CAPITAL: Bucharest
• This name was adopted in 1862,
after the formation of the national
state by the union of the two
Romanian
Principalities
of
Wallachia and Moldavia in 1859
• (proportion 3/2) three equal
vertical stripes red, yellow, and
blue (near to the staff).
• In December 1989 the emblem
on the yellow stripe was removed.
SURFACE
•238,391 sq. km (4.8% of Europe), 11th
place in Europe, and 79th in the world.
•Total length of the borders: 3,149.9 km.
•The terrestrial border is 1,085.5 km in
length, while the river and marine
borders are 2,064.4 km in length.
•The surface of Romania is divided into
41 administrative units, 40 of them
counties.
•Bucharest city is a distinct unit.
LOCATION
•Country located in the southeast of
Europe, in the northern part of the
Balkanic peninsula, inside the Danube
river basin opening on the Black Sea.
•Romania is positioned almost
equidistant (from 2,700 to 2,900 km)
of the Atlantic Ocean (towards the
west), Arctic Ocean (towards the
north), and Ural Mountains (towards
the east).
•It is located 1,050 km north of the
Mediterranean Sea.
FORM
OF GOVERNMENT
NATIONAL DAY
LEGAL HOLIDAYS
Republic with two Houses of Parliament. The
President, Senators and Deputies are elected
through universal, equal, direct, secret and freely
expressed vote.
December 1 was adopted as National Day in 1990,
being the day of celebration of the Great Assembly
of Alba Iulia which voted for the union of
Transylvania with Romania
1 and 2 January (The New Year), Easter Monday,
May Day, 1 December, 25 and 26 December
(Christmas).
STATE ANTHEM
(since 1990)
Awake, Ye, Romanian, from your lethargic sleep /
In which your barbarous tyrants have sunken you so
deep.
Lyrics: Andrei Muresanu, Music: Anton Pann.
The song was popular during the 1848
THE ROMANIAN
LANGUAGE
The Romanian language, which is the mother tongue
of around 90% of the country's population. The
easternmost representative of the family of Romance
languages, Romanian descends directly from the Latin.
FOREIGN
LANGUAGES
The main foreign language used in Romania are:
English, French, German. From the mid-19th century
to the 1960s, the main foreign language used in
Romania was French, to a certain extend, German.
STANDARD TIME
East European zone lime (GMT + 2
hours). As of 1979, from the last Sunday
in March to the last Sunday in
September, Daylight Saving Time (GMT
+ 3 hours). Romania lies in the same
time zone with the Republic of Moldova,
Finland, Greece, Israel, Egypt and the
Republic of South Africa.
WEIGHTS
AND
MEASURES
The metric system, in force since 1866.
CURRENCY
1 leu (plural - lei) = 100 bani (singular ban). The
dormestic convertibility of the leu was
introduced in November 1991
RELIGION
POPULATION
Total: 21,698,181 inhabitants.
Romanians: 19,409,400 (89.5%);
Magyars: 1,434,377 (6.6%);
Rroms (gypsies): 535,250 (2.5%);
Germans: 60,088 (0.3%);
Ukrainians («Ruteni»): 61,353 (0.3%);
Russians («Lipoveni»): 36.397 (0.2%);
Turks: 32,596 (0.2%);
Tartars: 24,137 (0.1%);
Serbians: 22,518 (0.1%);
Slovaks: 17,199 (0.1%).
Other nationalities: 39,981 (0.25%)
Orthodox: 18,806,428 (86.7%);
Roman Catholic: 1,028,401 (4.7%);
Protestant: 698,550 (3.2%);
Pentecostal: 330,486 (1.5%);
Greek Catholic: 195,481 (0.9%);
Baptist: 129,937 (0.6%);
the 7th-day Adventists: 97,041 (0.4%);
Unitarian: 66,846 (0.3%);
Muslim: 67,566 (0.3%);
Christians by Gospel: 46,029 (0.2%);
Old-rite Christians: 39,485 (0.2%);
Mosaic: 6,197.
MILITARY SERVICE
Compulsory, for an average period of 12 months, for men over 20
years old (except for the cases stipulated by law)
NATIONAL COAT-OF-ARMS
An eagle holding a cross in its beak
and a sword and a sceptre in its claws
as well as the symbols of the five
historical provinces: Wallachia,
Moldavia, Transylvania (with Crisana
and Maramures), Banat and Dobrudja
NATIONAL SEAL
Romania Geographical Position in Europe
• State situated in SE Central
Europe, north of the Balkan
Peninsula, on the Lower
Danube and bordering on the
Black Sea.
• Romania
lies
between
43°37'07"
and
48°15'06"
Latitude North and 20°15'44"
and
29°41'24"
Longitude
East.
• Parallel 45 (midway between
the Equator and the North
Pole) crosses Romania 70 km
north of its capital and
meridian 25 Longitude East
(midway between the Atlantic
coast and the Urals) runs 90
km west of Bucharest.
ROMANIA BOUNDARIES
Romania borders to the east and north on the Republic of Ukraine and the
Republic of Moldova, to the west on Hungary, to the southwest on
Yugoslavia, to the south on Bulgaria and to the southeast on the Black Sea.
Two thirds of the frontiers follow the courses of rivers (the Danube, the Prut,
the Tisza) and the seashore (the Black Sea) and one third is traced on the
land.
Borders
Total
Total
length
Terestre
Fluvial
Maritime
3149.9
1085.5
1817.0
247.4
Bulgaria
631.3
139.1
470.0
22.2
Yugoslavia
546.4
256.8
289.6
-
Republic of
Moldova
681.3
-
681.3
-
Ukraine
649.4
273.8
343.9
31.7
Hungary
448.0
415.8
32.2
-
Black Sea
193.5
-
-
193.5
RELIEF
Nature has been particularly generous with the land of Romania, a country whose relief
is not only varied but also harmoniously distributed. There are three major, welldifferentiated relief steps: the highest is represented by the Carpathian Mountains, the
middle by the Sub-Carpathians, the hils and the tablelands, and the low one by the
plains, the river meadows and the Danube Delta.
Ceahlau Mountains
The mountains treching in the shape of an arch in the central part
cover 31% of the country's area, the hills and the tableands which
descend from them occupy 36%, and the plains, extending towards
the southern and western borders, take up 33%. Encircling like a
crown the Transylvanian Tableand (400-600 m altitude), the
Carpathian Moldoveanu Peak in the Fagaras Massif - 2,544 m.
To the east and south the Carpathians are continued by the SubCarpathians with a similar genesis, but having lower altitudes
(1,00 - 500 m), and to the west by the Western Hills. To the east
and south-east lie the two plateaux - the Moldavian Tableland and
the Dobrudja Tableland with altitudes of 400 - 600m.
Western Plain
Mehedinti Tableland
The plains - formerly sea and lake bottoms - cover the southeern
and western parts of the country and are low and extremely flat.
Between the Carpathians and the Danube lies the Romanian
Plain, the principal granary of the country, and to the west
stretches the Western Plain, which is crossed by many rivers.
RIVERS AND LAKES
Rivers. The network of rivers is radial-shaped, with
98% of the rivers springing from the Carpathian
Mountains and being collected directly or through
tributaries by the Danube.
• The Danube, the second longest river in Europe
(2,860 km), flows on Romania's territory along 1,075
km and empties into the Black Sea through three arms
(Chilia, Sulina, Sfântu Gheorghe) which form a delta.
• The main rivers are: the Mures, the Prut, the Olt, the
Siret, the Ialomita, the Somes, the Arges.
Lakes. There are around 3,500 lakes, but only 0.9% of
them have an area exceeding 1 sq.km More important
are the lagoons and the Black sea coast lakes (Razim
and Sinoe) and the lakes along the Danuble bank.
• Glacial lakes are mostly spread in the Carpathian
Mountains (Lake Bucura, is the largest of them).
• Out of the man-made lakes, the most importants
storage lakes for power generation are those on the
Danube, at the Hydro-Power Plants of Iron Gates II
(40,000 ha) and Iron Gates I, and also the storage
lakes of Stânca-Costesti on the Prut and Izvoru
Muntelui on the Bicaz river.
• Romania
has
a
temperate - continental
climate of transitional
type, specific to Central
Europe, with four clearly
defined seasons.
• The
mean
annual
temperatures is 11°C in
the south of the country
and 8°C in the north of
the country.
• The absolute minimum
temperature registered
was - 38.5°C at Bod in
the Brasov Depression,
and
the
absolute
maximum temperature
was + 44.5°C (at Ion
Sion in the Baragan
Plain).
CLIMATE
Climate Map
VEGETATION
• The forests, which in ancient times
and during the Middle Ages used to
cover almost the entire area of Romania
(except for its southeast), gradually
made room for farming land.
• Nowadays forests account for 26.2%
of the country's area, consisting of
beech, common oak and evergreen oak,
coniferous trees, hornbeam, elm,
ashtree, lime-tree and other species .
• Alpine pastures cover extensive areas
at altitudes higher than 1,800 m and are
used mainly for sheep breeding.
FAUNA
• Romania's fauna was and still is one of the richest and most varied in Europa,
boasting some rare and even unique species on the continent.
• Chamois, brown bears, Carpathian deer, wolves, lynx, martens, capercaillies
populate the mountains, while hares, foxes, wild boars, roes, partridges and
quails are typical of the hills and plains.
• The Danube Delta with an area of 5,050 sq.km. (of which 4,340 sq.km. on
Romania's territory) remains a sanctuary of native and migrating waterfowl and of
fish (carp, sheat fish, pike, zander, etc.).
• Sturgeons (producing the caviar) can be found in the lower course of the Danube
and dolphins, herrings, horse mackerels, grey mullets etc. in the Black Sea.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
At present there are about 630 protected zones across Romania, covering
1,200,000 ha.
Out of them - three biosphere reserves, 14 national parks and 362 nature
reserves.
• The Retezat National Park (f. 1935 - the Southern Carpathians);
• The Rodna National Park (f. 1990 - the Eastern Carpathians);
• The Danube Delta (f. 1938) have been included by UNESCO, as biosphere
reserves, on its list of protected nature monuments.
Image from Retezat National Park
Images from Danube Delta
ROMANIA ADMINISTRATIVE
DIVISION
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION: COUNTY,
TOWN, COMMUNE. According to Art. 3 of
the Constitution, Romanias' territory is
divided from an administrative point of
view into comune (communes), cities
(towns and cities) and judete (counties).
TRADITIONAL PROVINCES
From a historical point of view, 3 great
traditional provinces are known: Valahia
(including Oltenia, Muntenia and Dobrogea
regions), Moldova and Transilvania
(including Banat and Transilvania regions)
AIRPORTS AND PORTS
AIRPORTS: The main international airport is BucharestOtopeni (opened in 1970), located 18 km from the central
part of Bucharest (it took over the external flights from the
oldest civilian airport in the town: Bucharest-Baneasa). 15
towns have airports: Constanta - Mihail Kogalniceanu,
Timisoara, Arad, Sibiu, Suceava, Bacau, Baia Mare,
Caransebes, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Iasi, Oradea, Satu
Mare, Târgu Mures, Tulcea.
PORTS: The largest port of Romania and also the largest
Black Sea port with a traffic of over 80 million tons per year
but which can also receive ships up to 150,000 dwt is
Constanta. Other ports on the Black Sea are: Mangalia (the
ancient Greek colony of Callatis, founded in the sixth
century BC) and Sulina. The main ports on the Danube,
most of them active since Roman antiquity, are Orsova,
Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Turnu Magurele, Giurgiu, Oltenita,
Calaras, Cernavoda. Three ports - Braila, Galati and Tulcea
THE DANUBE - BLACK SEA CANAL: Built between 1975
and 1984, the canal links the Danube (south of the town of
Cernavoda) with the Black Sea (at Agigea - Constanta
South) and shortens the shipping route to Constanta by
about 400 km. The canal, which can be used for two-way
river traffic, is 64.2 km long, 110-140 m wide and 7-8.5 m
deep, and can receive ships with a draught of up to 5.5 m.
HISTORY
MIHAI VITEAZUL (1593-1601) prince of Wallahia, Transylvania
and Moldavia, the first carried out the union of the Romanian
countries (1600). His European resounding victories contributed
to the consolidating of the union and the defence of the whole
christendom.
Romanian Territory during the Epoch of Mihai Viteazul
Legend:
Wallahia and the Countries Conquered by Mihai
Turk Empire
Moldavia
Commercial Roads
Stefan cel Mare voivode, prince of Moldavia (1457-1504).
His reign almost half a century includes everlasting pages in
the struggle for the country independence and development
and implicitly for the reconstruction of the antiottoman front of
the Romanians.
Romanian Territory during the Epoch of Stefan cel Mare
Legend:
Wallahia (Tara Romaneasca)
Hungarian Kingdom
Turk Empire
Moldavia and its Possessions
Polish Kingdom
Commercial Roads
VLAD THE IMPALER - DRACULA
The Romanians whose word stock is mainly Latin, nicknamed
him Dracul - Dracula (from the Latin Draco-Onis). In Romanian
Drac means Devil. This nickname turned into a surname for his
descendants, Vlad, his second son being known as such. He
spend his childhood in Sighisoara, was taken hostage by Turks,
then went to his uncle Iancu de Hunedoara, a Romanian
nobleman (whose daughter Vlad later married) becoming prince
of Wallachia on August 22, 1456).
Vlad Dracula's portrait
Known as one of the most dreaded enemies of the Ottoman
Empire, Vlad Dracula started organizing the state, the army, the
law, applying death penalty by impaling all those he considered
enemies: highwaymen, robbers, beggars, cunning priests,
treacherous noblemen, usurper Saxons, who tried to replace
him either by his cousin Dan cel Tanar (Dan the Young) or by his
natural brother Vlad Calugarul (Vlad the Monk).
The Ottoman historians nicknamed him Vlad Tepes, as he came
to be known in Romanian historiography, but he used to sign
with his father's name, Dracula. This is testified in Bucharest's
first documentary mentioning, dated September 20, 1459 and in the portrait of
Odhsenbach Stambuch from Stuttgart.
CARPATI MOUNTAINS
Nature has been particularly generous with the land of Romania, a county whose relief is
characterized by variety, proportion and harmony and is distributed almost equally:
- mountains (over 800 m altitude) take up 31 per cent;
- hills ans tableland (with altitudes ranging between 200 and 800) - 33 per cent;
- plains (under 200 m altitutde) - 36 per cent.
Carpathian Mountains are divided into three big groups:
Eastern Carpathians
Stretching from the N-NW border of the country down to the Prahova
Valley, are made up of volcanic rocks, Mezozoical-crystalline rocks and
flysch, the highest elevation being of 2,303 m (the Pietrosu Peak in the
Rodna Mountains); their inner rim is formed of the longest chain of volcanic
mountains in Europe
Southern Carpathians
Standing between the Prahova Valley and the Timis-Cerna and Bistra
corridors, which are made chiefly of crystalline schists and are the
country's highest (maximum elevation 2,544 m, the Moldoveanu Peak in
the Fagaras mountains)
Western Carpathians
Situated in the west of the country, between the Danube to the south and
the Somes river to the north, consists of a mosaic of rocks (sedimentary,
eruptive, crystalline) and have karstic zones; their height is reduced
(maximum elevation 1,849 m, the Curcubata Mare Peak in the Bihor
Mountains).
DANUBE DELTA
General Information
• The Danube, which is the second longest river in Europe,
has its springs in the Black Forest Mountains in Germany
and before reaching Tulcea (Romania) it branches off onto
three arms: Chilia, Sulina and Sf. Gheorghe, through which it
empties into the Black Sea.
• The three arms the most important delta in Europe (5,050
sq.km., out of which 4,340 on Romanian territory).
Fauna
The Danube Delta shelters over 3,400 species of
vertebrates and invertebrates, many of them unique in the
country, in Europe or even in the world.
Flora
Extemely lavish, it grows at three levells:
Plants with floating leaves - white water lily (Castalia alba), yellow water lily (Nuphar
luteum), frogbit (Hydrocharis morsusrane), water caltrop (Trapa natans), pondweed
(Potamogeton natans), rizac (Stratiotes aloides).
Black Sea Coast
• The romanian "riviera", which is 50 km long, is made up of a continuous belt of 16
seaside resorts (some of the being also spas), out of which six are in high demand:
Mamaia, Eforie Nord, Costinesti (the resort of the youth), Neptun (the favourite holiday
place of former dictator Ceausescu), Olimp, Venus, 2 Mai, all of them built after 1960.
•Tourists can visit also the vestiges of the three colonies which were founded there by
ancient Greeks in the seventh - sixth centuries BC: Histria to the north, Tomis in the
centre (the present-day Constanta, which is the main Romanian sea port, boasting an
imposing archaeological museum) and Callatis (the present-day Mangalia), and also the
monument from Adamclisi (100 km west). Besides the ordinary cure factors, there are
here natural lakes with therapeutical mud.
• Lake Techirghiol is most appreciated and several sanatoriums were built around it
LITERATURE
Mihai Eminescu
(1850 - 1889)
Mihai Eminescu
(for Romanians he is the
prototype of the poet and
of poetry), who was
conversant with the higest
philosophical speculations
and, at the same time,
was a great admirer of folk
poetry, gave maximum
brilliance to Romanian
Romanticism,
having
radically changed the
poetic language by doing
away with rhetoric.
Mircea Eliade
(1907-1986)
In prose writing, the great
name of the time was Liviu
Rebreanu
(1885-1944),
whose
novels
Ion
and
Padurea Spânzuratilor (Forest
of the Hanged) are great
masterpieces. The former is a
realistic work with naturalist
influences, a tregedy of rural
life, stripped of the idyllic LIVIU REBREANU
character
that
previously (1885-1944)
prevailed in literature.
Mircea Eliade was an erudite in the comparative history of religions,
novelist, essayist, philosopher. Mircea Eliade was a personality of
mondial renown.
Eliade's analysis of religion assumes the existence of "the sacred"
as the object of worship of religious humanity. Any phenomenal
entity is a potential hierophany and can give access to non-historical
time: what Eliade calls illud tempus (Latin for 'that time,' I tend to
think of it as 'yon time').
CONSTANTIN BRÂNCUSI
Constantin Brâncusi, is a famous Romanian sculptor (b. 1876
Hobita-Pestisani, Gorj, Romania - d. 1957 Paris, France), one of the
first great creators in the modern art.
From his works we present:
The Monumental ensemble from Târgu Jiu was raised in the
honour of the dead heroes from First World War. It express the cosmic feeling of
Brâncusi manifested by the reunion of the four fundamental elements of the world:
• water - the start from the Jiu river;
• earth - the alley from the public garden, "Masa tãcerii" (Silence table) incorporated in
the earth and the Heroes way;
• fire - the flame which ensures the triumph upon the death in "Poarta Sãrutului" (The
kiss gate);
• air - the spring of the "Coloana fãrã sfârsit" (Endless column) which goes through the
air in its way toward the sky.
The alley from the public
garden starting from Jiu river
MASA TÃCERII
Creation years: 1937-1938
POARTA SÃRUTULUI
Creation years: 1937-1938
COLOANA
FÃRÃ SFÂRSIT
1937
SPORTS
• The first sports associations in Romania were established in the mid-19th century.
One of the first was the so-called "Society for Hitting the Mark" (from Al.I Cuza times
1859-1866).
•The first years of the 20th century saw the spread of boxing, cycling and later of the
sports practised by teams.
•The first football match was played at Timisoara, in the Banat, in 1902, and in 1910
the first rugby club was established in Bucharest.
• Two years later the Federation of the Sports Societies of Romania was set up in the
capital, being followed by the Romanian Olympic Committee in 1914.
• The first higher education institution in this domain, the National Institute for Physical
Education, opened its gates in 1923.
•In the period between the two World Wars Romanian sportsmen registered the first
victories international contests.
• The first Olympic medal, a bronze one, was won in Paris in 1924 by the rugby team;
it was followed by a silver medal at horse racing at the Berlin Olympiad (1936).
• The first world champion titles were won in 1934 and 1936 (at luge), while at boxing
Romania obtained the first European title in 1930 through Lucian Popescu.
The Romanian rowing and canoe - kayak were imposed by
representatives of exception who have created real schools which have
kept this Romanian sport at the top of world standings to date.
Canoeist Ivan Patzaichin, a Danube Delta native, was four times
Olympic champion (Mexico City - 1968, Munich - 1972, Moscow - 1980
and Los Angeles - 1984) and won seven times the Olympic and world
title between 1970 and 1983.
Through Ion Tiriac and Ilie Nastase (the latter being
the winner of the FILT Grand Prix in 1972 and 1973)
Romanian participated three times in the Davis Cup
final, however without managing to win it. Thanks to
these two great sportsmen, tennis is very popular
among the Romanians.
•Out of the team-based sports enjoying a good tradition in Romania,
handball, first women's handball, then men's handball, offered an
opportunity to both national teams and club teams to repeatedly mount
the highest step of the European, world and Olympic podium.
• 1976 was the year which brought celebrity to the Romanian women's
gymnastics school, Romania's women gymnasts having maintained
themselves in the world edite to date. At the Olympic Games in Montreal
in 1976 Nadia Comaneci won three gold medals, one silver and one
bronze medal.
GHEORGHE HAGI
Hagi was Romanian team captain 65 times,
first time when he was 20, on Romania Northern Ireland World Cup qualifying match.
Starting 1990 Hagi was Romania's team
captain in all games until his official
retirement in April 2001
In 1990 Hagi played for the first time to a
World Cup final tournament in Italy. Starting
with "Italy 1990", Romanian football team had
its most successful period playing on 2 World
Cup (USA 1994, France 1998) & (England 1996,
Belgium & Holland 2000) 2 European final
tournaments. In Romania Hagi was voted, by
both press and fans, the best player ever
Architecture
The castles and cathedrals which make up the typical
image, even if simplified, of the Western Middle Ages in
point of arhitecture, are matched, in the Romanian world,
mainly by times. They are stong in Transylvania, weaker in
Moldavia, in forms absordeb by local Byzantine tradition,
and even less discernible in Wallachia where since the
14th century arhitecture was based on the local
interpretation of the Byzantine model. Significant for the
Transylvanian Gothic style, among the monuments
preserved to this day, in spite of all alterations, would be
the Black Church in Brasov (14th-15th c.) in religious
architecture, the Bran Castle in Brasov County (14th c.)
and the Hunyades Castle in Hunedoara (15th c.) in lay
architecture.
The House of People
The House of the People it was intended to serve as
headquarters of the communist government. Its height is of 84
m, and it goes 92 m under ground; its façade is 270 m. Only
Romanian materials and products were used to decorate the
building: local marble, cherry and walnut tree wood, specially
commissioned hand-woven tapestries, carpets and draperies.
After the revolution in 1989, a lot of people suggested that The
House of The People should be demolished, as an act of
revenge against Ceausescu's regime. Today, the building
serves as headquarters of Romanian Parliament, and in the
same time, housed some international conferences such as
Crans Montana Forum and the Forum for the Black Sea
Cooperation.
Monasteries and Churches
THE MONASTERY
OF CURTEA DE ARGES
NEAMT MONASTERY
PUTNA MONASTERY
THE HOLY MONASTERY
OF VORONET
AGAPIA MONASTERY
SUCEVITA MONASTERY
The Church of the
Trei Ierarhi Monastery
DENSUS CHURCH
VARATIC MONASTERY
"DINTR-UN LEMN" MONASTERY
AN OAK TREE GAVE BIRTH TO A REMARKABLE WORK OF RELIGIOUS ART
Fortresses, Palaces and Museums
BRAN CASTLE
Marasesti Mausoleum
THE FORTRESS OF CÂLNIC
HISTRIA FORTRESS
HUNEDOARA - THE CASTLE
OF THE CORVIN FAMILY
THE CASTLE "IULIA HASDEU"
COTROCENI PALACE
Mausoleul Marasti
Brâncoveanu's Palace
PELES CASTLE
PELISOR CASTLE
Natural Monuments
Altar Stone and the Bicaz
Gorges Region
ROSU LAKE
BEAR'S CAVE
Tatarului Gorges
Babele (the "Old Ladies")
TURDA GORGES
THE BUCEGI - Sphinx
DAMBOVICIOARA CAVE
MUIERILOR CAVE
SAINT ANA LAKE
THE MUDDY VOLCANOES
BEAR’S CAVE
Gemenea Lake
Come
to
Romania…
Descargar

Slide 1