by using one of the following formulas. Measuring Temperature The SI base unit for temperature is the kelvin (K). • A temperature of 0 K, or 0 kelvin, refers to the lowest possible temperature that can be reached. • In degrees Celsius, this temperature is –273.15°C. To convert between kelvins and degrees Celsius, use the formula: Measuring Temperature Temperatures can be expressed in degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or kelvins. Assessment Questions 1. A shopping mall has a length of 200 meters and a width of 75 meters. What is the area of the mall, in scientific notation? a. b. c. d. 1 × 103 m2 1.5 × 103 m2 1.5 × 104 m2 1.75 × 104 m2 Assessment Questions 1. A shopping mall has a length of 200 meters and a width of 75 meters. What is the area of the mall, in scientific notation? a. b. c. d. 1 × 103 m2 1.5 × 103 m2 1.5 × 104 m2 1.75 × 104 m2 ANS: C Assessment Questions 2. A student measures the volume and mass of a liquid. The volume is 50.0 mL and the mass is 78.43 g. What is the correct calculated value of the liquid’s density? (A calculator reads 1.5686.) a. b. c. d. 1.6 g/cm3 1.57 g/cm3 1.569 g/cm3 1.5686 g/cm3 Assessment Questions 2. A student measures the volume and mass of a liquid. The volume is 50.0 mL and the mass is 78.43 g. What is the correct calculated value of the liquid’s density? (A calculator reads 1.5686.) a. b. c. d. 1.6 g/cm3 1.57 g/cm3 1.569 g/cm3 1.5686 g/cm3 ANS: B Assessment Questions 3. How can you convert a temperature expressed in kelvin (K) to degree Celsius (°C)? a. b. c. d. add 32 subtract 32 add 273 subtract 273 Assessment Questions 3. How can you convert a temperature expressed in kelvin (K) to degree Celsius (°C)? a. b. c. d. add 32 subtract 32 add 273 subtract 273 ANS: C Assessment Questions 1. The SI base unit for length is the mile. True False Assessment Questions 1. The SI base unit for length is the mile. True False ANS: F, meter In order for news to be useful, it must be reported in a clear, organized manner. Like the news, scientific data become meaningful only when they are organized and communicated. Communication includes visual presentations, such as this graph. Organizing Data How How do do scientists scientists organize organize data? data? Organizing Data Scientists can organize their data by using data tables and graphs. Organizing Data Data Tables The simplest way to organize data is to present them in a table. This table relates two variables—a manipulated variable (location) and a responding variable (average annual precipitation). Organizing Data Line Graphs A line graph is useful for showing changes that occur in related variables. • In a line graph, the manipulated variable is generally plotted on the horizontal axis, or xaxis. • The responding variable is plotted on the vertical axis, or y-axis, of the graph. Organizing Data Sometimes the data points in a graph yield a straight line. • The steepness, or slope, of this line is the ratio of a vertical change to the corresponding horizontal change. • The formula for the slope of the line is Organizing Data Plotting the mass of water against the volume of water yields a straight line. Organizing Data A direct proportion is a relationship in which the ratio of two variables is constant. The relationship between the mass and the volume of water is an example of a direct proportion. • A 3-cubic-centimeter sample of water has a mass of 3 grams. • A 6-cubic-centimeter sample of water has a mass of 6 grams. • A 9-cubic-centimeter sample of water has a mass of 9 grams. Organizing Data This graph shows how the flow rate of a water faucet affects the time required to fill a 1-gallon pot. Organizing Data An inverse proportion is a relationship in which the product of two variables is a constant. • A flow rate of 0.5 gallon per minute will fill the pot in 2 minutes. • A flow rate of 1 gallon per minute will fill the pot in 1 minute. • A flow rate of 2 gallons per minute will fill the pot in 0.5 minute. Organizing Data Faster Than Speeding Data A modem is a device used to send and receive data. For example, if you upload an image to a Web site, the modem in your computer converts the data of the image into a different format. The converted data are then sent through a telephone line or cable TV line. The smallest unit of data that can be read by a computer is a binary digit, or “bit.” A bit is either a 0 or a 1. Computers process bits in larger units called bytes. A byte is a group of eight bits. Organizing Data The table shows the data transfer rates for modems used in home computers. Data transfer rates are often measured in kilobits per second, or kbps. The time required to upload a 1-megabyte (MB) file is given for each rate listed. Organizing Data Using Graphs Use the data in the table to create a line graph. Describe the relationship between data transfer rate and upload time. Answer: 1. Organizing Data 2. Inferring How would doubling the data transfer rate affect the upload time? Answer: Doubling the data transfer rate would halve the upload time. Organizing Data Bar Graphs A bar graph is often used to compare a set of measurements, amounts, or changes. Organizing Data Circle Graphs If you think of a pie cut into pieces, you have a mental model of a circle graph. A circle graph shows how a part or share of something relates to the whole. Communicating Data How can can scientists scientists communicate communicate How experimental data? data? experimental Communicating Data Scientists Scientists can can communicate communicate results results by by writing writing in in scientific scientific journals journals or or speaking speaking at at conferences. conferences. Communicating Data Scientists also exchange information through conversations, e-mails, and Web sites. Young scientists often present their research at science fairs. Communicating Data Peer review is a process in which scientists examine other scientists’ work. • Peer review encourages comments, suggestions, questions, and criticism from other scientists. • Based on their peers’ responses, the scientists who submitted their work for review can then reevaluate how to best interpret their data. Assessment Questions 1. Which type of graph is most useful for showing how part of something relates to the whole? a. b. c. d. bar circle column line Assessment Questions 1. Which type of graph is most useful for showing how part of something relates to the whole? a. b. c. d. bar circle column line ANS: B Assessment Questions 2. How does a line graph generally show the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable? a. The manipulated variable is plotted on the x-axis, and the responding variable is plotted on the y-axis. b. The responding variable is plotted on the x-axis, and the manipulated variable is plotted on the y-axis. c. The manipulated variable is plotted on the graph, and the responding variable is shown by the slope. d. The responding variable is plotted on the graph, and the manipulated variable is shown by the slope. Assessment Questions 2. How does a line graph generally show the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable? a. The manipulated variable is plotted on the x-axis, and the responding variable is plotted on the y-axis. b. The responding variable is plotted on the x-axis, and the manipulated variable is plotted on the y-axis. c. The manipulated variable is plotted on the graph, and the responding variable is shown by the slope. d. The responding variable is plotted on the graph, and the manipulated variable is shown by the slope. ANS: A Assessment Questions 3. How do scientists communicate the results of scientific investigations? a. by writing in scientific journals or speaking at conferences b. using secret code c. only through e-mail d. by writing in literary journals Assessment Questions 3. How do scientists communicate the results of scientific investigations? a. by writing in scientific journals or speaking at conferences b. using secret code c. only through e-mail d. by writing in literary journals ANS: A Assessment Questions 4. Why is peer review an important part of the scientific process? a. Peer review makes sure that the correct researcher gets credit for discoveries. b. Peer review helps identify errors or bias in research. c. Peer review is the system used to report information to other scientists. d. Peer review helps other scientists form theories about a discovery. Assessment Questions 4. Why is peer review an important part of the scientific process? a. Peer review makes sure that the correct researcher gets credit for discoveries. b. Peer review helps identify errors or bias in research. c. Peer review is the system used to report information to other scientists. d. Peer review helps other scientists form theories about a discovery. ANS: B

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# Test 2: Measurement and Graphing